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Table of Contents



Genesis 1:2-13


There are three elements in creation, none of which can have a meaningful existence without the other two.

MATTER is understood to include ENERGY, and must function in both space and in time.
SPACE is measurable and accessible to sense observance only in terms of the entities that exist and the events that happen in space, and these require both matter and time.
TIME likewise is meaningful only in terms of entities and events existing and transpiring during time which likewise require space and matter.

In other words the Omniscient God called into existence the SPACE-MASS-TIME universe.


The only possibility of obtaining anything approximating an exact chronology would have to lie in the Bible itself. Biblical data essentially cluster around the following framework:

1. Genesis 1 gives the time from the creation of the universe to the creation of mankind.
(Note human being was created with an age already as were trees and rocks, etc.)
2. Genesis 5 contains chronological data from the time of the first man to the great Flood.
3. Genesis 11 summaries the chronology from the Flood to Abraham, the founder of the Hebrew nation.
4. The historical books of the Old Testament (especially Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Joshua, Judges, 1st and 2nd Samuel, 1st and 2nd Kings, 1st and 2nd Chronicles) contain chronological data of the nation of Israel from the time of Abraham to the captivity.

The chronology of the captivity and restoration is obtained from certain of the prophetical books (specially Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Daniel) and the post captivity historic books (Ezra and Nehemiah).


Rev. 4:11 "Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power: FOR thou hast created all things, and FOR THY PLEASURE THEY ARE AND WERE CREATED."
Ps. 24:1 "The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein."
Isa. 66:1 "Thus saith the Lord, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest?"
So we can assume that - The earth is indeed the Lord’s and
He created it for His good pleasure and
He calls it His footstool.
He made it and it belongs to Him.

Genesis 1:2 ‘AND THE EARTH WAS...’

It is significant that every verse in the first chapter of Genesis (Except Genesis 1:1) begins with the conjunction "AND" (Hebrew WAW). This structure clearly means that each statement is sequentially and chronologically connected to the verses before and after. Each action follows directly upon the action described in the verse preceding it.

This pattern must apply to the first two verses, as well as to any other pair of verses in the chapter. Thus there seems no room for a chronological gap of any consequence between the first two verses of Genesis.

The condition described in verse 2 follows immediately upon the creative act of verse 1.


THE ESSENTIAL MEANING, THEREFORE, IS: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth (or SPACE and MATTER), and the matter so created was at first unformed and uninhabited."

The created cosmos, as discussed earlier, was a tri-universe of TIME, SPACE, and MATTER. Initially there were no stars or planets, only the basic matter component of the space-matter-time continuum. The elements that were to be formed into the planet Earth were at first only elements, not yet formed but nevertheless comprising the basic matter- the "DUST" of the earth.


The idea that God, being Light, could not create a world in darkness is invalid, God Himself said: "I form the light, and create darkness..." (Isaiah 45:7). The physical universe, though created, was as yet neither formed nor ENERGIZED, and light is a form of energy. The absence of physical light means darkness, just as the absence of form and inhabitants means a universe in elemental form, not yet completed. No evil is implied in either case, merely incompleteness.

The "DEEP"    TEHOWM) Refers later to the waters of the ocean. Initially, however, the earth had no form; and similarly, this state must apply to the waters also. The picture presented is one of all the basic material elements sustained in a pervasive watery matrix throughout the darkness of space. The same picture is suggested in 2 Peter 3:5 "...The earth standing out of the water and in the water."

There is an important reference to the initial formless condition of this watery suspension in Proverbs 8:24,27: "When there were no depths (same word as ‘deep’), I was brought forth ... when he set a compass upon the face of the depth (or ‘deep’). "This section of Proverbs 8 is a remarkable summary of the work of the Word of God,* which is the creative force of God on the first three days of creation.

* The Targums (ancient Aramaic paraphrases of the Hebrew Scriptures) furnish us with how "the Word" was employed in connection with God.

In the Targum of Onkelos on the Pentateuch which is the oldest in date, the creative action of God is referred to as "His Word" (MEMRA,)

Thus it is said that:

"The Lord protected Noah by His WORD, when he entered the ark" (Gen. 7:16):

He "made a covenant between Abraham and His WORD" (Gen. 17:2);

The WORD of the Lord was with Ishmael in the wilderness (Gen. 21:20).

At Bethel Jacob made a covenant that "the WORD of the Lord should be His God" (Gen. 28:21).

Moses at Sinai "brought forth the people to meet the WORD of God" (Exod. 19:17).

The WORD of the Lord appears as a consuming fire talking to His people, and fighting for them against their enemies. (Deut. 3:2, 4:24)

Is it any wonder then, that the Spirit of God would cause John, the beloved disciple of Jesus Christ, to begin writing of The Gospel of John with this statement: "In the beginning was the WORD, AND THE WORD WAS WITH GOD, AND THE WORD WAS GOD." (John 1:1)

The first sentence of the Gospel offers a perfect example of the stately symmetry by which the whole narrative is marked. The three clauses of which it consists are set aside by side.

The Subject (the WORD) is three times repeated; and the substantive verb three times occupies the same elative position. The symmetry of form corresponds with the exhaustiveness of the thought. The three clauses contain all that it is possible for person to realize as to the essential nature of the WORD in relation to TIME, and MODE OF BEING, and CHARACTER:


At the same time these three clauses answer to the three great moments of the Incarnation of the WORD declared in John 1:14.

He who "was God" BECAME FLESH
He who "was with God" TABERNACLED AMONG US (Comp. I John 1:2):
He who "was in the beginning," BECAME (in time).
This force of   "IN THE BEGINNING"  is brought out by a comparison with the corresponding phrase in I John 1:1 -
      IN THE BEGINNING = emphasizes the existence of the WORD at the initial point and so before time
      FROM THE BEGINNING = marks the activity of the WORD in time from the initial point

It was He who existed before there was an "earth" or a "deep" (proverbs’ 8:23,24), and it was He who "set a compass upon the face of the depth (deep)" (Proverbs 8:27). The word "compass" is the Hebrew word CHUG, which also occurs in Isaiah 40:22 ("...He sitteth upon the circle of the earth...") and in Job 22:14 ("....He walketh in the circuit of heaven..."). It is thus a striking reference to the earth’s sphericity, specially referring to the shape of the ocean, the spherical form of whose surface is everywhere the standard of measurement in vertical-that is, from sea level.

The fact that this "compass" had to be "set" on the face of the deep shows that the face of the deep originally had no such sphericity-it was FORMLESS, exactly as intimated in Genesis 1:2. Elements of matter and molecules of water were present, but not yet energized. The force of GRAVITY was not yet functioning to draw such particles together into a coherent mass with a definite form. Neither were the ELECTROMAGNETIC forces yet in operation and everything was in darkness. The physical universe had come into existence, but everything was still and dark - NO FORM, NO MOTION, NO LIGHT.


This term is synonymous with "the face of the deep." Again the word "FACE" means "PRESENCE," and the thought is that the formless waters, like the formless earth, were essentially a "presence" rather than a cohesive body.

Although the marvelous universe had been called into existence by the omniscient Creator, it had not yet been instilled with energy and set in motion. This must await the ENERGIZING ACTION OF THE SPIRIT OF GOD and the ACTIVATING POWER OF THE WORD OF GOD.


SPIRIT   =       (RUACH)
Also the word for "
        Note Genesis 2:7 Adam (dust of the earth) God’s breath brought Life.

The context determines which is the correct meaning in any given instance. In Genesis 1:2, there is no doubt that the creative activity requires not a wind, but the person of God Himself. Since the universe was everywhere in need of activation, that Force of God that is both omnipresent and energizing is appropriately mentioned as working in the creation at this point.

This activity of the Holy Spirit is called that of "MOVING" in the presence of the waters.

MOVED    =      (RACHAPH) 
It occurs only three times in the Old Testament, the other two being translated:

"SHAKE" (Jeremiah 23:9)  and
"FLUTTERETH" (Deuteronomy 32:11)

Some commentators relate the word particularly to the hovering of a mother hen over her chicks. In any case, the idea seems to be mainly that of a RAPID BACK AND FORTH MOTION.

In modern scientific terminology, the best translation would probably be "VIBRATED." If the universe is to be energized, there must be an ENERGIZER. If it is to be set in motion, there must be a PRIME MOVER.

It is significant that the transmission of energy in the operations OF THE COSMOS IS as WAVES:

(a) Light waves
(b) Heat waves
(c) Sound waves, etc.

In fact (except for the nuclear forces that are involved in the structure of matter itself), there are only two fundamental types of forces that operate on matter-the GRAVITATIONAL FORCES and the forces of the ELECTROMAGNETIC spectrum. All are associated with "FIELDS" of activity and with transmission by WAVE MOTION.

WAVES are typically rapid back and forth movements and they are normally produced by the vibrator motion of a wave generator of some kind. Energy cannot create itself. It is most appropriate that the first importation of energy to the universe is described as the "VIBRATING" movement of the spirit of God Himself.

As the outflowing energy from God’s omnipresent Spirit began to flow outward and to permeate the cosmos, GRAVITATIONAL FORCES WERE ACTIVATED and water and earth particles came together to form a great SPHERE MOVING THROUGH SPACE. (Job 38:4-6).  Other such particles would soon come together also to form SUN, MOON and STARS throughout the universe. There was now a "COMPASS" on the face of the deep, and the formless earth had assumed the beautiful form of a perfect sphere. It was now ready for LIGHT and HEAT and other forms of enlivening energy.

There is another "moving" of the Spirit of God mentioned in the Bible:

"For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spoke as they were MOVED by the Holy Ghost" (2 Peter 1:21).
Here the word "MOVED" is from the Greek word fero (PHERO), which in fact is used in the LXX (Septuagint) as the translation of "moved" in Genesis 1:2. As the Holy Spirit energized the primeval universe, to bring form and life to God’s creation, so He later empowered God’s prophets, to bring beauty and spiritual life to His new creation, through the energizing Word.

First the Spirit of God imparted motion and form to the inert and shapeless elements, and next would come the energy of spiritual light to dispel the darkness.

Genesis 1:3-5

This is the first record of God speaking in the Bible.

        "And God said, Let there be light; and there was light."

        "God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night."

As though in anticipation of future misunderstanding, God carefully defined His terms! The very first time He used the word "day",  He defined it as the "light," to distinguish it from the "darkness" called "night."

Genesis 1:6-8

On the first day the earth was still of dominantly watery aspect. Other materials were mainly in the liquid state in solution or suspension, presumably with the water.

Some of these waters were to be separated from the greater mass of waters, however, and placed high above the rotating globe, with a great space separating them from the waters below.

The lower waters would provide the water base for living flesh and for earth processes.
The upper waters would provide a sort of protective canopy  ("a tent to dwell in") for earth’s inhabitants, and the space between would provide an atmospheric reservoir to maintain the breath of life.

Genesis 1:9-13

It was in this, the 3rd  "Creative Day,"  that:

"He strengthened the fountains of the deep; and gave to the sea His decree: that the water should not pass His commandment." Proverbs 8:28,29,

"And shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb. When He made the clouds a garment thereof, and thick darkness a swaddling band for it, and set bars and doors, and said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed." Job 38:4-11

And God called the dry land, to be firm, the earth  .   The gathering of the waters called He To Roar, Sea’s  .    It was the master planner speaking but now we find the ACTUAL MOMENT OF CREATION OF THE EARTH AND SEAS IN THE THIRD DAY.


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