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ISAIAH
The Gospel To Israel
Book 2

LESSON  FIFTEEN
Isaiah 31:1 - 33:24

Isaiah 31:1-3
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(1)  Ha! Those who go down to Egypt
for help and rely upon horses! They
have put their trust in abundance of
chariots, in vast numbers of riders,
and they have not turned to the Holy
One of Israel, they have not sought
the Lord.
Woe to them that go down to Egypt
for help, who trust in horses and
chariots, for they are many; and in
horses, which are a great multitude;
and have not trusted in the Holy One
of Israel, and have not sought the
Lord.
Woe unto them that go down to Egypt for help putting their stay on horses, and trusting in chariots because they are many, and in horsemen because they are very strong; but have not put their stay on the Memra of the Holy One of Israel, nor sought instruction from before the Lord.
(2)  But He too is wise! He has
brought on misfortune, and has not
canceled His word. So He shall rise against the house of evildoers, and
the allies of the workers of iniquity.
Therefore he has wisely brought evils
upon them, and his word shall not
be frustrated; and he shall rise up
against the houses of wicked men,
and against their vain hope,
Yet he also in his wisdom hath brought evil upon him that doeth it, and hath not suffered his words to fail, but hath established them against the house of the evil-doers, and against them that assist lying deeds.
(3)  For the Egyptians are man, not
God, and their horses are flesh, not
spirit; and when the Lord stretches
out His arm, the helper shall trip and
the helped one shall fall, and both
shall perish together.
even an Egyptian, a man, and not
God; the flesh of horses, and there is
no help in them; but the Lord shall
bring his hand upon them, and the
helpers shall fail, and all shall perish
together.
Now the Egyptians are men and not princes (lit. a prince); and their horses are flesh and not spirit; and when the Lord shall lift up the stroke of his might, both he that helpeth shall stumble, and he that is helped shall fall, and all of them shall perish together.
From the NKJV
(1)  Woe to those who go down to Egypt for help, and rely on horses, who trust in chariots because they are many, and in horsemen because they are very strong, but who do not look to the Holy One of Israel, nor seek the LORD!
(2)  Yet He also is wise and will bring disaster, and will not call back His words, but will arise against the house of evildoers, and against the help of those who work iniquity.
(3)  Now the Egyptians are men, and not God; and their horses are flesh, and not spirit.  When the LORD stretches out His hand, both he who helps will fall, and he who is helped will fall down; they all will perish together.

The Fourth Woe:  The False Help;  The Despised One Pitied;  The New Era

This is the last of four chapters together that begin with woe; and they are all woes to the sinners that were found among the professing people of  God,

Isaiah 28:1 Woe to the Drunkards of Ephraim
Isaiah 29:1 Woe to Ariel - to the Hypocrites of Jerusalem
Isaiah 30:1 Woe to the Rebellious Children
Isaiah 31:1 Woe to those that go down to Egypt for help
for men's relation to the church will not secure them from divine woes if they live in contempt of divine laws.
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The situation of this fourth woe is just the same as that of the previous one. The alliance with Egypt is still in progress.  For -

Egypt is man and not God
Egypt's horses are flesh and not Spirit
And when Jehovah stretches out His hand, the helper stumbles, and he that is helped falls, and they all perish together.

The circumstantial clause,  "Yet he also is wise,"  will bear comparison with their wisdom and that of  Egypt,  is a touching mei'oosis.  It was not necessary to think very highly of  Jehovah,  in order to perceive the reprehensible and destructive character of  their apostasy from Him.

In hilly Palestine horses were not so easily had or available. The Jews were therefore the more eager to get Egyptian chariots as allies against the Assyrian cavalry. In Assyrian sculptures chariots are represented drawn by three horses, and with three men in them.
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

The house of miscreants is Judah
The help of evildoers is Egypt
Egypt & its horses is "man"  ('âdâm) & flesh
Jehovah is God (El) and spirit (ruach)
Hofmann says:  "As ruach has life in itself,  it is opposed to the flesh,  which is only rendered living through the ruach;  and so El is opposed to the corporeal 'âdâm,  who needs the spirit in order to live at all."

They preferred the help of  the impotent and conditioned,  to the help of  the almighty and all-conditioning One.   Jehovah,   who is God and spirit,   only requires to stretch out His hand (an anthropomorphism, by the side of which we find the rule for interpreting it);  and the helpers,  and those who are helped (i.e., according to the terms of the treaty, though not in reality),  that is to say,  both the source of  the help and the object of  help,  are all cast into one heap together.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Isaiah 31:1-9   APOSTATES

Isaiah 31:1a Trust in Egypt Woe
Isaiah 31:1b,2 Jehovah Rejection
Isaiah 31:3a Trust in Egypt Vain
Isaiah 31:3b-6 Jehovah Protection
Isaiah 31:7 Trust in Jehovah Exhortation
Isaiah 31:8,9 Jehovah Deliverance

From The Dead Sea Scrolls

Frag. 25
5 [Isa. 31:1 Alas those who go down to] Egypt! In horses [they trust and they rely on chariots] 6 [beca]use they are numerous, and on cavalry, because they are very strong, [without regard for] 7 [the H]oly One of Israel or [consulting YHWH. Blank] 8 [Its interpretation: they] are the people which relies […]


GOD  WILL  DELIVER  JERUSALEM

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Isaiah 31:4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(4)  For thus the Lord has said to me:
As a lion – a great beast – growls
over its prey and, when the shepherds
gather in force against him, is not
dismayed by their cries nor cowed by
their noise – so the Lord of Hosts will
descend to make war against the
mount and the hill of Zion.
For thus said the Lord to me, As a
lion would roar, or a lion’s whelp over
prey which he has taken, and cry over
it, until the mountains are filled with
his voice, and the animals are awe-struck and tremble at the fierceness of
his wrath: so the Lord of Hosts shall descend to fight upon the mount Sion,
even upon her mountains.
For thus saith the Lord unto me, As the lion, even the young lion, roared over his prey when a company of shepherds is assembled against him, and is not dismayed at their voices, neither doth he hold back because of their tumult, so shall the kingdom of the Lord of Hosts be revealed to dwell upon Mount Zion, and upon the hill thereof.
From the NKJV
(4)  For thus the LORD has spoken to me:
"As a lion roars, and a young lion over his prey  (when a multitude of shepherds is summoned against him, he will not be afraid of their voice nor be disturbed by their noise), so the LORD of hosts will come down to fight for Mount Zion and for its hill.

There is no other passage in the book of Isaiah that sounds so Homeric as this. Jehovah, who would no more allow His city to be taken from Him, than a lion would give up a lamb that it had taken as its prey.

Those unbelievers and their protectors would first of all perish;  for like a fierce indomitable lion would Jehovah advance against Jerusalem,  and take it as His prey,  without suffering Himself to be thwarted by the Judaeans and Egyptians,  who set themselves in opposition to His army (The Assyrians).
The mountain of Zion was the citadel and temple;  the hill of  Zion the city of  Jerusalem (Isa 10:32).   They would both be given up to the judgment of  Jehovah,  without any possibility of escape.

The Lord ... will fight for Mount Zion
A simile of a promising character follows immediately afterwards, without anything to connect the one with the other. This abrupt turn was intended as a surprise,  and was a true picture of the actual fulfillment of  the prophecy;  for in the moment of  the greatest distress,  when the actual existence of  Jerusalem was in question (cf., Isa 10:33-34), the fate of Ariel took suddenly and miraculously a totally different turn.  In this sense,  a pleasant picture is placed side by side with the terrible one (compare Mic 5:6-7).
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Micah 5:5-7
When the Assyrian comes into our land, and when he treads in our palaces, then we will raise against him  seven shepherds and eight princely men.   They shall waste with the sword the land of Assyria, and the land of Nimrod at its entrances; thus He shall deliver us from the Assyrian, when he comes into our land and when he treads within our borders.  Then the remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many peoples, like dew from the LORD, like showers on the grass, that tarry for no man nor wait for the sons of men.     (NKJV)

Isaiah 31:5
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(5)  Like the birds that fly, even
so will the Lord of Hosts shield
Jerusalem, shielding and saving,
protecting and rescuing.
As birds flying, so shall the Lord
of hosts defend; he shall defend
Jerusalem, and he shall rescue, and
save and deliver.
As a bird, which flies swiftly, so shall the might of the Lord of hosts be revealed over Jerusalem; he will protect and deliver, he will rescue and set free.
From the NKJV
(5)  Like birds flying about, so will the LORD of hosts defend Jerusalem.  Defending, He will also deliver it; passing over, He will preserve it.

Jehovah suddenly arrests the work of punishment,  and the love,  which the wrath enfolds within itself,  begins to appear.

The prophet uses the plural,  "birds,"  with an object - namely,  not so much to represent Jehovah Himself,  as the tender care and,  as it were,  maternal love,  into which His leonine fierceness would be changed.  The word  pâsooach  (passing over) recalls to mind the deliverance from Egypt (as in Isa 30:29) in a very significant manner.  The sparing of  the Israelites by the destroyer passing over their doors,  from which the Passover derived its name,  would be repeated once more.

We may see from this,  that in and along with Assyria,  Jehovah Himself,  whose instrument of punishment Assyria was,  would take the field against Jerusalem;  but His attitude towards Jerusalem is suddenly changed into one resembling the action of birds,  as they soar round and above their threatened nests.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

All the help they could get from man would lead only to their own destruction as well as the destruction of their helpers.  Had they trusted in the Lord for deliverance in the first place, they would have found Him "a very present help in the time of trouble."  (Psalm 46:1)

Psalm 46:1-6
God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.  Therefore we will not fear, even though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea; though its waters roar and be troubled, though the mountains shake with its swelling.   Selah
There is a river whose streams shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacle of the Most High. God is in the midst of her, she shall not be moved; God shall help her, just at the break of dawn.  The nations raged, the kingdoms were moved; He uttered His voice, the earth melted.    (NKJV)

It was never God's intention or wish to destroy Jerusalem, just to discipline them and bring them back to Himself.

Isaiah 31:6
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(6)  Return, O children of Israel, to
Him to whom they have been so
shamefully false;
Turn, ye children of Israel, who
devise a deep and sinful counsel.
Return unto the law, for ye have greatly sinned, O children of Israel.
From the NKJV
(6)   Return to Him against whom the children of Israel have deeply revolted.

On the ground of this half terrible, half comforting picture of the future, the call to repentance is now addressed to the people of the prophet's own time.
And it changes from the 3rd person to the 2nd person:  "Turn unto him from whom ye have deeply revolted, ye children of Israel" (Darby)

The change of  person marks that when they return to the Lord He will address them in more direct terms of  communion, in the second person;  so long as they were revolters,  God speaks of them as more at a distance,  in the third person, rather than to them.
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Isaiah 31:7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
For in that day everyone will
reject his idols of silver and idols
of gold, which your hands have
made for your guilt.
For in that day men shall renounce
their silver idols and their golden
idols, which their hands made.
For at that time they shall put away every man his idols of silver and his idols of gold which your own hands have made unto you for a transgression.
From the NKJV
(7)  For in that day every man shall throw away his idols of silver and his idols of gold — sin, which your own hands have made for yourselves.

The first is,  that idolatry would one day be recognized in all its abomination,  and put away.

In the day of  trial the idols will be found to render no help,  and will therefore be cast away.
Compare as to the future restoration and conversion of  Israel simultaneously with the interposition of  Yahweh in its defense, Zech 12:10; 13:1-2.
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Zechariah 12:10
And I will pour on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem the Spirit of grace and supplication; then they will look on Me whom they pierced.    (NKJV)

Zechariah 13:1-3
In that day a fountain shall be opened for the house of David and for the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness.  "It shall be in that day," says the LORD of hosts, "that I will cut off the names of the idols from the land, and they shall no longer be remembered. I will also cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to depart from the land."    (NKJV)

Isaiah 31:8, 9
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(8)  Then Assyria shall fall, not
by the sword of man; a sword
not of humans shall devour him.
He shall shrivel before the sword,
and his young men pine away.
And the Assyrian shall fall: not
the sword of a great man, nor
the sword of a mean man shall
devour him; neither shall he flee
from the face of the sword: but
the young men shall be over
thrown:
And the Assyrian shall fall by the sword, not of man, and the sword, not of man shall destroy him: and he shall flee before them that slay with the sword, and his mighty men shall be for destruction.
(9)  His rock shall melt with
terror, and his officers shall
collapse from weakness –
declares the Lord, who has a
fire in Zion, who has an oven in
Jerusalem.
for they shall be compassed with
rocks as with a trench, and shall
be worsted; and he that flees
shall be taken. Thus saith the Lord, Blessed is he that has a seed in Sion, and household friends in Jerusalem.
And his rulers shall pass away by reason of fear, and his nobles shall be dismayed by reason of the ensign, saith the Lord, whose splendor is in Zion for them that observe his law, and his burning furnace of fire in Jerusalem for them that have transgressed his Memra.
From the NKJV
(8)   "Then Assyria shall fall by a sword not of man, and a sword not of mankind shall devour him. But he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall become forced labor.  (9)  He shall cross over to his stronghold for fear, and his princes shall be afraid of the banner," says the LORD, Whose fire is in Zion and whose furnace is in Jerusalem.

The second motive is,  that Israel will not be rescued by men,  but by Jehovah alone;  so that even He from whom they have now so deeply fallen will prove Himself the only true ground of  confidence.

A sword is drawn without any human intervention, and before this Asshur falls,  or at least so many of  the Assyrians as are unable to save themselves by flight.  The power of  Asshur is for ever broken;  even its young men will henceforth become tributary,  or perform feudal service.

The king of Assyria shall flee ... shall flee from that invisible sword,  hoping to get out of the reach of it;  and he shall make the best of  his way to his own dominions,  shall pass over to some strong-hold of  his own,  for fear lest the Jews should pursue him now that his army was routed.
Sennacherib had been very confident that he should make himself master of  Jerusalem,  and in the most insolent manner had set both God and Hezekiah at defiance;  yet now he is made to tremble for fear of both.
His princes that accompany him shall be afraid of  the ensign, shall be in a continual fright at the remembrance of the ensign in the air.
Or they shall be afraid of every ensign they see,  suspecting it is a party of  the Jews pursuing them.
The banner that God displays for the encouragement of his people (Ps 60:4) will be a terror to his and their enemies.
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)


A  REIGN  OF  RIGHTEOUSNESS

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Isaiah 32:1, 2
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(1)   Behold, a king shall reign in
righteousness, and ministers shall
govern with justice;
For, behold, a righteous king shall
reign, and princes shall govern with
judgment.
Behold a king shall reign in truth, and the righteous shall be appointed (or, consecrated) to execute just vengeance on the nations.
(2)  every one of them shall be like a
refuge from gales, a shelter from
rainstorms; like brooks of water in a
desert, like the shade of a massive
rock in a languishing land.
And a man shall hide his words,
and be hidden, as from rushing
water, and shall appear in Sion as
a rushing river, glorious in a thirsty
land.
And the righteous who hide themselves from before the wicked, as men hide themselves from before the tempest, shall again be appointed (or, consecrated), and their teaching shall be received quickly, as streams of water that flow in a thirsty land, as the shadow of a cool rock in a weary land.
From the NKJV
(1)  Behold, a king will reign in righteousness, and princes will rule with justice.
(2)  A man will be as a hiding place from the wind, and a cover from the tempest, as rivers of water in a dry place,

For Judah,  sifted,  delivered,  and purified,  there now begins a new era.
Righteous government,  as a blessing for the people,  is the first beneficent fruit.

The kingdom of Asshur is forever destroyed;  but the kingdom of  Judah rises out of  the state of  confusion into which it has fallen through its God-forgetting policy and disregard of  justice.  King and princes now rule according to the standards that have been divinely appointed and revealed.

The king is Hezekiah.
The reign of Ahaz had been one of oppression and idolatry.  This was to be succeeded by the reign of Hezekiah, under whom the rights of  the people would be secured,  and under whom there would be a state of general prosperity.
That is, a righteous king shall reign; or his administration shall be one of justice, and strongly in contrast with that of his predecessor. This was certainly the general characteristic of the reign of Hezekiah.
A just king shall reign - that this is a proper description of  the reign of  Hezekiah is apparent from the history,  see 2 Kings 18:3-6.

2 Kings 18:4-6
He (Hezekiah) removed the high places and broke the sacred pillars, cut down the wooden image and broke in pieces the bronze serpent that Moses had made;  for until those days the children of Israel burned incense to it, and called it Nehushtan.  He trusted in the LORD God of Israel, so that after him was none like him among all the kings of Judah, nor who were before him.  For he held fast to the LORD; he did not depart from following Him, but kept His commandments, which the LORD had commanded Moses.     (NKJV)

Isaiah 32:3, 4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(3)  Then the eyes of those who have
sight shall not be sealed, and the ears
of those who have hearing shall listen;
And they shall no more trust in men,
but they shall incline their ears to hear.
And the eyes of the righteous shall not be shut and the ears of them that receive instruction shall hearken.
(4)  and the minds of the thoughtless
shall attend and note, and the tongues
of mumblers shall speak with fluent
eloquence.
And the heart of the weak ones shall
attend to hear, and the stammering
tongues shall soon learn to speak
peace.
And the heart of the rash shall understand knowledge; and their tongue which was dumb shall hasten to speak plainly.
From the NKJV
(3)  The eyes of those who see will not be dim, And the ears of those who hear will listen.   (4)   Also the heart of the rash will understand knowledge, and the tongue of the stammerers will be ready to speak plainly.

It is not physical miracles that are predicted here,  but a spiritual change.

Verse 3 The present judgment of  hardening will be repealed
Verse 4 The spiritual defects,  from which many suffer, will be healed

In verse 1 the prophet merely affirms,  that Israel as a national commonwealth will then be governed in a manner well pleasing to God -
Here he predicts that Israel as a national congregation will be delivered from the judgment of not seeing with seeing eyes, and not hearing with hearing ears, and that it will be delivered from defects of weakness also.

Isaiah 32:3-4 from The Living Bible

Then at last the eyes of Israel will open wide to God; his people will listen to his voice. Even the hotheads among them will be full of sense and understanding, and those who stammer in uncertainty will speak out plainly.

Isaiah 32:5-8
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(5)  No more shall a villain be called
noble, nor shall “gentleman” be said
of a knave.
And they shall no more at all tell a
fool to rule, and thy servants shall
no more at all say, Be silent.
The wicked shall no more be called righteous, and they that have transgressed against his Memra shall not be called mighty.
(6)  For the villain speaks villainy and
plots treachery; to act impiously and
to preach disloyalty against the Lord;
to leave the hungry unsatisfied and
deprive the thirsty of drink.
For the fool shall speak foolish
words, and his heart shall meditate
vanities, and to perform lawless
deeds and to speak error against
the Lord, to scatter hungry souls,
and he will cause the thirsty souls
to be empty.
For the wicked speak wickedness, and plan violence in their heart, to practice falsehood, and to speak apostasy before the Lord, to weary the soul of the righteous, who desire instruction even as one that hungers desires bread; and the words of the law, which they [the righteous] desire as one that thirsts desires water, they plan to render void.
(7)  As for the knave, his tools are
knavish. He forges plots to destroy
the poor with falsehoods and the
needy when they plead their cause.
For the counsel of the wicked will
devise iniquity, to destroy the poor
with unjust words, and ruin the
cause of the poor in judgment.
And the wicked, whose deeds are evil, and who follow after sinful plans, take counsel to destroy the meek with lying words, and the cause of the needy in judgment.
(8)  But the noble has noble
intentions and is constant in
noble acts.
But the godly have devised wise
measures, and this counsel shall
stand.
But the righteous devise truth, and they shall be established in their truth.
From the NKJV
(5)   The foolish person will no longer be called generous, nor the miser said to be bountiful;   (6)  for the foolish person will speak foolishness, and his heart will work iniquity: to practice ungodliness, to utter error against the LORD, to keep the hungry unsatisfied, and he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail.   (7)  Also the schemes of the schemer are evil; he devises wicked plans to destroy the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaks justice.   (8)  But a generous man devises generous things, and by generosity he shall stand.

This is the 3rd fruit of blessing:

Isaiah 32:1, 2 A new era of  Righteous Government
Isaiah 32:3, 4 Clearly Seeing, hearing, and speaking the word of Yahweh
Isaiah 32:5-8 The naming and treating of every one according to his own true character

Nobility of  birth and wealth will give place to nobility of  character,  so that the former will not exist or not be recognized without the latter.

No longer will the evil be able to appear righteous, or claim ignorance (verse 5)

Proverbs 24:12
Don't try to avoid responsibility by saying you didn't know about it. For God knows all hearts, and he sees you. He keeps watch over your soul, and he knows you knew! And he will judge all people according to what they have done.    (New Living Translation)

The Living Bible points out:

Everyone will recognize an evil man when he sees him
Hypocrites will fool no one at all
Their lies about God and their cheating of the hungry will be plain for all to see.
The smooth tricks of evil men will be exposed
The lies they use to oppress the poor in the courts will be exposed
But good men will be generous to others and will be blessed of God for all they do.

As is original creation, they will "bring forth after their kind."

From The Dead Sea Scrolls

Frag. 6
Isa. 32:5-7 No longer will they call the fool an aristocrat,] 3 [or] treat [the rogue] as superior. For the r[ogue says roguish things and his heart is dedicated to evil, to commit wicked deeds] 4 [and to speak] absurdities against [the Lord]; to destroy [the soul of the hungry person and take water away from the thirsty. As for the rogue] 5 [his roguish deeds are] illicit and he hatches plots [to destroy the poor with lies] 6 [and the helpless who defends] his rights. Its interpretation concerns […] 7 […]…to the law […]…[…]


CONSEQUENCES  OF  COMPLACENCY

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Against the Women of Jerusalem
Ch. 32:9-20
Appendix to the Fourth Woe

This short address,  although rounded off well,  is something more than a fragment complete in itself.  It is the last part of  the fourth woe.  It is a sidepiece to the threatening prophecy of  the time of  Uzziah-Jotham (Isa 3:16 ff.),  and chastises the frivolous self-security of  the women of  Jerusalem,  just as the former chastises their vain and luxurious love of  finery.  The prophet has now uttered many a woe upon Jerusalem,  which is bringing itself  to the verge of  destruction.

Isaiah 32:9-14
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(9)  You carefree women, attend, hear
my words! You confident ladies, give
ear to my speech!
Rise up, ye rich women, and hear my
voice; (Greek daughters in hope) ye
confident daughters, hearken to my
words.
Rise up, ye provinces that dwell at ease, and hear my voice; ye cities that dwell securely, give ear to my Memra.
(10)  In little more than a year, you
shall be troubled, O confident ones,
when the vintage is over and no
ingathering takes place.
Remember for a full year in pain, yet
with hope: the vintage has been cut
off, it has ceased, it shall by no
means come again.
For days and years shall they that dwell securely tremble; for the corn has come to an end and there is no harvest to gather.
(11)  Tremble, you carefree ones!
Quake, O confident ones! Strip
yourselves naked, put the cloth
about your loins!
Be amazed, be pained, ye confident
ones: strip you, bare yourselves,
gird your loins;
They that sit at ease are dismayed; they that dwell securely tremble: they have cast off their clothing and made themselves bare, and have bound sackcloth on their loins.
(12)  Lament upon the breasts, for
the pleasant fields, for the spreading
grapevines,
and beat on your breasts, because
of the pleasant field, and the fruit
of the vine.
They smite upon the breasts for the pleasant fields, for the fruitful vines;
(13)  For my people’s soil – it shall be
overgrown with briers the thistles –
aye, and for all the houses of delight,
for the city of mirth.
As for the land of my people, the
thorn and grass shall come upon it,
and joy shall be removed from every
house.
for the land of my people which shall bring forth briars and thorns; yea, for all the houses of joy in the strong city.
(14)  For the castle shall be
abandoned, the noisy city forsaken;
Citadel and tower shall become bare
places forever, a stamping ground
for wild asses, a pasture for flocks.
As for the rich city, the houses are
deserted; they shall abandon the
wealth of the city, and the pleasant
houses: and the villages shall be
caves for ever, the joy of wild asses,
shepherds’ pastures;
For the sanctuary is laid waste; the multitude of the cities that worshipped therein are desolate; our stronghold and hiding-place has been ransacked, now is it laid waste and desolate for a time; the place which was a house of gladness, the delight of kings, has now become the spoil of armies.
From the NKJV
(9)  Rise up, you women who are at ease, hear my voice; you complacent daughters, give ear to my speech.   (10)   In a year and some days you will be troubled, you complacent women; for the vintage will fail, the gathering will not come.   (11)  Tremble, you women who are at ease; be troubled, you complacent ones; strip yourselves, make yourselves bare, and gird sackcloth on your waists.
(12)  People shall mourn upon their breasts for the pleasant fields, for the fruitful vine.   (13)  On the land of my people will come up thorns and briers, yes, on all the happy homes in the joyous city;   (14)   because the palaces will be forsaken, the bustling city will be deserted. The forts and towers will become lairs forever, a joy of wild donkeys, a pasture of flocks.

The prophet issues a stern warning to the worldly-minded society women of  Jerusalem that the devastation of  warfare would cut off  their income and plunge them into poverty.  They would be reduced to desperate straits and doleful lamentation as their mansions were destroyed and their ruined estates reverted to wilderness in the wake of  Sennacherib's scourge.  (Virtually every Jewish city besides Jerusalem was looted and burned in the campaign of 701, and the country districts were laid waste by Assyrian foragers).
(from The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1962 by Moody Press)

They were careless and at ease because they had money enough and mirth enough;
but the prophet here tells them,

(1) That the country whence they had their tents and dainties should shortly be laid waste
The abuse of  plenty is justly punished with scarcity
Those deserve to be deprived of  the supports of  life who make them the food and fuel of  lust and prepare them for Baal.
(2) That the cities too, the cities of Judah, where they lived at ease, spent their rents, and made themselves merry with their dainties, should be laid waste
When a foreign army was ravaging the country the houses of joy, no doubt, became houses of mourning
The palaces, or noblemen's houses, were forsaken by their owners
The multitudes of  the city were left by their leaders to shift for themselves.
The stately houses shall be for dens for ever, which had been as forts and towers for strength and magnificence. They shall be abandoned; the owners shall never return to them
Everybody shall look upon them to be like Jericho, an anathema
  Thus is many a house brought to ruin by sin.
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)
 


THE  PEACE  OF  GOD'S  REIGN

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Isaiah 32:15-19
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(15)  Till a spirit from on high is
poured out on us, and wilderness
is transformed into farmland, while
farmland rates as mere brush.
Until the Spirit shall come upon you
from on high, and Chermel shall be
desert, and Chermel shall be counted
for a forest.
All this must we endure, until there come for us a spirit from before him whose Shekinah is in the highest heavens, and the wilderness become a fruitful field, and the fruitful field inhabited with many cities.
(16)  Then justice shall abide in the
wilderness and righteousness shall
dwell on the farm land.
Then judgment shall abode in the
wilderness, and righteousness shall
dwell in Carmel.
Then they that do justice shall dwell in the wilderness, and they that do righteousness shall inhabit the fruitful field.
(17)  For the work of righteousness
shall be peace, and the effect of
righteousness, calm and confidence
forever.
And the works of righteousness shall
be peace; and righteousness shall
ensure rest, and the righteous shall
be confident forever.
And they that do righteousness shall be at peace, and they that practice righteousness shall have quiet, and dwell securely for ever.
(18)  Then my people shall dwell in
peaceful homes, in secure dwellings,
in untroubled places of rest.
And his people shall inhabit a city of
peace, and dwell in it in confidence,
and they shall rest with wealth.
And my people shall dwell in their dwelling places in peace, and in their land in security, and in their cities at ease.
(19)   And the brush shall sink and
vanish, even as the city is laid low.
And if the hail should come down,
it shall not come upon you; and they
that dwell in the forests shall be in
confidence, as those in the plain
country.
But hail shall come down and destroy the armies of the nations, and their habitations shall be made desolate, and come to an end.
From the NKJV
(15)  Until the Spirit is poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness becomes a fruitful field, and the fruitful field is counted as a forest.
(16)  Then justice will dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness remain in the fruitful field.  (17)  The work of righteousness will be peace, and the effect of  righteousness, quietness and assurance forever.   (18)   My people will dwell in a peaceful habitation, in secure dwellings, and in quiet resting places,  (19)  though hail comes down on the forest, and the city is brought low in humiliation.

The state would then continue long,  very long,  until at last the destruction of  the false rest would be followed by the realization of  the true.
There is a limit,  therefore,  to the  "for ever" of verse 14.  The punishment would last till the Spirit,  which Israel had not then dwelling in the midst of  it, and whose fullness was like a closed vessel to Israel,  should be emptied out over Israel from the height of  heaven, i.e., should be poured out in all its fullness.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

When that was done,  a great change would take place,  the spiritual nature of  which is figuratively represented in the same proverbial manner as in Isa 29:17.
At the same time,  a different turn is given to the second half in the passage before us.
The meaning is,  not that what was now valued as a fruit-bearing garden would be brought down from its false eminence,  and be only regarded as forest;

but that the whole would be so glorious,
that what was now valued as a fruit-garden,  would be thrown into the shade
by something far more glorious still.
The whole land,  the uncultivated pastureland as well as the planted fruitful fields of  corn and fruit,  would then become the tent and seat of  justice and righteousness.

Justice (mishpât) and Righteousness (tsedâqâh) are throughout Isaiah the stamp of  the last and perfect time.
As these advance towards self-completion,  the produce and result of  these will be peace.

But two things must take place before this calm,  trustworthy,  happy peace, of  which the existing carnal security is only a caricature,  can possibly be realized.

(1) It must hail,  and the wood must fall,  being beaten down with hail.
We already know, from Isa 10:34, that  "the wood"  was an emblem of Assyria
And in ch. 30:30-31, we find  "the hail"  mentioned as one of  the forces of  nature that would prove destructive to Assyria
(2) "The city" - Jerusalem,  must first of  all be brought low into lowliness (i.e., be deeply humiliated).
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Isaiah 32:20
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(20)  Happy shall you be who sow
by all waters, who send out cattle
and asses to pasture.
Blessed are they that sow by every
water, where the ox and ass tread.
Blessed are ye, O ye righteous; ye have wrought good works; for ye are like them that sow on a well-watered field, that send forth oxen to tread out the corn and asses to gather it.
From the NKJV
(20)  Blessed are you who sow beside all waters, who send out freely the feet of the ox and the donkey.

In the face of  this double judgment,  the prophet congratulates those who will live to see the times after the judgment.  Those who lived to see these times would be far and wide the lords of  a quiet and fruitful land,  cleared of  its foes,  and of  all disturbers of  peace.  They would sow wherever they pleased,  by all the waters that fertilized the soil,  and therefore in a soil of  the most productive kind,  and one that required little if  any trouble to cultivate.  And inasmuch as everything would be in the most copious abundance,  they would no longer need to watch with anxiety lest their oxen and asses should stray into the corn-fields,  but would be able to let them wander wherever they pleased.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

This concludes the four woes,  from which the fifth,  that immediately follows,  is distinguished by the fact,  that in

the 4th woe the Assyrian troubles are still in the future
the 5th woe places us in the very midst of them

The prophet commenced (Isa 28:1-4) with the destruction of  Samaria;  he then threatened Judah and Jerusalem also.  But it is uncommonly difficult to combine the different features of  the threat into a complete picture. Sifting even to a small remnant is a leading thought,  which runs through the threat.  And we also read throughout the whole,  that Asshur will meet with its own destruction in front of  that very Jerusalem which it is seeking to destroy.  But the prophet also knows that

(Isa 29:1 ff., 31:4 ff.) Jerusalem is besieged by the Assyrians,  and will not be rescued till the besieged city has been brought to the last extremity
(Isa 30:25) This will reach even to the falling of  the towers
And also that
(Isa 30:13-14) The overthrow of  the wall of  the state
(Isa 32:12 ff.) The devastation of  the land,  and the destruction of  Jerusalem itself
(Isa 29:1; 32:10) and for both of  these he fixes the limit of a year

This double threat may be explained in the following manner:

The judgments,  which Israel has still to endure,  and the period of  glory that will follow them,  lie before the mental eye of  the prophet like a long deep diorama.
While threatening the existing generation, he penetrates more or less deeply into the judgments, which lie in perspective before him.
He threatens at one time merely a siege that will continue till it is brought to the utmost extremity;  at another time utter destruction.

There never was any actual siege of  Jerusalem by the Assyrians.  The explanation of  this is,  that,  according to Jer 18:7-8, and 9, 10,  neither the threatenings of  punishment nor the promises of  blessing uttered by the prophets were so unconditional,  that they were certain to be fulfilled and that with absolute necessity,  at such and such a time,  or upon such and such a generation.

The threatened punishment might be repealed or modified,  if repentance ensued on the part of  the persons threatened (Jonah 3:4; 1 Kings 21:29; 2 Kings 22:15-20; 2 Chron 12:5-8).
The words of  the prophecy did not on that account fall to the ground.
If they produced repentance,  they answered the very purpose for which they were intended;  but if  the circumstances,  which called for punishment,  should return,  their force returned as well in all its fullness.
If the judgment was one irrevocably determined,  it was merely delayed by this,  to be discharged upon the generation that should be ripest for it.

And we have also an express historical testimony,  which shows that this is the way in which the
non-fulfillment of  what Isaiah threatened as about to take place within a year is to be accounted for.  Not only Isaiah,  but also his contemporary Micah,  threatened,  that along with the judgment upon Samaria,  the same judgment would also burst upon Jerusalem.  Zion would be ploughed as a field,  Jerusalem would be laid in ruins,  and the temple mountain would be turned into a wooded height  (Mic 3:12).  This prophecy belongs to the first year of  Hezekiah's reign,  for it was then that the book of  Micah was composed.

But we read in  Jer 26:18-19,  that,  in their alarm at this prophecy,  Hezekiah and all Judah repented,  and that Jehovah withdrew His threat in consequence.
Thus,  in the very first year of  Hezekiah,  a change for the better took place in Judah;  and this was necessarily followed by the withdrawal of  Isaiah's threatening,  just as those threatenings had co-operated in the production of  this conversion.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)
Jeremiah 26:17-19
Then certain of the elders of the land rose up and spoke to all the assembly of the people, saying:
"Micah of Moresheth prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah, and spoke to all the people of Judah, saying, 'Thus says the LORD of hosts:
"Zion shall be plowed like a field,
Jerusalem shall become heaps of ruins,
And the mountain of the temple
Like the bare hills of the forest."'
Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah ever put him to death? Did he not fear the LORD and seek the LORD's favor? And the LORD relented concerning the doom which He had pronounced against them.  
(NKJV)


A  PRAYER  IN  DEEP  DISTRESS

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The Fifth Woe:  Concerning Asshur;  Deliverance and Glory of  Jerusalem

Isaiah 33:1
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(1)  Ha, you ravager who are not
ravaged, you betrayer who have not
been betrayed! When you have done
ravaging, you shall be ravaged; when
you have finished betraying, you
shall be betrayed.
Woe to them that afflict you; but no
one makes you miserable: and he that
deals perfidiously with you does not
deal perfidiously: they that deal
perfidiously shall be taken and given
up, and as a moth on a garment, so
shall they be spoiled.
Woe to thee that comest to spoil, and shall they not spoil thee? And that comest to oppress, and shall they not oppress thee? When thou comest to spoil they shall spoil thee; when thou weariest of oppression they shall oppress thee.
From the NKJV
(1)  Woe to you who plunder, though you have not been plundered;  and you who deal treacherously, though they have not dealt treacherously with you!  When you cease plundering, you will be plundered;  when you make an end of dealing treacherously, they will deal treacherously with you.

We are now in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah's reign.
The threatenings of  the first years,  which the repentance of  the people had delayed,  are now so far in force again,  and so far actually realized,  that the Assyrians are already in Judah,  and have not only devastated the land,  but are threatening Jerusalem.
The element of  promise now gains the upper hand,  the prophet places himself  between Asshur and his own nation with the weapons of  prophecy and prayer,  and the woe turns from the latter to the former.  Asshur is described as not devastated and not spoiled, because it had not yet been visited by any such misfortune as that which had fallen upon other lands and nations.

Isaiah 33:1-12      THE ASSYRIAN SPOILER

Isaiah 33:1 The spoiler
Isaiah 33:2 Jehovah Prayer to
Isaiah 33:3,4 The spoiler
Isaiah 33:5,6 Jehovah Praise to
Isaiah 33:7-9 The spoiler
Isaiah 33:10-12 Jehovah Answer of

Isaiah 33:2
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(2)  O Lord, be gracious to us! It is to
You we have looked;  be their arm
every morning, also our deliverance
in time of stress.
Lord, have mercy upon us; for we
have trusted in thee: the seed of the
rebellious is gone to destruction, but
our deliverance was in a time of
affliction.
O Lord, be gracious unto us, for thy Memra have we waited: be our strength every day, yea, our deliverer in the time of trouble.
From the NKJV
.(2)   O LORD, be gracious to us;  we have waited for You.  Be their arm every morning, our salvation also in the time of trouble.

The prophet's word of command is changed into a believing prayer.

"Their arm,"  i.e.,  the power which shelters and defends them,  viz.,  Your people and my own.

Isaiah,  impelled by prophetic inspiration,  here interposes his own feelings as a Jew,  and offers his own prayer that God would be the strength of the nation.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Isaiah 33:3, 4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(3)  At [Your] roaring, peoples have
fled, before Your majesty nations
have scattered;   (4)  and spoil was
gathered as locusts are gathered, it
was amassed as grasshoppers are
amassed.
By reason of the terrible sound the
nations were dismayed for fear of
thee, and the heathen were scattered.
and now shall the spoils of your
small and great be gathered: as if one
should gather locusts, so shall they
mock you.
At the noise of the tumult the peoples are dismayed; at the multitude of the mighty deeds the kingdoms are scattered.  And the house of Israel shall gather the riches of the nations that hate them, as men gather the locust, setting fire to the weapons of war as men set fire to dry sticks.
From the NKJV
(3)  At the noise of the tumult the people shall flee; when You lift Yourself up, the nations shall be scattered;  (4)  and Your plunder shall be gathered like the gathering of the caterpillar; as the running to and fro of locusts, he shall run upon them.

While the prophet is praying thus, he already sees the answer.

The indeterminate hâmoon (the tumult),  which produces for that very reason the impression of  something mysterious and terrible,  is at once explained.  The noise comes from Jehovah,  who is raising Himself judicially above Assyria,  and thunders as a judge.  Then the hostile army runs away and your booty  (the address returns to Assyria)  is swept away,  just as when a swarm of  locusts settles on a field,  it soon eats it utterly away.

Isaiah 33:5, 6
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(5)  The Lord is exalted, He dwells on
high! [Of old] He filled Zion with
justice and righteousness.
The God who dwells on high is holy:
Sion is filled with judgment and
righteousness.
Mighty is the Lord who hath caused his Shekinah to dwell in the highest heavens; who hath promised to fill Zion with them that do true judgment and righteousness.
(6)  Faithfulness to Your charge
was [her] wealth, wisdom and
devotion [her] triumph, reverence
for the Lord – that was her
treasure.
They shall be delivered up to the law:
our salvation is our treasure: there are
wisdom and knowledge and piety
toward the Lord; these are the
treasures of righteousness.
And the good which thou didst promise to do unto them that fear thee shall come; thou hast brought it, and established it in its time, even might and salvation, wisdom and knowledge: for them that fear the Lord the treasure of his goodness is prepared.
From the NKJV
(5)  The LORD is exalted, for He dwells on high; He has filled Zion with justice and righteousness.
(6)  Wisdom and knowledge will be the stability of your times, and the strength of salvation; the fear of the LORD is His treasure.

The prophet sees this as he prays,  and now feasts himself on the consequences of  this victory of  Jehovah.

Exalted:  for though highly exalted in Himself,  He has performed an act of  justice and righteousness,  with the sight and remembrance of  which Zion is filled as with an overflowing rich supply of  instruction and praise.  A new time has dawned for the people of  Judah.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  Woe to you,  O destroyer,  who yourself  have not been destroyed;  woe to you,  O traitor,  with whom  (Literally -, with you ref. IQIsa;  with him  MT.)  no one has dealt treacherously!  When you have sunk down in  (Stopped  MT) destroying, you will be destroyed;  and when you have finished  (ceased - similar but different verb- MT)  dealing treacherously, you will be dealt with treacherously.
(2)  O Lord,  be gracious to us;  we long for you.  And (Not in MT,  LXX) be our arm every morning,  our salvation (IQIsa has a very unusual form of this word in comparison to MT and other passages in the Hebrew Bible.)  in the time of  trouble.
(3)  At the sound of  tumult peoples fled;  at your silence (The rising up of  yourself  MT;   from fear of you LXX)  nations scattered.
(4)  And your spoil is gathered like the caterpillar gathers;  like locusts leap men have leapt (Leap  MT) upon it.
(5)  The Lord is exalted,  for he dwells on high;  he has filled Zion with justice and righteousness.
(6)  There will be (And there will be MT)  stability in your times,  abundance and salvation (Of salvation MT) wisdom and knowledge;  the fear of the Lord is your treasure.

Note: What we have done is to change from The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated by Florentino Garcia Martinez, published by William B. Eerdmans of  Grand Rapids,  which has bits and pieces of  the Book of  Isaiah  -
To The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible by Martin Abegg, Jr., Peter Flint & Eugene Ulrich by Harper Collins Publishers,  because it has the complete work of  Isaiah from the different dead sea scrolls of  Isaiah that have been found.
From here on, the ancient Bible versions referred to in the footnotes of  the Dead Sea Scrolls:
MT = Masoretic Text
LXX = The Septuagint
PS = Samaritan Pentateuch
IQIsa = Scroll of Isaiah by Florentino Garcia Martinez

What you see before you is the four possible translations that existed in the time of  Jesus Christ, around the first century.

1. In the temple we know that He read from the LXX.
2. From the writings of  John who wrote the Gospel of  John we know that he used the Targum because of calling Jesus the Word (Memra)
3. With the Hebrew, the only difference is that we are using the modern translation of the Hebrew Scriptures.
4. The Dead Sea Scrolls were being written at that time and before that time by the Essenes, a Jewish sect living at Qumran.
Paul the Learner

Isaiah 33:7-9
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(7)  Hark! The Arielites cry aloud;
Shalom’s messengers weep bitterly.
Behold now, these shall be terrified
with fear of you: those whom ye
feared shall cry out because of you:
messengers shall be sent, bitterly
weeping, entreating for peace.
Behold, when it shall be revealed to them the ambassadors of the nations shall cry aloud bitterly; they that went to proclaim peace have returned weeping in bitterness of spirit.
(8)  Highways are desolate, wayfarers
have ceased. A covenant has been
renounced, cities rejected. Mortal
man despised.
For the ways of these shall be made
desolate: the terror of the nations
has been made to cease, and the
covenant with these is taken away,
and ye shall by no means deem them
men.
The highways have been laid waste, the wayfaring men have ceased; because they have altered the covenant they have been removed from their cities; the sons of men thought not that evil was coming upon them.
(9)  The land is wilted and withered;
Lebanon disgraced and moldering,
Sharon is become like a desert, and
Bashan and Carmel are stripped bare.
The land mourns; Libanus is
ashamed: Saron is become marshes:
Galilee shall be laid bare, and Chermel.
The land mourneth, and lies waste; Lebanon is dried up and withered; Sharon has become like a desert, Mathnan (Bashan) and Carmel are laid waste.
From the NKJV
(7)  Surely their valiant ones shall cry outside, the ambassadors of peace shall weep bitterly.
(8)  The highways lie waste, the traveling man ceases.  He has broken the covenant, he has despised the cities, he regards no man.
(9)  The earth mourns and languishes, Lebanon is shamed and shriveled; Sharon is like a wilderness, and Bashan and Carmel shake off their fruits.

The prophet has thus run through the whole train of  thought with a few rapid strides,  in accordance with the custom that we have already frequently noticed;  and now he commences afresh,  mourning over the present miserable condition of  things,  in psalm-like elegiac tones,  and weeping with his weeping people.

'erŞ'elaam (OT:691) (the valiant one)  is probably chosen with some allusion to Ariel,  the name of  Jerusalem in ch. 29;  but it has a totally different meaning.

The heroes intended by the prophet were the messengers sent to Sennacherib to treat with him for peace. They carried to him the amount of  silver and gold that he had demanded as the condition of  peace (2 Kings 18:14).

2 Kings 18:14
Then Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria at Lachish, saying, "I have done wrong; turn away from me; whatever you impose on me I will pay." And the king of Assyria assessed Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold.      (NKJV)

But Sennacherib broke the treaty,  by demanding nothing less than the surrender of  Jerusalem itself.  Then the heroes of  Jerusalem cried aloud,  when they arrived at Jerusalem,  and had to convey this message of  disgrace and alarm to the king and nation;  and bitterly weeping over such a breach of  faith,  such deception and disgrace,  the embassy,  which had been sent off,  to the deep self-humiliation of  Judah and themselves,  returned to Jerusalem.

Moreover, Sennacherib continued to storm the fortified places, in violation of his agreement.  The land was more and more laid waste,  the fields were trodden down;  and the autumnal aspect of  Lebanon,  with its faded foliage,  and of  Bashan and Carmel,  with their falling leaves,  looked like shame and grief at the calamities of  the land.  It was in the autumn,  therefore,  that the prophet uttered these complaints;  and the definition of  the time given in his prophecy (Isa 32:10).

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(7)  Look, their brave men cry out (IQIsa and MT use different but similar Hebrew words.),  in the streets; the envoys of peace weep bitterly.
(8)  The highways lie deserted, travelers have left the road; [the enemy] has broken the covenant, has despised witnesses (The cities MT), and has regard for no one.
(9)  The land mourns and languishes; Lebanon is ashamed and withers, Sharon is like a desert, Bashan (And Bashan MT), and Carmel shake off their leaves.


IMPENDING  JUDGMENT  ON  ZION

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Isaiah 33:10, 11
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(10)  “Now I will arise,” says the Lord,
“Now I will exalt Myself, now raise
Myself high.
Now will I arise, saith the Lord, now
will I be glorified; now will I be exalted.
Now will I be revealed, saith the Lord, now will I be exalted, now will I be lifted up.
(11)  You shall conceive hay, give
birth to straw, My breath will devour
you like fire.
Now shall ye see, now shall ye
perceive; the strength of your breath
shall be vain; fire shall devour you.
Ye have conceived wicked thoughts, O ye nations, ye have wrought for you evil deeds; because of your evil deeds, my Memra shall destroy you, as the whirlwind the chaff.
From the NKJV
(10)  "Now I will rise," says the LORD;  "Now I will be exalted, now I will lift Myself up.
(11)  You shall conceive chaff, you shall bring forth stubble; your breath, as fire, shall devour you.

Isaiah having mourned in the tone of  the Psalms,  now comforts himself with the words of  a psalm.  Like David in Psalm 12:6,  he hears Jehovah speak. The measure of  Asshur's iniquity is full;  the hour of  Judah's redemption is come;  Jehovah has looked on long enough,  as though sitting still (Isa 18:4).

Psalm 12:6-7
The words of the LORD are pure words, like silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times.  You shall keep them, O LORD, You shall preserve them from this generation forever.      (NKJV)

Three times does the prophet repeat the word 'attâh (now),  which is so significant a word with all the prophets,  but more especially with Hosea and Isaiah,  and which always fixes the boundary-line and turning-point between  love and wrathwrath and love.  Jehovah would rise up from His throne,  and show Himself  in all His greatness to the enemies of  Israel.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

After the prophet has heard this from Jehovah,  he knows how it will fare with them.  He therefore cries out to them in triumph, "Ye are pregnant with hay, ye bring forth stubble! Your snorting is the fire that will devour you."  Their vain purpose to destroy Jerusalem comes to nothing;  their burning wrath against Jerusalem becomes the fire of  wrath,  which consumes them (see Isa 5:24).

Isaiah 33:12
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(12)  Peoples shall be burning of lime,
 thorns cut down that are set on fire.
And the nations shall be burnt up; as
a thorn in the field cast out and burnt
up.
And the nations shall be as the burning of fire, as thorns cut down shall they be burnt in the fire.
From the NKJV
(12)  And the people shall be like the burnings of lime; like thorns cut up they shall be burned in the fire.

The prophet announces this to them,  and now tells openly what has been exhibited to him in his mental mirror as the purpose of  God.

The first simile Sets forth the totality of  the destruction:
they will be so completely burned up,  that nothing but ashes will be left,  like the lump of  lime left at the burning of  lime.
The second simile Contains a figurative description of  its suddenness:
they have vanished suddenly, like dead brushwood, which is cut down in consequence, and quickly crackles up and is consumed (Isa 5:24, cf., 9:17).

Isaiah 33:13-24      JEHOVAH     THE KING IN HIS BEAUTY

Isaiah  33:13-17 The king Seen in the Land
Isaiah  33:18,19 Enemy not seen
Isaiah  33:20,21- The glorious Jehovah Seen in Zion
Isaiah  33:-21 Enemy not seen
Isaiah  33:22 Jehovah Present to save
Isaiah  33:23 Enemy destroyed
Isaiah  33:24 Jehovah His People forgiven

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(12)  And the peoples will be like the burnings of lime, like thorns cut down, that are burned in the fire.

Isaiah 33:13, 14
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(13)  Hear, you who are far, what I
have done; you who are near, note
My might.”
They that are afar off shall hear what I
have done; they that draw nigh shall
know my strength.
Hear, O ye righteous, that have kept my law from the beginning, what I have done; and know, ye that repent, that have recently returned to the law, my might.
(14)  Sinners in Zion are frightened,
the godless are seized with trembling:
“Who of us can dwell with the
devouring fire: Who of us can
dwell with the never-dying blaze?”
The sinners in Sion have departed:
trembling shall seize the ungodly.
Who will tell you that a fire is kindled?
Who will tell you of the eternal place?
The sinners are dismayed in Zion; fear hath seized the wicked whose ways were underhand saying, Who shall abide for us in Zion, wherein the brightness of the Shekinah is like devouring fire? Who shall sojourn for us in Jerusalem, wherein the wicked are about to be judged, and to be delivered over to Gehenna as an everlasting burning?
From the NKJV
(13)  Hear, you who are afar off, what I have done; and you who are near, acknowledge My might."
(14)  The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearfulness has seized the hypocrites: "Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?"

You who are afar off  -  This is an address of Yahweh,  indicating that the destruction of  the Assyrian army would be so signal that it would be known to distant nations,  and would constitute an admonition to them.
You who are near - You Jews;  or the nations immediately adjacent to Judea.
The phrase 'far and near,' is equivalent to all.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

The prophet, while addressing Asshur, does not overlook those sinners of  his own nation who are deserving of  punishment.  The judgment upon Asshur is an alarming lesson,  not only for the heathen,  but for Israel also;  for there is no respect of  persons with Jehovah.  Even for the sinners in Jerusalem also there is no abiding in the presence of  the Almighty and Just One,  who has judged Asshur (the act of  judgment is regarded by the prophet as having just occurred);  they must either repent,  or they cannot remain in His presence.

Jehovah,  so far as His wrath is concerned,  is  "a consuming fire"  (Deut 4:24; 9:3);  and the fiery force of  His anger is  "everlasting burnings"  (mookedee 'oolâm),  inasmuch as it consists of  flames that are never extinguished,  never burn themselves out.
And this God had His fire and His furnace in Jerusalem (Isa 31:9),  and had just shown what His fire could do,  when once it burst forth.
Therefore do the sinners inquire in their alarm,  whilst confessing to one another (lânuu; cf., Amos 9:1) that none of them can endure it, "Who can dwell with devouring fire?"

Amos 9:1-4
I saw the Lord standing by the altar, and He said:
"Strike the doorposts, that the thresholds may shake, and break them on the heads of them all.  I will slay the last of them with the sword.  He who flees from them shall not get away, and he who escapes from them shall not be delivered.
"Though they dig into hell, from there My hand shall take them; though they climb up to heaven, from there I will bring them down;  and though they hide themselves on top of Carmel, from there I will search and take them; though they hide from My sight at the bottom of the sea, from there I will command the serpent, and it shall bite them;  though they go into captivity before their enemies, from there I will command the sword, and it shall slay them.
I will set My eyes on them for harm and not for good."

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(13)  Those who are far away have heard (You who are far away, hear  MT) what I have done; and those that are near have acknowledged (You that are near, acknowledge  MT) my might.  (14)  The sinners in Zion are afraid, trembling has seized the godless: Who among us can live with the devouring fire? Who among us can live with everlasting burnings?

Isaiah 33:15, 16
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(15)  He who walks in righteousness,
speaks uprightly, spurns profit from
fraudulent dealings, waves away a
bribe instead of grasping it, stops
his ears against listening to infamy,
shuts his eyes against looking at evil .
He that walks in righteousness,
speaking rightly, hating transgression
and iniquity, and shaking his hands
from gifts, stopping his ears that he
should not hear the judgment of
blood, shutting his eyes that he
should not see injustice;
The prophet saith, The righteous shall dwell therein; everyone that walketh in righteousness, and speaketh uprightly, that is far removed from unrighteous gain, that keepeth his soul aloof from the oppressors, that withhold his hands from receiving a bribe, that stopped up his ears from hearkening unto them that shed innocent blood, and restrains his eyes from looking on them that do evil.
(16)  Such a one shall dwell in lofty
security, with inaccessible cliffs for
his stronghold, with his food
supplied and his drink assured.
he shall dwell in a high cave of a
strong rock: bread shall be given
him, and his water shall be sure.
As for him, his dwelling-place shall be in a place high and exalted, even the sanctuary: his soul shall be satisfied with sufficient food; his waters shall be sure as a spring of water whose waters fail not.
From the NKJV
(15)  He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly, he who despises the gain of oppressions, who gestures with his hands, refusing bribes, who stops his ears from hearing of bloodshed, and shuts his eyes from seeing evil:    (16)    he will dwell on high; his place of defense will be the fortress of rocks; bread will be given him, his water will be sure.

This is Isaiah's variation of Psalm 15 and 24:3-6

Psalms 15
LORD, who may abide in Your tabernacle?  Who may dwell in Your holy hill?
He who walks uprightly, and works righteousness, and speaks the truth in his heart;  he who does not backbite with his tongue, nor does evil to his neighbor, nor does he take up a reproach against his friend;  in whose eyes a vile person is despised, but he honors those who fear the LORDhe who swears to his own hurt and does not change; he who does not put out his money at usury, nor does he take a bribe against the innocent.
He who does these things shall never be moved.    (NKJV)
Psalms 24:3-5
Who may ascend into the hill of the LORD?   Or who may stand in His holy place?
He who has clean hands and a pure heart, who has not lifted up his soul to an idol, nor sworn deceitfully.  He shall receive blessing from the LORD, and righteousness from the God of his salvation.    (NKJV)

Tsedâqooth (righteously) is the accusative of  the object,  so also is meeshâriim (uprightly):

he who walks in all the relations of  life in the full measure of  righteousness, i.e., who practices it continually, and whose words are in perfect agreement with his inward feelings and outward condition.

Question:

Who swore to his own hurt and does not change?
Who has clean hands and a pure heart?
Who walks in the full measure of righteousness and practices it continually?
As Romans 7:24 says: "O wretched man that I am! Who will deliver me from this body of death?"
Answer:
Romans 7:25
I thank God — through Jesus Christ our Lord!

Six characteristics of a righteous man:

1. Walks Righteously He lives righteously; he does what is right
2. Speaks Uprightly His words are well-ordered. Is not false, perfidious, slanderous, or obscene in his words. His words are simple, honest, and true.
3. Despises Gain of Oppressions He abhors the gain that is the result of imposition, false dealing, and false weights. Or if it mean oppressions, as the word usually does, then the sense is, that he does not oppress the poor, or take advantage of their needy condition, or affix exorbitant prices, or extort payment in a manner that is harsh and cruel.
4. Refuses Bribes This relates particularly to magistrates.
They adjudge causes according to justice, and do not allow their judgment to be swayed by the prospect of reward.
5. Stops his Ears from Bloodshed He who does not listen to a proposal to shed blood, or to any scheme of violence, and robbery, and murder
6. Shuts Eyes from Seeing Evil He does not desire to see it; he is not found in the places where it is committed. A righteous man should not only have no part in evil, but he will keep himself if possible from being a witness of it.
In other words, he keeps himself from all forms of iniquity.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(15)  The one who walks righteously and he has spoken (And who speaks MT & LXX) uprightly; the one who despises the gain of oppression, who waves his hand (His hands MT & LXX) from taking a bribe, who blocks his ears (his ear MT) from hearing of bloodshed, and who shuts his eyes from looking on evil   (16)  such a person will dwell on high; his place of defense will be the fortresses of rocks, his bread will be given him, his waters will be sure.


THE  LAND  OF  THE  MAJESTIC  KING

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Isaiah 33:17
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(17)  When your eyes behold a king in
his beauty, when they contemplate
the land round about,
Ye shall see a king with glory: your
eyes shall behold a land from afar.
The glory of the Shekinah of the everlasting king in his beauty shall thine eyes see; thou shalt observe and look on them that go down to the land of Gehenna.
From the NKJV
(17)  Your eyes will see the King in His beauty;  they will see the land that is very far off.

Over this picture the prophet forgets the sinners in Zion,  and greets with words of  promise the thriving church of  the future.

The king of  Judah,  hitherto so deeply humbled,  and,  as Micah instances by way of  example,  "smitten upon the cheeks,"  is then glorified by the victory of  his God; and the nation, constituted as described here,

will see him in his God-given beauty,
and see the land of  promise,
cleared of  enemies as far as the eye can reach and the foot carry,
restored to Israel without reserve,
and under the dominion of  this sovereign enjoying all the blessedness of peace.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(17)  Your eyes will see the king in his beauty; they will behold a land that reaches afar.

Isaiah 33:18, 19
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(18)  Your throat shall murmur in awe,
“Where is one who could count?
Where is one who could weigh?
Where is one who could count [all these] towers?”
Your soul shall meditate terror.
Where are the scribes? Where are
the counselors, where is he that
numbers them that are growing up,
Thy heart shall muse on mighty things: where are the scribes? Where are the reckoners? Let them come, if thy can, to reckon the number of the slain of the chiefs of the armies of the mighty men.
(19)  No more shall you see the
barbarian folk, the people of speech
too obscure to comprehend, so
stammering of tongue that they are
not understood.
even the small and great people?
With whom he took not counsel,
neither did he understand a people
of deep speech, so that a despised
people should not hear, and there is
no understanding to him that hears.
Thou shalt no more see the dominion of the fierce people, the people whose speech is too difficult to understand, who mock with their tongue because they have no understanding.
From the NKJV
(18)  Your heart will meditate on terror:
"Where is the scribe?  Where is he who weighs?  Where is he who counts the towers?"
(19)  You will not see a fierce people, a people of obscure speech, beyond perception, of a stammering tongue that you cannot understand.

The tribulation has passed away like a dream.
The dreadful past is so thoroughly forced out of  mind by the glorious present,  that they are obliged to turn back their thoughts  (hâgâh, meditari, as Jerome renders it)  to remember it at all.

The soopheer (scribe) who had the management of  the raising of  the tribute,
the shooqeel  (he who weighs)  who tested the weight of  the gold and silver,
the soopher 'eth hammigdâliim  (he who counts the towers) who drew up the plan of  the city to be besieged or stormed, are all vanished.

The rough people (now`aaz (OT:3267) `am (OT:5971), the niphal of `aazaz (OT:5810),  from yaa`az (OT:3267)),  that had shown itself so insolent,  so shameless,  and so insatiable in its demands,  has become invisible.

The expressions:
'imkee (obscure) and nil'ag (fierce) refer to the obscure and barbarous sound of  their language;
misshemooa (beyond perception) to the unintelligibility of  their speech; and
biynaah
(understand) (OT:998) 'eeyn (cannot) (OT:369) to the obscurity of their meaning.
Even if the Assyrians spoke a Semitic language,  they were of  so totally different a nationality,  and their manners were so entirely different,  that their language must have sounded even more foreign to an Israelite than Dutch to a German.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(18)  Your heart will muse on the terror: Where is that one who counted? Where is the one who weighed the tribute? Where is the one who counted the towers?  (19)  You (Plural 1Q1sa.  Singular MT) will not see the fierce people, a people of a deep speech that you cannot comprehend, of a strange tongue that you cannot understand.

Isaiah 33:20
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(20)  When you gaze upon Zion, our
city of assembly, your eyes shall
behold Jerusalem as a secure
homestead, a tent not to be
transported, whose pegs shall never
be pulled up, and none of whose
ropes shall break.
Behold the city of Sion, our refuge:
thine eyes shall behold Jerusalem, a
rich city, tabernacles which shall not
be shaken, neither shall the pins of
her tabernacle be moved for ever,
neither shall her cords be at all
broken:
Thou shalt see their downfall, O Zion, city of our festivals; thine eyes shall see the consolation of Jerusalem in her prosperity and security, as a tent that is not loosed, and whose stakes are not pulled up for ever, nor shall any of its cords be cut in two.
From the NKJV
(20)  Look upon Zion, the city of our appointed feasts; your eyes will see Jerusalem, a quiet home, a tabernacle that will not be taken down; not one of its stakes will ever be removed, nor will any of its cords be broken.

And how will Jerusalem look when Asshur has been dashed to pieces on the strong fortress?
The prophet passes over here into the tone of  Ps 48.

Psalms 48:13-14
Mark well her bulwarks; consider her palaces; that you may tell it to the generation following.  For this is God, our God forever and ever; He will be our guide even to death.     (NKJV)

Jerusalem stands there unconquered and inviolable,  the fortress where the congregation of  the whole land celebrates its feasts,  a place full of  good cheer (Isa 32:18),  in which everything is now arranged for a continuance.

Jerusalem has come out of  tribulation stronger than ever - not a nomadic wandering tent (tsâ'am, a nomad word, to wander, lit. to pack up),  but one set up for a permanent dwelling.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(20)  Look on Zion, the city of our appointed festivals! (Our appointed festival MT) your eyes will see Jerusalem, a peaceful habitation, a tent that will not be removed; its stakes will never be pulled up, or any of its cords be broken.

Isaiah 33:21, 22
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(21)  For there the Lord in His
greatness shall be for us like a region
of rivers, of broad streams where no
floating vessels can sail and no
mighty craft can travel their ropes are
slack, they cannot steady the sockets
of their masts, they cannot spread a
sail.
For the name of the Lord is great to
you: ye shall have a place, even
rivers and wide and spacious
channels: thou shalt not go this
way, neither a vessel with oars go
thereby:
But from thence shall be revealed the might of the Lord to do good unto us, from the place whence issue far-flooding rivers, wherein no fishing vessel shall go, nor great galley sail through it.
(22)  For the Lord shall be our ruler,
the Lord shall be our prince, the Lord
shall be our king: He shall deliver us.
For my God is great: the Lord our
judge shall not pass me by: the Lord
is our prince, the Lord is our king;
the Lord, he shall save us.
For the Lord is our judge, who brought us out of Egypt by his might; the Lord is our teacher, who gave us the instruction of his law from Sinai; the Lord is our king, he shall deliver us, and execute a righteous vengeance for us on the armies of God.
From the NKJV
(21)  But there the majestic LORD will be for us a place of broad rivers and streams, in which no galley with oars will sail, nor majestic ships pass by   (22)  (For the LORD is our Judge, the LORD is our Lawgiver, the LORD is our King; He will save us);

It is also a great Lord who dwells therein,  a faithful and almighty defender.
Following upon the negative clauses in verse 20,  the next verse commences with kii 'im (but).

Glorious ('addiir - majestic) is Jehovah (Yahweh),  who has overthrown Lebanon,  i.e.,  Assyria
(Isa 10:34).
He dwells in Jerusalem for the good of  His people - a place of  streams,  i.e.,  one resembling a place of  streams,  from the fact that He dwells therein.

Yahweh will be unto us:

A place of broad rivers and streams
Rivers and streams are sources of  fertility,  the channels of  commerce,  and objects of  great beauty. Such seems to be the idea here.  The presence of  Yahweh would be to them a source of  great prosperity and happiness;  and a beauty would be thrown around the city and nation like majestic and useful rivers.
In which no galley with oars will sail
The reference is doubtless to a vessel of  war;  since vessels of  commerce would be an advantage.
Nor majestic ships pass by

No ship fitted out for purposes of war.  The sense is,  therefore,  that though Jerusalem should
be thus favored,  yet it would be unapproachable by an enemy.

Yahweh will be to us nothing but a source of  happiness,  truth,  and prosperity.
His presence will be to us only a blessing,  and a means of  success and joy.
The repetition of  the name Yahweh three times is common in the Scriptures.

Yahweh is our Judge
Yahweh is our Lawgiver
Yahweh is our King
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(21)  But there the Lord in majesty will be for us a place of broad rivers (Feminine 1Q1sa. Masculine MT) and streams, where no galley with oars can go, nor any stately ship can pass.  (22)  For the Lord is our judge, and (Not in MT or LXX) the Lord is our lawgiver, and (Not in MT or LXX) the Lord is our king, and (Not in MT or LXX) he will save us.

Isaiah 33:23, 24
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(23)  Then shall indeed much spoil be
divided; even the lame shall seize
booty.
Thy cords are broken, for they had
no strength: thy mast has given way,
it shall not spread the sails, it shall
not bear a signal, until it be given up
for plunder; therefore shall many
lame men take spoil.
At that time the nations shall be bereft of their strength, and shall be like a ship whose ropes have been cut, and which has no strength in its mast which has been cut, neither is it possible to spread a sail thereon: then the house of Israel shall divide the riches of the nations, even much spoil and booty; and though there be among them blind and lame, yet they also shall divide much spoil and booty.
(24)  And none who lives there shall
say, “I am sick;” it shall be inhabited
by folk whose sin has been forgiven
 
And the people dwelling among them
shall by no means say, I am in pain:
for their sin shall be forgiven them.
And they shall not say henceforth to the people that dwelleth securely round about the Shekinah, from you has come upon us the evil stroke: the people even the house of Israel shall be gathered together and return to their place with their sins forgiven.
From the NKJV
(23)  Your tackle is loosed, they could not strengthen their mast, they could not spread the sail. Then the prey of great plunder is divided; the lame take the prey.
(24)  And the inhabitant will not say, "I am sick"; the people who dwell in it will be forgiven their iniquity.

Now indeed it was apparently very different from this.
It was not Assyria, but Jerusalem,  that was like a ship about to be wrecked;  but when that which had just been predicted should be fulfilled,  Jerusalem,  at present so powerless and sinful,  would be entirely changed.

The address itself  points to Jerusalem;  and the reference to this gives the most appropriate sense,  whilst the contrast between the now and then closes the prophecy in the most glorious manner.

A people humbled by punishment,  penitent,  and therefore pardoned,  would then dwell in Jerusalem.
The strength of  Israel,  and all its salvation,  rest upon the forgiveness of  its sins.

Both sickness and sin shall be taken away.

1. The inhabitant shall not say, I am sick.
As the lame shall take the prey, so shall the sick, notwithstanding their weakness, make a shift to get to the abandoned camp and seize something for themselves.
Or it intimates that, whereas infectious diseases are commonly the effect of long sieges, it shall not be so with Jerusalem, but the inhabitants of it with their victory and peace shall have health also, and there shall be no complaining upon the account of sickness within their gates.
2. The people who dwell in it will be forgiven their iniquity
Not only the body of  the nation forgiven their national guilt in the removing of  the national judgment,  but particular persons,  that dwell therein,  shall repent,  and reform,  and have their sins pardoned.
And this is promised as that which is at the bottom of all other favors;  he will do so and so for them,  for he will be merciful to their unrighteousness, Hebrews 8:12.
Sin is the sickness of  the soul.  When God pardons the sin he heals the disease;  and,  when the diseases of  sin are healed by pardoning mercy,  the sting of  bodily sickness is taken out and the cause of  it removed;  so that either the inhabitant shall not be sick.
"Son, be of good cheer; thy sins are forgiven thee." Matthew 9:2
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Hebrews 8:10-12
"For this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days," says the LORD: "I will put My laws in their mind and write them on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. None of them shall teach his neighbor, and none his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them.  For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness, and their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no more."     (NKJV - quoted by Paul from Jeremiah 31:31-34)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(23)  Your rigging hangs loose; it cannot hold indeed (Singular 1Q1sa. Plural MT) the sail spread out. Then prey and abundant spoil will be divided; even the lame will carry off plunder.  (24)  And no inhabitant will say, “I am sick;” the people who live there will be forgiven their iniquity.


LESSON  15  FROM  THE  AMPLIFIED  VERSION

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Isaiah 31:1 - 33:24 - from the Amplified Version

31:1    WOE TO those who go down to Egypt for help, who rely on horses and trust in chariots because they are many and in horsemen because they are very strong, but they look not to the Holy One of Israel, nor seek and consult the Lord!
(2)    And yet He is wise and brings calamity and does not retract His words; He will arise against the house (the whole race) of evildoers and against the helpers of those who work iniquity.
(3)    Now the Egyptians are men and not God, and their horses are flesh and not spirit; and when the Lord stretches out His hand, both [Egypt] who helps will stumble, and [Judah] who is helped will fall, and they will all perish and be consumed together.
(4)    For the Lord has said to me, As the lion or the young lion growls over his prey — and though a large band of shepherds is called out against him, he will not be terrified at their voice or daunted at their noise — so the Lord of hosts will come down to fight upon Mount Zion and upon its hills.
(5)    Like birds hovering, so will the Lord of hosts defend Jerusalem; He will protect and deliver it, He will pass over and spare and preserve it.
(6)    Return, O children of Israel, to Him against Whom you have so deeply plunged into revolt.
(7)    For in that day every man of you will cast away [in contempt and disgust] his idols of silver and his idols of gold, which your own hands have sinfully made for you.
(8)    Then the Assyrian shall fall by a sword not of man; and a sword, not of men [but of God], shall devour him. And he shall flee from the sword, and his young men shall be subjected to forced labor.
(9)    [In his flight] he shall pass beyond his rock [refuge and stronghold] because of terror; even his officers shall desert the standard in fear and panic, says the Lord, Whose fire is in Zion and Whose furnace is in Jerusalem.

32:1   BEHOLD, A King will reign in righteousness, and princes will rule with justice.
(2)    And each one of them shall be like a hiding place from the wind and a shelter from the storm, like streams of water in a dry place, like the shade of a great rock in a weary land [to those who turn to them].
(3)    Then the eyes of those who see will not be closed or dimmed, and the ears of those who hear will listen.
(4)    And the mind of the rash will understand knowledge and have good judgment, and the tongue of the stammerers will speak readily and plainly.
(5)    The fool (the unbeliever and the ungodly) will no more be called noble, nor the crafty and greedy [for gain] said to be bountiful and princely.
(6)    For the fool speaks folly and his mind plans iniquity: practicing profane ungodliness and speaking error concerning the Lord, leaving the craving of the hungry unsatisfied and causing the drink of the thirsty to fail.
(7)    The instruments and methods of the fraudulent and greedy [for gain] are evil; he devises wicked devices to ruin the poor and the lowly with lying words, even when the plea of the needy is just and right.
(8)    But the noble, openhearted, and liberal man devises noble things; and he stands for what is noble, openhearted, and generous.
(9)    Rise up, you women who are at ease! Hear my [Isaiah's] voice, you confident and careless daughters! Listen to what I am saying!
(10)  In little more than a year you will be shaken with anxiety, you careless and complacent women; for the vintage will fail, and the ingathering will not come.
(11)  Tremble, you women who are at ease! Shudder with fear, you complacent ones! Strip yourselves bare and gird sackcloth upon your loins [in grief]!
(12)  They shall beat upon their breasts for the pleasant fields, for the fruitful vine,
(13)  For the land of my people growing over with thorns and briers — yes, for all the houses of joy in the joyous city.
(14)  For the palace shall be forsaken, the populous city shall be deserted; the hill and the watchtower shall become dens [for wild animals] endlessly, a joy for wild donkeys, a pasture for flocks,
(15)  Until the Spirit is poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness becomes a fruitful field, and the fruitful field is valued as a forest. [Psalms 104:30; Ezekiel 36:26,27; 39:29; Zechariah 12:10.]
(16)  Then justice will dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness (moral and spiritual rectitude in every area and relation) will abide in the fruitful field.
(17)  And the effect of righteousness will be peace [internal and external], and the result of righteousness will be quietness and confident trust forever.
(18)  My people shall dwell in a peaceable habitation, in safe dwellings, and in quiet resting-places.
(19)  But it [the wrath of the Lord] shall hail, coming down overpoweringly on the forest [the army of the Assyrians], and the capital city shall be utterly humbled and laid prostrate.
(20)  Happy and fortunate are you who cast your seed upon all waters [when the river overflows its banks; for the seed will sink into the mud and when the waters subside, the plant will spring up; you will find it after many days and reap an abundant harvest], you who safely send forth the ox and the donkey [to range freely].

33:1    WOE TO you, O destroyer, you who were not yourself destroyed, who deal treacherously though they [your victims] did not deal treacherously with you! When you have ceased to destroy, you will be destroyed; and when you have stopped dealing treacherously, they will deal treacherously with you.
(2)    O Lord, be gracious to us; we have waited [expectantly] for You. Be the arm [of Your servants — their strength and defense] every morning, our salvation in the time of trouble.
(3)    At the noise of the tumult [caused by Your voice at which the enemy is overthrown], the peoples flee; at the lifting up of Yourself, nations are scattered.
(4)    And the spoil [of the Assyrians] is gathered [by the inhabitants of Jerusalem] as the caterpillar gathers; as locusts leap and run to and fro, so [the Jews spoil the Assyrians' forsaken camp as they] leap upon it.
(5)    The Lord is exalted, for He dwells on high; He will fill Zion with justice and righteousness (moral and spiritual rectitude in every area and relation).
(6)    And there shall be stability in your times, an abundance of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge; the reverent fear and worship of the Lord is your treasure and His.
(7)    Behold, their valiant ones cry without; the ambassadors of peace weep bitterly.
(8)    The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man ceases. The enemy has broken the covenant, he has despised the cities and the witnesses, he regards no man.
(9)    The land mourns and languishes, Lebanon is confounded and [its luxuriant verdure] withers away; Sharon [a fertile pasture region south of Mount Carmel] is like a desert, and Bashan [a broad, fertile plateau east of the Jordan River] and [Mount] Carmel shake off their leaves.
(10)  Now will I arise, says the Lord. Now will I lift up Myself; now will I be exalted.
(11)  You conceive chaff, you bring forth stubble; your breath is a fire that consumes you.
(12)  And the people will be burned as if to lime, like thorns cut down that are burned in the fire.
(13)  Hear, you who are far off [says the Lord], what I have done; and you who are near, acknowledge My might!
(14)  The sinners in Zion are afraid; trembling seizes the godless ones. [They cry] Who among us can dwell with that devouring fire? Who among us can dwell with those everlasting burnings?
(15)  He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly, who despises gain from fraud and from oppression, who shakes his hand free from the taking of bribes, who stops his ears from hearing of bloodshed and shuts his eyes to avoid looking upon evil.
(16)  [Such a man] will dwell on the heights; his place of defense will be the fortresses of rocks; his bread will be given him; water for him will be sure.
(17)  Your eyes will see the King in His beauty; [your eyes] will behold a land of wide distances that stretches afar.
(18)  Your mind will meditate on the terror: [asking] Where is he who counted? Where is he who weighed the tribute? Where is he who counted the towers?
(19)  You will see no more the fierce and insolent people, a people of a speech too deep and obscure to be comprehended, of a strange and stammering tongue that you cannot understand.
(20)  Look upon Zion, the city of our set feasts and solemnities! Your eyes shall see Jerusalem, a quiet habitation, a tent that shall not be taken down; not one of its stakes shall ever be pulled up, neither shall any of its cords be broken.
(21)  But there the Lord will be for us in majesty and splendor a place of broad rivers and streams, where no oar-propelled boat can go, and no mighty and stately ship can pass.
(22)  For the Lord is our Judge, the Lord is our Lawgiver, the Lord is our King; He will save us. [Isaiah 2:3-4; 11:4; 32:1; James 4:12.]
(23)  Your hoisting ropes hang loose; they cannot strengthen and hold firm the foot of their mast or keep the sail spread out. Then will prey and spoil in abundance be divided; even the lame will take the prey.
(24)  And no inhabitant [of Zion] will say, I am sick; the people who dwell there will be forgiven their iniquity and guilt.

 

(End of  Lesson 15)


 

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