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ISAIAH
The Gospel To Israel
Book 2

LESSON  SIXTEEN
Isaiah 34:1 - 36:10

 

Isaiah 34:1 - 35:10
Finale Of The Judgment Upon All The World
(More especially upon Edom)
And Redemption Of The People Of Jehovah

These two chapters stand in precisely the same relation to chapters 28-33 as chapters 24-27 to chapters 13-23.  In both instances the special prophecies connected with the history of  the prophet's own times are followed by a comprehensive finale of  an apocalyptic character.

We feel that we are carried entirely away from the stage of  history.

There is no longer that foreshortening,  by which the prophet's perspective was characterized before the fall of  Assyria.

The tangible shapes of  the historical present,  by which we have been hitherto surrounded,  are now spiritualized into something perfectly ideal.

We are transported directly into the midst of  the last things;  and the eschatological vision is less restricted,  has greater mystical depth,  belongs more to another sphere,  and has altogether more of  a New Testament character.

Isaiah 34:1-3
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(1)  Approach, O nations, and listen,
give heed, O peoples! Let the earth
and those in it hear; the world, and
what it bring forth.
Draw near, ye nations; and hearken,
ye princes; let the earth hear, and
they that are in it; the world, and the
people that are therein.
Draw near, ye nations, to hear; and hearken, ye kingdoms; let the earth hear and the fullness thereof; the world and all that dwell therein.
(2)  For the Lord is angry at all the
nations, furious at all their host; He
has doomed them, consigned them
to slaughter.
For the wrath of the Lord is upon all
nations, and his anger upon the
number of them, to destroy them,
and give them up to slaughter.
For there is anger from before the Lord upon all the nations, and slaughter upon all their armies; he has declared them guilty, he has delivered them to the slaughter.
(3)  Their slain shall be left lying, and
the stench of their corpses shall
mount; and the hills shall be
drenched with their blood,
And their slain shall be cast forth,
and their corpses; and their ill savor
shall come up, and the mountains
shall be made wet with their blood.
And their slain shall be cast out, and the stench of their carcasses shall go up, and the mountains shall be melted with their blood.
From the NKJV
(1)  Come near, you nations, to hear; and heed, you people!  Let the earth hear, and all that is in it, the world and all things that come forth from it.   (2)   For the indignation of the LORD is against all nations, and His fury against all their armies; He has utterly destroyed them, He has given them over to the slaughter.  (3)   Also their slain shall be thrown out; their stench shall rise from their corpses,

BACKGROUND:
There are many passages in Jeremiah (viz., Jer 25:31;  46:10;  50:27,39;  51:40) that cannot be explained in any other way than on the supposition that Jeremiah had the prophecy of  Isaiah in chapter 34 before him.  We cannot escape from the conclusion,  that just as we find Jeremiah introducing earlier prophecies generally into his cycle of  prophecies against the nations,  and,  in the addresses already mentioned,  borrowing from Amos and Nahum,  and placing side by side with a passage from Amos (compare Jer 25:30 with Amos 1:2) one of  a similar character,  and agreeing with Isaiah 34,  so he also had Isaiah 34 and 35 before him,  and reproduced it in the same sense as he did other and earlier models.

Jeremiah 25:30 Amos 1:2

Therefore prophesy against them all these words, and say to them:
'The LORD will roar from on high, and utter His voice from His holy habitation; He will roar mightily against His fold.  He will give a shout, as those who tread the grapes, against all the inhabitants of the earth."

The LORD roars from Zion,
And utters His voice from Jerusalem;
The pastures of the shepherds mourn,
And the top of Carmel withers.

It is equally certain that Zephaniah 1:7-8, and 2:14,  stand in a dependent relation to Isaiah 34:6,11

Zephaniah 1:7-8, and 2:14 Isaiah 34:6,11

Be silent in the presence of the Lord GOD; for the day of the LORD is at hand, for the LORD has prepared a sacrifice; He has invited His guests.
And it shall be, in the day of the LORD's sacrifice, that I will punish the princes and the king's children, and all such as are clothed with foreign apparel.
The herds shall lie down in her midst, every beast of the nation.  Both the pelican and the bittern shall lodge on the capitals of her pillars; their voice shall sing in the windows; desolation shall be at the threshold; for He will lay bare the cedar work.
(NKJV)

The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made overflowing with fatness, with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams.  For the LORD has a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Edom.
But the pelican and the porcupine shall possess it, also the owl and the raven shall dwell in it. And He shall stretch out over it the line of confusion and the stones of emptiness.

Just as Zephaniah 2:15 was related to Isaiah 47:8

Zephaniah 2:15 Isaiah 47:8

This is the rejoicing city that dwelt securely, that said in her heart,  "I am it, and there is none besides me."
How has she become a desolation, a place for beasts to lie down!  Everyone who passes by her shall hiss and shake his fist.

Therefore hear this now, you who are given to pleasures, who dwell securely, who say in your heart, "I am, and there is no one else besides me; I shall not sit as a widow, nor shall I know the loss of children";

And Zephaniah 2:14 to Isaiah 13:21-22

Zephaniah 2:14 Isaiah 13:21, 22

The herds shall lie down in her midst, every beast of the nation.  Both the pelican and the bittern shall lodge on the capitals of her pillars; their voice shall sing in the windows; desolation shall be at the threshold; for He will lay bare the cedar work.

But wild beasts of the desert will lie there, and their houses will be full of owls; ostriches will dwell there, and wild goats will caper there.  The hyenas will howl in their citadels, and jackals in their pleasant palaces.  Her time is near to come, and her days will not be prolonged.

Just as chapters 24-27 are full of  the clearest marks of  Isaiah's authorship,
so is it also with chapters 34-35.

They belong to the latest revelations received by the prophet,
to the last steps by which he reached that ideal height at which he soars in chapters 40-66,
and from which he never descends again to the stage of  passing history,  which lay so far beneath.  After the fall of  Assyria,  and when darkness began to gather on the horizon again,  Isaiah broke completely away from his own times.

"The end of all things"  became more and more his own true home.
The obscure foreground of  his prophecies is no longer Asshur,  which he has done with now so far as prophecy is concerned,  but Babel (Babylon).

And the bright center of  his prophecies is not the fall of Asshur  (for this was already prophetically a thing of  the past,  which had not been followed by complete salvation),

but deliverance from Babylon.

And the bright noon-day background of  his prophecies is no longer the realized idea of  the kingdom of  prophecy - realized,  that is to say,  in the one person of  the Messiah,  whose form had lost the sharp outlines of chapters 7-12 even in the prophecies of  Hezekiah's time -

but the parousia (coming of the Christ) of   Jehovah,  which all flesh would see.

It was the revelation of  the mystery of  the incarnation of  God,  for which all this was intended to prepare the way.

And there was no other way in which that could be done,  than by completing the perfect portrait of  the Messiah in the light of   the ultimate future,  so that both the factors in the prophecy might be assimilated.
The spirit of  Isaiah,  more than that of  any other prophet,  was the laboratory of  this great process in the history of revelation.

The prophetic cycles in chapters 24-27 and 34-35 stand in the relation of  preludes to it.
In ch. 40-66 the process of  assimilation is fully at work,  and there is consequently no book of  the Old Testament which has gone so thoroughly into New Testament depths,  as this second part of  the collection of  Isaiah's prophecies,  which

commences with a prediction of  the parousia of  Jehovah,  and
ends with the creation of  the new heaven and new earth.
Chapters 34 and 35 are,  as it were,  the first preparatory chords.
Edom here is what Moab was in chapters 24-27.

By the side of  Babylon,  the empire of  the world,  whose policy of  conquest led to its enslaving Israel,

it represents the world in its hostility to Israel as the people of  Jehovah.
For Edom was Israel's brother-nation, and hated Israel as the chosen people.
In this its unbrotherly,  hereditary hatred,  it represented the sum-total of  all the enemies and persecutors of  the church of  Jehovah.  The special sidepiece to chapter 34 is Isaiah 63:1-6.
(1)  Who is this who comes from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah, this One who is glorious in His apparel, traveling in the greatness of His strength? —
"I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save."
(2)  Why is Your apparel red, and Your garments like one who treads in the winepress?
(3)  "I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the peoples no one was with Me.  For I have trodden them in My anger, and trampled them in My fury; their blood is sprinkled upon My garments, and I have stained all My robes.   (4)  For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed has come.   (5)   I looked, but there was no one to help, and I wondered that there was no one to uphold; therefore My own arm brought salvation for Me; and My own fury, it sustained Me.  (6)   I have trodden down the peoples in My anger, made them drunk in My fury, and brought down their strength to the earth."     (NKJV)
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

What the prophet here foretells relates to all nations,  and to every individual within them,  in their relation to the congregation of  Jehovah.

The summons does not invite them to look upon the completion of  the judgment,  but to hear the prophecy of  the future judgment;  and it is issued to everything on the earth,  because it would all have to endure the judgment upon the nations  (see at Isa 5:25; 13:10).

The expression  qetseph layehoovâh (indignation of the LORD)  implies that Jehovah was ready to execute His wrath.  The nations that are hostile to Jehovah are slaughtered,  the bodies remain unburied,  and the streams of  blood loosen the firm masses of  the mountains,  so that they melt away.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  Come near, nations, to hear; and pay attention, peoples. Let the earth hear and everything in it, the world and all that it brings forth.  (2)  For the Lord is angry against all the nations and furious at all their host.  He has doomed them and (Not in MT) has determined that they be slaughtered. (them for slaughter MT)  (3)  There slain and their corpses will be cast down, and their stench will rise up. The (Not in MT) mountains will be socked with their blood.

See Note in lesson 15 on the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

Isaiah 34:4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(4)  All the host of heaven shall
molder. The heavens shall be rolled
up like a scroll, and all their host
shall wither like a leaf withering
on the vine, or shriveled fruit on a
fig tree.
And all the powers of the heavens
shall melt, and the sky shall be rolled
up like a scroll: and all the stars shall
fall like leaves from a vine, and as
leaves fall from a fig tree.
And all the hosts of heaven shall be utterly melted away and be blotted out from under the heavens as was said concerning them in the book; and all their armies shall come to an end, as the leaf withers from off the vine, and as the fading leaf from the fig tree.
From the NKJV
(4)  All the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll; all their host shall fall down as the leaf falls from the vine, and as fruit falling from a fig tree.

The judgment foretold by Isaiah also belongs to the last things;  for it takes place in connection with the simultaneous destruction of  the present heaven and the present earth.

The heaven,  that is to say,  the present system of  the universe,  breaks up into atoms,  and is rolled up like a book that has been read through;  and the stars fall down as a withered leaf falls from a vine,  when it is moved by even the lightest breeze,  or like the withered leaves shaken from the fig-tree.

The expressions are so strong,  that they cannot be understood in any other sense than as relating to the end of the world (Isa 65:17; 66:22; compare Matt 24:29).

Isaiah 65:17
For behold, I create new heavens and a new earth; and the former shall not be remembered or come to mind.
Isaiah 66:22
"For as the new heavens and the new earth which I will make shall remain before Me," says Yaweh, "So shall your descendants and your name remain."
Matthew 24:29
Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
Revelation 21:1
Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea.

When we look at the following kii (for) in verse 5,  it undoubtedly appears strange that the prophet should foretell the passing away of  the heavens, simply because Jehovah judges Edom.  But Edom stands here as the representative of all powers that are hostile to the church of God as such,  and therefore expresses an idea of  the deepest and widest cosmical signification (as Isa 24:21 clearly shows).

And it is not only a doctrine of  Isaiah himself,  but a biblical doctrine universally,  that God will destroy the present world as soon as the measure of  the sin which culminates in unbelief,  and in the persecution of  the congregation of  the faithful,  shall be full.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

REMEMBER:
"You must further know that the prophets see things shown to them allegorically,  such as the candlesticks,  horses,  and mountains of  Zechariah (Zech. 4:2; 6:1-7),  which Amos saw,  the animals of  Daniel (Dan. 7 and 8),  the seething pot of  Jeremiah (Jer. 1:13),  and similar allegorical objects shown to represent certain ideas."
Moses Maimonides –the guide for the perplexed –on Prophecy

If in the study of  prophecy,  you make every thing literal,  you will have problems.
The Jews understood the meaning and we also need to understand it as well.
Paul the Learner

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(4)   The valley will be split, all the host of the heavens will fall (All the host of the heavens will rot away MT) and the heavens will be rolled up like a scroll. All their host will wither, like a leaf withering (as when a leaf withers MT) off the vine or like withering off the fig tree.

Isaiah 34:5-7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(5)  For My sword shall be drunk in
the sky; lo, it shall come down upon
Edom, upon the people I have
doomed, to wreak judgment.
My sword has been made drunk in
heaven: behold, it shall come down
upon Idumaea, and with judgment
upon the people doomed to
destruction.
For my sword shall be revealed in the heavens; yea, against Edom shall it be revealed, and against the nations that I have declared guilty, for judgment.
(6)  The Lord has a sword; it is sated
with blood, it is gorged with fat –
the blood of lambs and he-goats, the
kidney fat of rams. For the Lord
holds a sacrifice in Bozrah, a great
slaughter in the land of Edom.
The sword of the Lord is filled with
blood, it is glutted with fat, with the
blood of goats and lambs, and with
the fat of goats and rams: for the
Lord has a sacrifice in Bosor, and a
great slaughter in Idumaea.
The sword from before the Lord is filled with blood, it is made fat with fatness, with the blood of kings and rulers, with the fat of the kidneys of princes: for there is a slaughter before the Lord in Bozrah, and a great sacrifice in the land of Edom.
(7)  Wild oxen shall fall with them,
young bulls with mighty steers; and
their land shall be drunk with blood;
their soil shall be saturated with fat.
And the mighty ones shall fall with
them, and the rams and the bulls;
and the land shall be soaked with
blood, and shall be filled with their
fat.
And the mighty men shall be slain with them, and rulers with tyrants, and their land shall be drunken with their blood, and their dust made fat with their fatness.
From the NKJV
(5)  For My sword shall be bathed in heaven; indeed it shall come down on Edom, and on the people of My curse, for judgment.  (6)   The sword of the LORD is filled with blood, it is made overflowing with fatness, with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams.  For the LORD has a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Edom.   (7)   The wild oxen shall come down with them, and the young bulls with the mighty bulls; their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust saturated with fatness.

Jehovah does not appear here in person as judge, but His sword appears;  just as in Gen 3:24, the "He placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden, and a flaming sword which turned every way"  is mentioned as an independent power standing by the side of  the cherub.  The sword is His executioner,  which has no sooner drunk deeply of  wrath in heaven,  i.e.,  in the immediate sphere of  the Deity,  than it comes down in wild intoxication upon Edom,  the people of  the ban of  Jehovah,  i.e.,  the people upon whom He has laid the ban,  and there,  as His instrument of  punishment,  fills itself with blood,  and fattens itself with fat.

Just as in chapter 63 Jehovah is represented as a treader of  the wine-press,

and the nations as the grapes;
so here He is represented as offering sacrifice,
and the nations as the animals offered
(Zeph 1:7; Jer 46:10; Ezek 39:17 ff.: all three passages founded upon this).  
Zephaniah 1:7
Be silent in the presence of the Lord GOD; for the day of the LORD is at hand, for the LORD has prepared a sacrifice; He has invited His guests.
Jeremiah 46:10
For this is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance, that He may avenge Himself on His adversaries. The sword shall devour; it shall be satiated and made drunk with their blood; for the Lord GOD of hosts has a sacrifice in the north country by the River Euphrates.
Ezekiel 39:17
And as for you, son of man, thus says the Lord GOD, "Speak to every sort of bird and to every beast of the field:  'Assemble yourselves and come; gather together from all sides to My sacrificial meal which I am sacrificing for you, a great sacrificial meal on the mountains of  Israel.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(5)  Indeed my sword will be seen (drink its fill MT) in the heavens. Watch, it will come down upon Edom, upon the people I have doomed for judgment.  (6)  The Lord has a sword filled with blood, gorged with fat, with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of rams’ kidneys.  Indeed the Lord has a sacrifice in Bozrah, and a great slaughter in the land of Edom.  (7)  The wild oxen will fall with them and the young bulls with the mighty steers. Their land will be drunk with blood and their soil saturated with fat.

Note: From the end of verse 9 (Dead Sea Scrolls) through the end of verse 10 the punctuation of  1Q1sa shows that the series of clauses was intentionally divided in a way different from that chosen in the Masoretic Text.

Isaiah 34:8-10
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(8)  For it is the Lord’s day of
retribution, the year of vindication
for Zion’s cause.
For it is the day of the judgment of
the Lord, and the year of the
recompense of Sion in judgment.
For a day of vengeance is before the Lord, a year of recompense, to execute righteous vengeance for the humiliation of Zion.
(9)  Its streams shall be turned to
pitch and its soil to sulfur. Its land
shall become burning pitch,
And her valleys shall be turned into
pitch, and her land into sulphur; and
her land shall be as pitch burning
night and day;
And the streams of Rome shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into brimstone, and the land thereof shall become burning pitch.
(10)  night and day it shall never go
out; its smoke shall rise for all time.
Through the ages it shall lie in ruins;
though the aeon none shall traverse
it.
and it shall never be quenched, and
her smoke shall go up: it shall be
made desolate throughout her
generations,
It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; there shall be none to pass through it for ever and ever.
From the NKJV
(8)  For it is the day of the LORD's vengeance, the year of recompense for the cause of Zion.
(9)  Its streams shall be turned into pitch, and its dust into brimstone; its land shall become burning pitch.
(10)  It shall not be quenched night or day; its smoke shall ascend forever. From generation to  generation it shall lie waste; no one shall pass through it forever and ever.

Thus does Jehovah avenge His church upon Edom.
The one expression,  "for the cause of  Zion,"  is like a flash of  lightning,  throwing light upon the obscurity of  prophecy,  both backwards and forwards.

A day and a year of  judgment upon Edom would do justice to Zion against its accusers and persecutors (riibh, vindicare).  The everlasting punishment,  which would fall upon it,  is depicted in figures and colors,  suggested by the proximity of  Edom to the Dead Sea,  and the volcanic character of  this mountainous country.  The unquenchable fire,  and the eternally ascending smoke,  proves that the end of  all things is referred to.  The prophet meant primarily,  no doubt,  that the punishment announced would fall upon the land of  Edom,  and within its geographical boundaries;  but this particular punishment represented the punishment of  all nations,  and all men who were Edomite’s in their feelings and conduct towards the congregation of  Jehovah.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The day of  the Lord's vengeance - marks the brief space of  time which the execution of  the vengeance on the foe shall occupy.
The year of  recompenses  - when God will retaliate on those who have contended with Zion.
The "year,"  the lengthened duration of  Zion's recompense for her past sufferings.
Edom had thought to extend its borders by laying hold of its neighbor's lands,  and had instigated Babylon to cruelty toward fallen Judah (Psalm 137:7; Ezekiel 36:5);  therefore Edom shall suffer the same herself.  The final winding up of the controversy between God and all enemies of  Him and His people is also shadowed forth (Malachi 4:1,3; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-9; Revelation 11:18; 19:2).
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Psalm 137:7
Remember, O LORD, against the sons of Edom the day of Jerusalem, who said, "Raze it, raze it,
To its very foundation!"
Ezekiel 36:5
Therefore thus says the Lord GOD:  "Surely I have spoken in My burning jealousy against the rest of the nations and against all Edom, who gave My land to themselves as a possession, with wholehearted joy and spiteful minds, in order to plunder its open country."
Malachi 4:1
"For behold, the day is coming, burning like an oven, and all the proud, yes, all who do wickedly will be stubble. And the day which is coming shall burn them up,"  says the LORD of hosts,  "That will leave them neither root nor branch.
2 Thessalonians 1:6-9
Since it is a righteous thing with God to repay with tribulation those who trouble you, and to give you who are troubled rest with us when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven with His mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on those who do not know God, and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ.  These shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power.
Revelation 11:17-18
"We give You thanks, O Lord God Almighty, the One who is and who was and who is to come,  because You have taken Your great power and reigned.   The nations were angry, and Your wrath has come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that You should reward Your servants the prophets and the saints, and those who fear Your name, small and great, and should destroy those who destroy the earth."
Revelation 19:2
For true and righteous are His judgments, because He has judged the great harlot who corrupted the earth with her fornication; and He has avenged on her the blood of His servants shed by her.

No one shall pass through - Edom's original offence was,  it would not let Israel pass through their land in peace to Canaan:  God  "recompenses"  them in kind;  no traveler shall pass through Edom.
Volney was forced to confirm the truth of  this prophecy:  "From the reports of the Arabs, southeast of  the Dead Sea,  within three days'  journey,  are upwards of  thirty ruined towns,  absolutely deserted."
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Note:
To the student of  Scripture,  you must sometimes put down to opposing opinions,  and then let the student decide which seems the best solution.  Jewish theologians and Christian theologians disagree on many points of  interpretation of  the Scriptures and as long as we only see part and only know part of  what God really means,  there will be differences.
Paul the Learner

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(8)  Indeed the Lord has a day of vengeance, a year of recompense for the cause of Zion.  (9)  Its streams will be turned into pitch, and its soil into sulfur, and its land will become pitch. (burning pitch 1Q1sa. )   (10)  It will burn night and day and will never be extinguished.  Its smoke will go up from generation to generation, and it will lie waste forever and ever. No one will pass through it. (Night or day it will not be extinguished. Forever its smoke will go up; from generation to generation it will lie waste. Forever and ever no one will pass through it MT.  the LXX divides differently and does not have the final sentence.)

Isaiah 34:11, 12
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(11)  Jackdaws and owls shall possess
it; great owls and ravens shall dwell
there. He shall measure it with a line
of chaos and with weights of
emptiness.
And for a long time birds and
hedgehogs, and ibises and ravens
shall dwell in it: and the measuring
line of desolation shall be cast over
it, and satyrs shall dwell in it.
But the pelicans and the hedgehogs shall possess it; and the owls and the ravens shall dwell therein: and the line of devastation and the plummet of desolation shall be stretched over it.
(12)  It shall be called, “No kingdom
is there,” its nobles and all its lords
shall be nothing.
Her princes shall be no more; for her
kings and her great men shall be
destroyed.
They who used to say, We are freeborn, and would not receive a king over them, and all the princes thereof shall become nothingness.
From the NKJV
(11)  But the pelican and the porcupine shall possess it, also the owl and the raven shall dwell in it. And He shall stretch out over it the line of confusion and the stones of emptiness.  (12)   They shall call its nobles to the kingdom, but none shall be there, and all its princes shall be nothing.

The land of Edom,  in this geographical and also emblematical sense,  would become a wilderness;  the kingdom of  Edom would be forever destroyed.

The description of the ruin,  which commences in verse 11 with a list of  animals that frequent marshy and solitary regions,  is similar to the one in Isa 13:20-22; 14:23 (compare Zeph 2:14, which is founded upon this).  Isaiah's was the original of  all such pictures of  ruin that we meet with in the later prophets.

Zephaniah 2:14
The herds shall lie down in her midst, every beast of the nation.  Both the pelican and the bittern shall lodge on the capitals of her pillars; their voice shall sing in the windows; desolation shall be at the  threshold; for He will lay bare the cedar work.

According to well-established tradition,  it is the long-necked pelican,  which lives upon fish (the name is derived either from qow' (OT:6958),  to vomit,  or,  as the construct is qª'at,  from a word qaa'aah (OT:6958),  formed in imitation of  the animal's cry).

Line of confusion
The level and the measure are commonly employed for the purpose of building up; but here Jehovah is represented as using these fore the purpose of  pulling down (a figure met with even before the time of  Isaiah: vid. Amos 7:7 (... the Lord stood on a wall made with a plumb line, with a plumb line in His hand), and  2 Kings 21:13  (And I will stretch over Jerusalem the measuring line of Samaria and the plummet of the house of Ahab);  inasmuch as He carries out this negative reverse of  building with the same rigorous exactness as that with which a builder carries out his well-considered plan,  and throws Edom back into a state of desolation and desert,  resembling the disordered and shapeless chaos of creation.

Thus the primeval kingdom with its early monarchy,  which is long preceded that of  Israel,  is brought to an end (Gen 36:31  -  ...the land of Edom before any king reigned over the children of Israel).

choreyhaa (OT:2715)  (its nobles)  stands at the head as a kind of protasis.  Edom was an elective monarchy;  the hereditary nobility electing the new king.  But this would be done no more.  The electoral princes of  Edom would come to nothing.  Not a trace would be left of  all that had built up the glory of Edom.

Daniel 4:34-35
And at the end of the days [seven years],  I,  Nebuchadnezzar,  lifted up my eyes to heaven,  and my understanding and the right use of my mind returned to me;  and I blessed the Most High [God] and I praised and honored and glorified Him Who lives forever,  Whose dominion is an everlasting dominion;  and His kingdom endures from generation to generation.
And all the inhabitants of  the earth are accounted as nothing.  And He does according to His will in the host of  heaven and among the inhabitants of  the earth,  and none can stay His hand or say to Him,  What are You doing?
AMP

Note:  The kingdoms that man builds is not eternal,  it exists only by the will of God.
Paul the Learner.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(11)  The pelican and the porcupine will possess it, and the owl and the raven will dwell in it. Over it he will stretch a line, and chaos, (a line of chaos MT) and plumb lines of emptiness, and its nobles.  (12)  They  (Her nobles LXX.) will call it No Kingdom There, and all its princes will be nothing.

Isaiah 34:13-15
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(13)  Thorns shall grow up in its
palaces, nettles and briers in its
strongholds. It shall be a home of
jackals an abode of ostriches.
And thorns shall spring up in their
cities, and in her strong holds: and
they shall be habitations of
monsters, and a court for ostriches.
And in her palaces shall come up thorns, and nettles and thistles in her strong fortresses: and she shall become a habitation of jackals, a place for ostriches.
(14)  Wildcats shall meet hyenas,
Goat-demons shall greet each other;
there too the Lilith shall repose and
find herself a resting place.
And devils shall meet with satyrs,
and they shall cry one to the other:
there shall satyrs rest, having found
for themselves a place of rest.
And the fearsome beasts shall meet with the wildcats, and the demons shall sport with one another; yea, there shall the night-demons dwell, and shall find them a place of rest
(15)  There the arrow-snake shall
nest and lay eggs, and shall brood
and hatch in its shade. There too
the buzzards shall gather with one
another.
There has the hedgehog made its
nest, and the earth has safely
preserved its young: there have the
deer met, and seen one another’s
faces.
There shall the hedgehog make its nest, and lay, and their young ones will chirp in her shadow; yea, there shall the kites be gathered, each one to its mate.
From the NKJV
(13)   And thorns shall come up in its palaces, nettles and brambles in its fortresses; it shall be a habitation of jackals, a courtyard for ostriches.  (14)   The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the jackals, and the wild goat shall bleat to its companion; also the night creature shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest.    (15)   There the arrow snake shall make her nest and lay eggs and hatch, and gather them under her shadow; there also shall the hawks be gathered, every one with her mate.

The allusion to the monarchy and the lofty electoral dignity leads the prophet on to the palaces and castles of  the land.  Starting with these,  he carries out the picture of  the ruins in verses 13-15.

The word tsiyyim  (wild beasts of the desert) -  a particular species of animals to be named. This is the interpretation given by Rashi (in loc.) and Kimchi in Jer 50:39 to the Targum word tamvân.  We do not render 'iyyiim "wild cats",  but "jackals,"  lit. the creature of the night,  was a female demon (sheedâh)  of the popular mythology;  according to the legends,  it was a malicious fairy that was especially hurtful to children.  There is life in Edom still;  but what a caricature of  that which once was there!  In the very spot where the princes of  Edom used to proclaim the new king,  satyrs now invite one another to dance (Isa 13:21);  and there kings and princes once slept in their palaces and country houses,  the liiliith (screech owl),  which is most at home in horrible places,  finds,  as though after a prolonged search,  the most convenient and most comfortable resting-place.

Now observe

1. How the places which men have deserted,  and keep at a distance from,  are proper receptacles for other animals,  which the providence of  God takes care of,  and will not neglect.
2. Whom those resemble that are morose,  unsociable,  and unconversable,  and affect a melancholy retirement;  they are like these solitary creatures that take delight in desolations.
3. What a dismal change sin makes;  it turns a fruitful land into barrenness,  a frequented city into a wilderness.
from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(13)  Thorns will grow in its palaces, nettles and thistles in its fortresses. It will be a habitation of jackals, an abode for ostriches.  (14)  Desert cats will meet hyenas, (1Q1sa has an unusual spelling of this word.) and goat-demons will call to each other. There too, liliths will settle, and they will find themselves (the Lilith will settle 1Q1sa,  and it will find itself MT) a place of rest.  (15)  The owl (1Q1sa and MT have different spellings of this word; it occurs only this once in the Bible, and the identity of the animal it designates is disputed.) will make its nest there, and lay, and hatch, and gather under her shade; indeed, indeed, (Not in MT) buzzards will gather there, every one with its mate.

Isaiah 34:16, 17
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(16)  Search and read it in the scroll
of the Lord: not one of these shall
be absent, not one shall miss its
fellow. For His mouth has spoken,
it is His spirit that has assembled
them,
They passed by in full number, and
not one of them perished: they
sought not one another; for the
Lord commanded them, and his
Spirit gathered them.
Seek ye out from the book of the Lord and inquire: no one of them is missing, none lacked her mate; for by his Memra shall they be gathered together, and at his pleasure shall they be brought near.
(17)  and it is He who apportioned it
to them by lot, whose hand divided
it for them with the line. They shall
possess it for all time; they shall
dwell there through the ages.
And he shall cast lots for them, and
his hand has portioned out their
pasture, saying, Ye shall inherit the
land forever: they shall rest on it
through all generations.
And he, by his Memra, hath cast the lot for them, and at his pleasure hath divided unto them by line; forever shall they possess it, for generation and generation shall they dwell therein.
From the NKJV
(16)  Search from the book of the LORD, and read:
"Not one of these shall fail; not one shall lack her mate. For My mouth has commanded it, and His Spirit has gathered them.  (17)  He has cast the lot for them, and His hand has divided it among them with a measuring line.  They shall possess it forever; from generation to generation they shall dwell in it."

The book of the Lord.  This proves there was a book in existence,  which could be searched.
Whenever any one compared the prophecy with the fulfillment,  they would be found to coincide.

The phrase `al (OT:5921) kaatab (OT:3789)  is used for entering in a book, inasmuch as what is written there is placed upon the page;
and mee`al (OT:5921) daarash (OT:1875) (used here) for searching in a book,  inasmuch as a person leans over the book when searching in it,  and gets the object of  his search out of it.
The prophet applied the title  "The Book of  Jehovah"  to his collection of  the prophecies with which Jehovah had inspired him,  and which He had commanded him to write down.

Whoever lived to see the time when the judgment should come upon Edom,

would have only to look inquiringly into this Holy Scripture;
and if  he compared what was predicted there with what had been actually realized,
he would find the most exact agreement between them.

The creatures named,   which loved to frequent the marshes and solitary places,  and ruins,  would all really make their homes in what had once been Edom.  But the satyrs and the liiliith,  which were only the offspring of  the popular belief - what of them?  They,  too,  would be there;  for in the sense intended by the prophet they were actual devils,  which he merely calls by well-known popular names to produce a spectral impression.

Edom would really become a rendezvous for all the animals mentioned,  as well as for such unearthly spirits as those that he refers to here.  The prophet,  or rather Jehovah,  whose temporary organ Isaiah was,  still further confirms this by saying,  "My mouth hath commanded it,  and His breath has brought them (all these creatures) together."

In the second part of verse 16 the prophet is speaking of  Jehovah;
whereas in the first Jehovah speaks through the prophet.

As the first creating word proceeded from the mouth of  Jehovah,  so also does the word of  prophecy,  which resembles such a word;  and the breath of  the mouth of  Jehovah,  i.e.,  His Spirit,  is the power which accomplishes the fiat of  prophecy,  as it did that of  creation,  and moulds all creatures and their history according to the will and counsel of  God (Ps 33:6).

Psalm 33:6-9
By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and all the host of them by the breath of His mouth.   He gathers the waters of the sea together as a heap;  He lays up the deep in storehouses.
Let all the earth fear the LORD; let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of Him.  For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast.     (NKJV)
 

A prelude of  the fulfillment of  this swept over the mountainous land of  Edom immediately after the destruction of  Jerusalem;  and it has never risen to its previous state of  cultivation again.
It swarmed with snakes,  and the desolate mountain heights and wild crows and eagles only inhabited barren tablelands,  and great flocks of  birds.
But the ultimate fulfillment,  to which the appeal in verse 16 refers,  is still in the future,  and will eventually fall upon the abodes of  those who spiritually belong to that circle of  hostility to Jehovah (Jesus) and His church,  of which ancient Edom was merely the center fixed by the prophet.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(16)  Study and read from the book of the Lord: and not one (not one of them MT) will be missing, each its mate. (none of them lacks a mate MT) For it is his (my MT) mouth that has commanded, and it is his spirit that has gathered them. (Masculine 1Q1sa. Feminine MT)   (17)  It is he who has cast the lot for them, and his hands (hand MT.) divided it for them with the line forever. (1Q1sa. the line. Forever they will possess it; from generation to generation will they dwell in it.)


THE  FUTURE  GLORY  OF  ZION

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Isaiah 35:1-10
Jehovah: The King In His Glory

 

 

Isaiah 35:1,2 The Land
Isaiah 35:3-6- The People
Isaiah 35:-6-8- The Land
Isaiah 35:-8 The People
Isaiah 35:9- The Land
Isaiah 35:-9-10 The People
This is called an alternation.
The Bible is full of  Structures which I call the fingerprint of God.

Isaiah 35:1, 2
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(1)  The arid desert shall be glad;
the wilderness shall rejoice and
shall blossom like a rise.
Be glad, thou thirsty desert: let the
wilderness exult, and flower as the
lily.
They that dwell in the wilderness, in a thirsty land, shall rejoice, and they that inhabit the desert shall shout for joy and blossom as the lilies.
(2)  It shall blossom abundantly, it
shall also exult and shout. It shall
receive the glory of Lebanon, the
splendor of Carmel and Sharon.
They shall behold the glory of the
Lord, the splendor of our God.
And the desert places of Jordan shall
blossom and rejoice; the glory of
Libanus has been given to it, and
the honor of Carmel; and my people
shall see the glory of the Lord and
the majesty of God.
They shall greatly exult, and rejoice even with joy and gladness; the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto them, the splendor of Carmel and Sharon: the house of Israel, to whom these things were promised, they shall see the glory of the Lord, the glorious splendor of our God.
From the NKJV
(1)  The wilderness and the wasteland shall be glad for them, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose;   (2)   it shall blossom abundantly and rejoice, even with joy and singing.  The glory of Lebanon shall be given to it, the excellence of Carmel and Sharon.  They shall see the glory of the LORD, the excellency of our God.

The wilderness and the wasteland - the land of  Edom referred to in Isa. 34:9-16.
While Edom becomes a waste,  the Land becomes a paradise;  and the way of  the return thither a peaceful highway.

Shall be glad for them = shall rejoice over them - the noisome creatures of  Isa. 34:14-16,  which were the evidences of  the vengeance of  Isa. 34:8 and the glorious results as seen in Isa. 35:4.

The former portrays one aspect of  it,  and the latter the other.
The wilderness is glad for the removal of  the Edomite’s,  of  which removal the presence of  the wild creatures (Isa. 34:13-17) was the token.
The desert shall rejoice,  and blossom abundantly.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  The wilderness and the dry land will rejoice, the desert will celebrate and blossom like the crocus. (2)  It will blossom luxuriantly and rejoice greatly with joy and song. The glory of Lebanon will be given to it, the splendor of Carmel and Sharon. They will see the glory of the Lord, the splendor of our God.

Isaiah 35:3-7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(3)  Strengthen the hands that are
slack; make firm the tottering knees!
Be strong, ye relaxed hands and
palsied knees.
The prophet said, Strengthen ye the hands that are slack, and confirm the knees that totter.
(4)  Say to the anxious of heart, “Be
strong, fear not; Behold your God!
Requital is coming, the recompense
of God – He Himself is coming to
give you triumph.”
Comfort one another, ye faint
hearted; be strong, fear not; behold,
our God renders judgment, and he
will render it; he will come and save
us.
Bid them that are eager to observe the law, Be strong, fear not; behold your God reveals himself to execute righteous vengeance; an exactor of recompense is Jehovah; he will reveal himself and deliver you.
(5)  Then the eyes of the blind shall
be opened, and the ears of the deaf
shall be unstopped.
Then shall the eyes of the blind be
opened, and the ears of the deaf
shall hear.
Then the eyes of the house of Israel, which were as the eyes of the blind to the law, shall be opened; and their ears, which were as the ears of the deaf in receiving the words of the prophets, shall hearken.
(6)  Then the lame shall leap like a
deer, and the tongue of the dumb
shall shout aloud; for waters shall
burst forth in the desert, streams in
the wilderness.
Then shall the lame man leap as
an hart, and the tongue of the
stammerers shall speak plainly;
for water has burst forth in the
desert, and a channel of water in
a thirsty land.
Then, when they see the exiles of Israel gathered together, and going up to their land, even as swift harts that cannot be restrained, their tongue that was dumb shall sing praises; for waters have broken out in the wilderness, and streams in the desert.
(7)  Torrid earth shall become a pool;
parched land, fountains of water; the
home of jackals, a pasture; the abode
[of ostriches], reeds and rushes.
And the dry land shall become
pools, and a fountain of water shall
be poured into the thirsty land; there
shall there be a joy of birds, ready
habitations and marshes.
And the parched ground shall become pools of water, and the thirsty ground springs of water; at the place where the jackals dwelt, there shall reeds and rushes grow.
From the NKJV
(3)   Strengthen the weak hands, and make firm the feeble knees.
(4)   Say to those who are fearful-hearted,  "Be strong, do not fear! Behold, your God will come with vengeance, with the recompense of God; He will come and save you."
(5)   Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped.
(6)  Then the lame shall leap like a deer, and the tongue of the dumb sing.  For waters shall burst forth in the wilderness, and streams in the desert.   (7)  The parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water; in the habitation of jackals, where each lay, there shall be grass with reeds and rushes.

Hebrews 12:12-13
Therefore strengthen the hands which hang down, and the feeble knees, and make straight paths for your feet, so that what is lame may not be dislocated, but rather be healed.    (NKJV)

Luke 7:20-22
So the men came to Jesus and said,  "John the Baptist sent us to You to ask, Are You the one Who is to come, or shall we [continue to] look for another?"
In that very hour Jesus was healing many [people] of sicknesses and distressing bodily plagues and evil spirits, and to many who were blind He gave [a free, gracious, joy-giving gift of] sight.
So He replied to them,  "Go and tell John what you have seen and heard: the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the good news (the Gospel) preached to them." [Isa 29:18,19; 35:5,6; 61:1.]     (AMP)

Edom falls, never to rise again.
Its land is turned into a horrible wilderness.  But,  on the other hand,  the wilderness through which the redeemed Israel returns is changed into a flowery field.

So joyful and so gloriously adorned will the barren desert,  which has been hitherto so mournful,  become,  on account of  the great things that are in store for it.

Lebanon, Carmel, and Sharon have,  as it were,  shared their splendor with the desert,  that all might be clothed alike in festal dress,  when the glory of  Jehovah,  which surpasses everything self in its splendor,  should appear;  that glory which they would not only be privileged to behold,  but of  which they would be honored to be the actual scene.

The prophet now exclaims to the afflicted church,  in language of  unmixed consolation,  that Jehovah is coming.

Those who have become weak in faith,  hopeless and despairing,
are to cheer up.
The stronger are to tell such of  their brethren as are perplexed and timid,
to be comforted now
For Jehovah is coming
nâqâm  - as vengeance - and gemuul 'Eloohiim - as retribution,  such as God the highly exalted and Almighty Judge inflicts.
The infliction of punishment is the immediate object of His coming,  but
the ultimate object is the salvation of His people.

The bodily defects mentioned here there is no reason for regarding as figurative representations of  spiritual defects . The healing of  bodily defects,  however,  is merely the outer side of  what is actually effected by the coming of  Jehovah  (for the other side, comp. Isa 32:3-4).

And so,  also,  the change of  the desert into a field abounding with water is not a mere poetical ornament;  for in the last times,  the era of  redemption,  nature itself will really share in the doxa that proceeds from the manifested God to His redeemed.

The eyes of the blind
When Messiah (Memra) came,  these miracles were the evidence that He had indeed come to save His People (Matthew 11:1-6), but they rejected Him.  Hence,  these with other similar prophecies are in abeyance.

John had based his own claims on Isaiah 40:3 (The voice of one crying in the wilderness: "Prepare the way of Yahweh;  make straight in the desert a highway for our God.)
While Jesus based His claims on the passage before us - Isaiah 35:5,6.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(3)  Strengthen the weak hands, support the stumbling knees.   (4)  Say to those who are disheartened, “Be strong, do not fear; see, your God will bring (come with MT.) Vengeance, he will bring (come with MT) divine recompense to save you.”  (5)  Then the eyes of the blind will be opened, and the ears of the deaf will unclose.   (6)  Then the lame will leap like a deer, and the tongue of the mute will sing. Yes, water will burst out in the wilderness, and streams will run (Not in MT or LXX) through the desert.  (7)  The scorching desert will become a pool, and the thirsting ground fountains of water; in the habitation of jackals, a grassy resting place with ( is her resting place; the grass 1Q1sa. will become MT) reeds and rushes.

Isaiah 35:8-10
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(8)  And a highway shall appear
there, which shall be called the
Sacred Way. No one unclean shall
pass along it, but it shall be for them.
No traveler, not even fools, shall go
astray.
There shall be there a pure way, and
it shall be called a holy way; and
there shall not pass by there any
unclean person, neither shall there
be there an unclean way; but the
dispersed shall walk on it, and they
shall not go astray.
And a trodden and straight way shall be there; it shall be called the way of holiness; the unclean shall not pass over it, but wayfarers shall not cease, and they that have not been instructed shall not go astray.
(9)  No lion shall be there, no
ferocious beast shall set foot on it –
there shall not be found there. But
the redeemed shall walk it;
And there shall be no lion there,
neither shall any evil beast go up
upon it, nor at all be found there;
but the redeemed and gathered on
the Lord’s behalf, shall walk in it,
No king that doeth evil shall be there, and no ruler that oppresses shall march thereon; they shall not be found there, but the redeemed shall walk there:
(10)  and the ransomed of the Lord
shall return, and come with shouting
to Zion, Crowned with joy
everlasting. They shall attain joy
and gladness, while sorrow and
sighing flee.
and shall return, and come to Sion
with joy, and everlasting joy shall
be over their head; for on their head
shall be praise and exultation, and
joy shall take possession of them:
sorrow and pain, and groaning have
fled away.
and the redeemed of the Lord shall be gathered together from among the exiles, and shall enter into Zion with a song; everlasting joy shall they have that ceases not, and a cloud of glory shall cover their heads; gladness and joy shall they find, and sorrow and sighing shall cease from them, even from the house of Israel.
From the NKJV
(8)   A highway shall be there, and a road, and it shall be called the Highway of Holiness.  The unclean shall not pass over it, but it shall be for others.  Whoever walks the road, although a fool, shall not go astray.  (9)  No lion shall be there, nor shall any ravenous beast go up on it; it shall not be found there.  But the redeemed shall walk there,  (10)   and the ransomed of the LORD shall return, and come to Zion with singing, with everlasting joy on their heads.  They shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away.

In the midst of such miracles,  by which all nature is glorified,  the people of  Jehovah are redeemed,  and led home to Zion.  Not only unclean persons from among the heathen,  but even unclean persons belonging to Israel itself,  will never pass along that holy road;  none but the church purified and sanctified through sufferings,  and those connected with it.

laamow (OT:3807) (whoever),  to them,  and to them alone,  does this road belong,  which Jehovah has made and secured,  and which so readily strikes the eye,  that even an idiot could not miss it.

Everlasting joy soars above their head;  they lay fast hold of  delight and joy  (compare on Isa 13:8),  so that it never departs from them.  On the other hand,  sorrow and sighing flee away.

The whole of verse 10 is like a mosaic from Isa 51:11; 61:7; 51:3;  and what is affirmed of  the holy road,  is also affirmed in Isa 52:1 of  the holy city.

Isaiah 51:11
So the ransomed of the LORD shall return, and come to Zion with singing, with everlasting joy on their heads.  They shall obtain joy and gladness; sorrow and sighing shall flee away.
Isaiah 51:3
For the LORD will comfort Zion, He will comfort all her waste places; He will make her wilderness like Eden, and her desert like the garden of the LORD; joy and gladness will be found in it, thanksgiving and the voice of melody.
Isaiah 61:7
Instead of your shame you shall have double honor, and instead of confusion they shall rejoice in their portion. Therefore in their land they shall possess double; everlasting joy shall be theirs.
A prelude of  the fulfillment is seen in what Ezra speaks of  with gratitude to God in Ezra 8:31.
Ezra 8:31
Then we departed from the river of Ahava on the twelfth day of the first month, to go to Jerusalem. And the hand of our God was upon us, and He delivered us from the hand of the enemy and from ambush along the road.

The whole chapter is,  in every part,  both in thought and language,  a prelude of  that book of  consolation for the exiles in their captivity.  Not only in its spiritual New Testament thoughts,  but also in its ethereal language,  soaring high as it does in majestic softness and light,  the prophecy has now reached the highest point of  its development.

Titus 3:3-7
For we ourselves were also once foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving various lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful and hating one another.  But when the kindness and the love of God our Savior toward man appeared,  not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to His mercy He saved us, through the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit,  whom He poured out on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior,  that having been justified by His grace we should become heirs according to the hope of eternal life.     (NKJV)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(8)  A highway will be there, and they will call it (it will be called MT) The Holy Way. (Mt, unlike 1Q1sa, repeats Way) The unclean will not pass over it; it and for whomever is traveling, (1Q1sa. but it will be for them; travelers MT) even fools, will not go astray.  (9)  There will be no lion or violent beast there; it will not come up on it, and it will not be found there. But the redeemed will walk,  (10)  and the ransomed of the Lord will return and enter Zion with singing. Everlasting joy will be upon their heads. They will attain joy and happiness, and sorrow and mourning will flee away.


SENNACHERIB  BOASTS  AGAINST  YAHWEH

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Fulfillments Of  Prophecy
And Prophecies Belonging To The Fourteenth Year Of Hezekiah's Reign
And The Times Immediately Following

To the first six books of  Isaiah's prophecies there is now appended a seventh.

1 Isaiah chapters 1-6 Book of Hardening
 
Apart from chapter 1,  which belonged to the times of  Uzziah and Jotham,  we saw Israel's day of grace brought to an end.
2 Isaiah chapters 7-12 Book of Immanuel
 
From the time of Ahaz,  we saw the judgment of hardening and destruction in its first stage of accomplishment;  but Immanuel was pledge that,  even if the great mass should perish,  neither the whole of  Israel nor the house of  David would be destroyed.
3 Isaiah chapters 13-23 Book Concerning the Nations
 
From the time of Ahaz and Hezekiah, the separate judgments through which the way was to be prepared for the kingdom of Immanuel.
4 Isaiah chapters 24-27 Book  of the Great Catastrophe
 
After the fifteenth year of Hezekiah the general judgment in which they would issue, and after which a new Israel would triumph, is foretold.
5 Isaiah chapters 28-33 Book of Woes, or of the Precious Corner-stone
 
Chapters 28-32 from the first years of Hezekiah, and 33 from the fourteenth year. Shows how Ephraim succumbs to the power of Asshur, and Judah's trust in Egypt is put to shame.
6 Isaiah chapters 34-35 Book of the Judgment upon Edom and Restoration of Israel
 
After Hezekiah's fifteenth year. Shows how the world, with its hostility to the church, eventually succumbs to the vengeance of Jehovah, whereas the church itself is redeemed and glorified.
7 Isaiah chapters 36-39 Book of Histories
 
Returns from the ideal distances of chapters 34-35 to the historical realities of chapter 33,  and begins by stating that  "at the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of  the fuller's field,"  where Ahaz had formerly preferred the help of  Asshur to that of  Jehovah,  there stood an embassy from the king of  Asshur with a detachment of  his army (Isa 36:2),  scornfully demanding the surrender of Jerusalem.

Isaiah 36:1, 2
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(1)  In the fourteenth year of King
Hezekiah, King Sennacherib of
Assyria marched against all the
fortified towns of Judah and seized
them.
Now it came to pass in the fourteenth
year of the reign of Ezekias, that
Sennacherim, king of the Assyrians,
came up against the strong cities of
Judea, and took them.
Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, that Sennacherib king of Assyria went up against all the fenced cities of the house of Judah and took them.
(2)  From Lachish, the king of Assyria
sent the Rabshakeh, with a large force,
to King Hezekiah in Jerusalem [The
Rabshakeh] took up a position near
the conduit of the Upper Pool, by the
road of the Fuller’s Field;
And the king of the Assyrians sent
Rabsaces out of Laches to Jerusalem
to king Ezekias with a large force: and
he stood by the conduit of the upper
pool in the way of the fuller’s field.
And the king of Assyria sent Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem unto king Hezekiah with great armies. And he stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is in the way of the field where the fullers spread out the clothes.
From the NKJV
(1)  Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah that Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and took them.  (2)  Then the king of Assyria sent the Rabshakeh with a great army from Lachish to King Hezekiah at Jerusalem. And he stood by the aqueduct from the upper pool, on the highway to the Fuller's Field.

Isaiah 36:1-37:7
First Assyrian Attempt to Compel the Surrender of  Jerusalem

Marcus v. Niebuhr,  in his History of  Asshur and Babel (p. 164), says,
"Why should not Hezekiah have revolted from Asshur as soon as he ascended the throne?  He had a motive for doing this,  which other kings had not - namely,  that as he held his kingdom in belief  from his God,  obedience to a temporal monarch was in his case sin."
But this assumption,  which is founded upon the same idea as that,  in which the question was put to Jesus concerning the tribute money,  is not at all in accordance with Isaiah's view,  as we may see from chapters 28-32;  and Hezekiah's revolt cannot have occurred even in the sixth year of  his reign.

For Shalmanassar,  or rather Sargon,  made war upon Egypt and Ethiopia after the destruction of  Samaria,  without attempting anything against Hezekiah.  It was not till the time of  Sargon,  who overthrew the reigning house of  Assyria,  that the actual preparations for the revolt were commenced,  by the formation of an alliance between the kingdom of  Judah on the one hand,  and Egypt,  and probably Philistia,  on the other,  the object of  which was the rupture of  the Assyrian yoke.

The campaign of  Sennacherib the son of  Sargon,  into which we are transported in the following history,  was the third of  his expeditions,  the one to which Sennacherib himself refers in the Cuneiform inscription upon the prism: "dans ma 3 e campagne je marchai vers la Syrie."   The position that we find Sennacherib taking up between Philistia and Jerusalem,  to the southwest of  Jerusalem,  is a very characteristic one in relation to both the occasion and the ultimate object of the campaign.

(Note: We shall show the variations in the text of 2 Kings 18:13 ff., as far as we possibly can, in our translation. K. Signifies the book of Kings. But the task of pronouncing an infallible sentence upon them all we shall leave to those who know everything.) "And it came to pass in the (K. and in the) fourteenth year of king Hizkîyahu, Sancherîb king of Asshur came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them. (K. Adds: Then Hizkiyah king of Judah sent to the king of Asshur to Lachish, saying, I have sinned, withdraw from me again; what thou imposes upon me I will raise.

Compare 2 Kings 18:13-20:19,  on which Isaiah is not dependent,  and 2 Chron. 32:1-33, which is not dependent on either. This history is a proof of  Isaiah’s prophetic mission and gifts.
History and prophecy are thus combined: for the latter is history foretold, and the former is (in this and many cases) prophecy fulfilled:  the two accounts being perfectly independent.

Rabshakeh
In 2 Kings 18:17,  it is said that he sent Tartan,  and Rabsaris,  and Rabshakeh.
It is probable that Rabshakeh only is mentioned in Isaiah because the expedition may have been mainly under his direction,  or more probably because he was the principal speaker on the occasion to which he refers.

From Lachish
This was a city in the south of the tribe of  Judah,  and was southwest of  Jerusalem.

It was situated in a plain,  and was the seat of  an ancient Canaanite king.  It was rebuilt and fortified by Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:9).
It was in some respects a border town,  and was a defense against the incursions of  the Philistines.
It was therefore situated between Jerusalem and Egypt,  and was in the direct way of  Sennacherib in his going to Egypt,  and on his return.
It lay,  according to Eusebius and Jerome,  seven Roman miles from Eleutheropolis toward the south.
No trace of the town, however, is now to be found (see Robinson's "Bib. Researches," vol. ii. pp. 388, 389).
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)   In the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah  Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and took them.  (2)  The king of  Assyria sent the Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem (1Q1sa and MT use variant spellings) to King Hezekiah with a very large army. He stood by the conduit of the upper pool on the highway of Fuller’s Field.

Isaiah 36:3-10
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum
(3)   And Eliakim son of Hilkiah who
was in charge of the palace, Shebna
the scribe, and Joah son of Asaph
the recorder went out to him.
And there went forth to him Heliakim
the steward, the son of Chelcias, and
Somnas the scribe, and Joach the son
of Asaph, the recorder
Then came forth unto him Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was set over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph, who was set over the records.
(4)   The Rabshakeh said to them,
“You tell Hezekiah: Thus said the
Great King, the king of Assyria:
What makes you so confident?
And Rabsaces said to them, Say to
Ezekias, Thus says the great king,
the king of the Assyrians, Why art
thou secure?
And Rabshakeh said unto them, Say ye now to Hezekiah, Thus saith the mighty king, the king of Assyria, What trust is this wherein thou trusts?
(5)   I suppose mere talk makes
counsel and valor for war! Look, on
whom are you relying, that you have
rebelled against me?
Is war carried on with counsel and
mere words of the lips? And now
on whom dost thou trust, that thou
rebel against me?
I say, yea, with speech, with counsel, and with might will I make war; now on whom dost thou trust that thou hast rebelled against me?
(6)   You are relying on Egypt that
splintered reed of a staff, which
enters and punctures the palm of
anyone who leans on it. That’s what
Pharaoh king of Egypt is like to all
who rely on him.
Behold, thou trust on this bruised
staff of reed, on Egypt: as soon as a
man leans upon it, it shall go into his
hand, and pierce it: so is Pharao king
of Egypt and all that trust in him.
Behold, thou trusts in the support of this broken reed, even upon Pharaoh king of Egypt, whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand and pierce it: so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust in him.
(7)   And if you tell me that you are
relying on the Lord your God, He is
the very one whose shrines and
altars Hezekiah did away with,
telling Judah and Jerusalem, ‘You
must worship only at this altar!”
But if ye say, We trust in the Lord
our God;
And if ye say unto me, On the Memra of the Lord our God do we trust: is not that he whose high places and altars Hezekiah hath removed, and hath said to the men of Judah and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Before this altar shall ye worship?
(8)   Come now, make this wager with
my master, the king of Assyria: I’ll
give you two thousand horses, if
you can produce riders to mount
them.
yet now make an agreement with my
lord the king of the Assyrians, and I
will give you two thousand horses,
if ye shall be able to set riders upon
them.
Now therefore exchange pledges with my master the king of Assyria, and I will give you two thousand horses, if thou be able on thy part to set riders upon them.
(9)   So how could you refuse
anything, even to the deputy of one
of my master’s lesser servants,
relying on Egypt for chariots and
horsemen?
And how can ye then turn to the face
of the (or, local governors.) satraps?
They that trust on the Egyptians for
horse and rider are our servants.
How then dost thou think to turn away the face of one of the least of the captains of my master, and do put thy trust on the Egyptians for chariots and for horsemen?
(10)  And do you think I have
marched against this land to destroy
it without the Lord? The Lord Himself
told me: Go up against that land and
destroy it.”
And now, Have we come up against
this land to fight against it without
the Lord? The Lord said to me, Go
up against this land, and destroy it.
And am I now come up without the Memra of the Lord against this land, and destroy it.
From the NKJV
(3)   And Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, who was over the household, Shebna the scribe, and Joah the son of Asaph, the recorder, came out to him.
(4)   Then the Rabshakeh said to them, "Say now to Hezekiah, 'Thus says the great king, the king of Assyria: "What confidence is this in which you trust?   (5)   I say you speak of having plans and power for war; but they are mere words. Now in whom do you trust, that you rebel against me?   (6)   Look! You are trusting in the staff of this broken reed, Egypt, on which if a man leans, it will go into his hand and pierce it. So is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all who trust in him.
(7)   "But if you say to me, 'We trust in the LORD our God,' is it not He whose high places and whose altars Hezekiah has taken away, and said to Judah and Jerusalem, 'You shall worship before this altar'?"'   (8)   Now therefore, I urge you, give a pledge to my master the king of Assyria, and I will give you two thousand horses — if you are able on your part to put riders on them!   (9)   How then will you repel one captain of the least of my master's servants, and put your trust in Egypt for chariots and horsemen?   (10)   Have I now come up without the LORD against this land to destroy it? The LORD said to me, 'Go up against this land, and destroy it.'"

Hezekiah's confidential ministers go there also.
On the office of  the house-minister,  or major-domo,  which was now filled by Eliakim instead of  Shebna.

The chronicler has a portion of  this address of  Rabshakeh in 2 Chron 32:10-12.
And just as the prophetic words in the book of  Kings have a Deuteronomic sound,  and those in the Chronicles the ring of a chronicle,  so do Rabshakeh's words,  and those which follow,  sound like the words of  Isaiah himself.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

In the staff of this broken reed
The same comparison of  Egypt with a broken reed,  or a reed which broke while they were trusting to it. Reeds were doubtless used often for staves.  They were light and hollow,  with long joints.  The idea here is,  that as a slender reed would break when a man leaned on it,  and would pierce his hand,  so it would be with Egypt.  Their reliance would give way,  and their trusting to Egypt would be attended with injury to themselves (compare Isaiah 30:5,7; 31:3).
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

High places
The worship of  idols was usually performed in groves on high places;  or on the tops of hills and mountains.
It seems to have been supposed that worship in such places was more acceptable to the Deity.  Chapels,  temples,  and altars,  were erected on such places,  and ministers and priests attended there to officiate.

Even the kings of  Judah,  notwithstanding the express prohibition of  Moses (Deuteronomy 12),  were engaged in such acts of  worship (2 Kings 12:4; 14:4; 15:4,35; 2 Chronicles 15:17; 20:33).
Solomon himself sacrificed in chapels of  this kind (1 Kings 3:2).
These places Hezekiah had destroyed;  that is,  he had cut down the consecrated groves,  and had destroyed the chapels and temples which had been erected there.  The fact that Ahaz,  the father of  Hezekiah,  had been distinguished for worshipping in such places had probably led the king of  Assyria to suppose that this was the proper worship of  the God of  the Jews;  and now that Hezekiah had destroyed them all, he seems to have inferred that he was guilty of  gross irreligion,  and could no longer depend on the protection of Yahweh.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Give a pledge
 The Hebrew verb `aarab (OT:6148) (hostages) means properly

to mix or mingle;
then, to exchange commodities by barter or traffic;
then, to become surety for anyone, to exchange with him, to stand in his place;
then, to pledge, to pledge one's life, or to give security of any kind.
Here it is used in a spirit of  taunting or derision,  and is equivalent to what would be said among us,  'I will bet you," or  I will lay a wager,  that if we should give you only two thousand horses,  you could not find men enough to ride them,  or men that had knowledge of  horsemanship enough to guide them.'
There was much severity in this taunt.  The Jews hoped to defend themselves.  Yet here was an immense army coming up to lay siege against them.  What hope had they of defense?  So weak and feeble were they,  that Rabshakeh said they could not furnish even two thousand horsemen to resist all the host of  the Assyrians.  There was also,  doubtless,  much truth in this taunt.
It was not permitted by the law of Moses for the Jews to keep cavalry, nor for their kings to multiply horses. The reason of this may be seen in the notes at Isaiah 2:7. Though some of the kings, and especially Solomon, had disregarded this law of Moses, yet Hezekiah had endeavored to restore the observance of the law, and it is probable that he find no cavalry, and that the art of horsemanship was little known in Jerusalem.
As the Assyrians prided themselves on their cavalry, they consequently looked with contempt on a people who were destitute of this means of defense.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Captain of the least
The word  'captain'  here pachat (OT:6346),  denotes a Prefect or Governor of  a province less than a Satrap,  an officer who was under the Satrap, and subject to him.
It is applied to an officer in

the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 18:24)
the Chaldean empire (Jeremiah 51:23)
the Persian empire (Esther 8:9; 9:3)
and to the Prefects of Judea in the time of Solomon (1 Kings 10:15).
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Have I now come up without the LORD
A boastful inference from the past successes of  Assyria,  designed to influence the Jews to surrender - their own principles bound them to yield to Yahweh's will.  He may have heard from partisans in Judah,  and deserters,  if he was not one himself,  what Isaiah had foretold (Isaiah 10:5-6).
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Or it may be that he uses the name Yahweh here as synonymous with the name of  GOD,  and means to say that he had been divinely directed to come up in that expedition.  All the ancient warriors usually consulted the gods,  and endeavored by auguries to obtain the divine approbation of  their plans of  conquest,  and Rabshakeh may mean simply to say that his master came now under the divine sanction and direction.

Or,  he made use of  this as a mere pretence for the purpose of  influencing the people who heard him, and to whom he said he was sent  (Isaiah 36:12),  in order to alienate their minds from Hezekiah,  and to induce them to surrender.  He knew that it was one of  the principles of  the Jews,  however little they regarded it in practice,  to yield to his authority.  Wicked people will be glad to plead divine authority for their purposes and plans when they can have the slightest pretence for it.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(3)   Eliakim son of Hilkiah, who was over the household, Shebna the scribe, and Joah son of Asaph the recorder came out to him.   (4)   The Rabshakeh said to them, “Say to Hezekiah king of Judah, ‘Thus says the great king, the king of Assyria: What is this source of confidence that you yourself are trusting in?   (5)   Do you think that words alone equate to counsel and strength for battle? Now in whom do you trust, that you have rebelled against me?   (6)  Indeed, you are depending on Egypt, that broken reed of a staff, which pierces the palm of anyone who leans on it: so is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all who trust in him.’
(7)   “But if you (Plural 1Q1sa and LXX. Singular MT.) say to me,  ‘We trust in the Lord our God’ – is he not the one whose high places and altars Hezekiah removed, after which he said to Judah and Jerusalem. ‘You will worship before this altar in Jerusalem?  –  (8)  Come now, make a wager (Plural verb 1Q1sa and LXX. Singular in MT) with my lord, the king of Assyria. I will give you two thousand horses, if you are able to supply riders for them.  (9)  How can you reject one captain from among the least of my master’s servants, and entrust yourselves (yourself MT) to Egypt for chariots and horsemen?  (10)   Now do you think that it is without the Lord that I have come up against this land to destroy it? It was the Lord who said to me, ‘Go up to this land to destroy it.’“


LESSON  16  FROM  THE  AMPLIFIED  VERSION

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Isaiah 34:1 - 36:10 - from the Amplified Version

34:1    COME NEAR, you nations, to hear; and hearken, you peoples! Let the earth hear, and all that is in it; the world, and all things that come forth from it.
(2)    For the Lord is indignant against all nations, and His wrath is against all their host. He has utterly doomed them, He has given them over to slaughter.
(3)    Their slain also shall be cast out, and the stench of their dead bodies shall rise, and the mountains shall flow with their blood.
(4)    All the host of the heavens shall be dissolved and crumble away, and the skies shall be rolled together like a scroll; and all their host [the stars and the planets] shall drop like a faded leaf from the vine, and like a withered fig from the fig tree. [Revelation 6:13,14.]
(5)    Because My sword has been bathed and equipped in heaven, behold, it shall come down upon Edom [the descendants of Esau], upon the people whom I have doomed for judgment. [Obadiah 8-21.]
(6)    The sword of the Lord is filled with blood [of sacrifices], it is gorged and greased with fatness — with the blood of lambs and goats, with the fat of the kidneys of rams. For the Lord has a sacrifice in Bozrah [capital of Edom] and a great slaughter in the land of Edom.
(7)    And the wild oxen shall fall with them, and the [young] bullocks with the [old and mighty] bulls; and their land shall be drunk and soaked with blood, and their dust made rich with fatness.
(8)    For the Lord has a day of vengeance, a year of recompense, for the cause of Zion.
(9)    And the streams [of Edom] will be turned into pitch and its dust into brimstone, and its land will become burning pitch.
(10)  [The burning of Edom] shall not be quenched night or day; its smoke shall go up forever. From generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it forever and ever. [Revelation 19:3.]
(11)  But the pelican and the porcupine will possess it; the owl and the bittern and the raven will dwell in it. And He will stretch over it [Edom] the measuring line of confusion and the plummet stones of chaos [over its nobles].
(12)  They shall call its nobles to proclaim the kingdom, but nothing shall be there, and all its princes shall be no more.
(13)  And thorns shall come up in its palaces and strongholds, nettles and brambles in its fortresses; and it shall be a habitation for jackals, an abode for ostriches.
(14)  And the wild beasts of the desert will meet here with howling creatures [wolves and hyenas] and the [shaggy] wild goat will call to his fellow; the night monster will settle there and find a place of rest.
(15)  There shall the arrow snake make her nest and lay her eggs and hatch them and gather her young under her shade; there shall the kites be gathered [also to breed] every one with its mate.
(16)  Seek out of the book of the Lord and read: not one of these [details of prophecy] shall fail, none shall want and lack her mate [in fulfillment]. For the mouth [of the Lord] has commanded, and His Spirit has gathered them.
(17)  And He has cast the lot for them, and His hand has portioned [Edom] to [the wild beasts] by measuring line. They shall possess it forever; from generation to generation they shall dwell in it.

35:1    THE WILDERNESS and the dry land shall be glad; the desert shall rejoice and blossom like the rose and the autumn crocus.
(2)    It shall blossom abundantly and rejoice even with joy and singing. The glory of Lebanon shall be given to it, the excellency of [Mount] Carmel and [the plain] of Sharon. They shall see the glory of the Lord, the majesty and splendor and excellency of our God.
(3)    Strengthen the weak hands and make firm the feeble and tottering knees. [Hebrews 12:12.]
(4)    Say to those who are of a fearful and hasty heart, Be strong, fear not! Behold, your God will come with vengeance; with the recompense of God He will come and save you.
(5)    Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped.
(6)    Then shall the lame man leap like a hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing for joy. For waters shall break forth in the wilderness and streams in the desert. [Matthew 11:5.]
(7)    And the burning sand and the mirage shall become a pool, and the thirsty ground springs of water; in the haunt of jackals, where they lay resting, shall be grass with reeds and rushes.
(8)    And a highway shall be there, and a way; and it shall be called the Holy Way. The unclean shall not pass over it, but it shall be for the redeemed; the wayfaring men, yes, the simple ones and fools, shall not err in it and lose their way.
(9)    No lion shall be there, nor shall any ravenous beast come up on it; they shall not be found there. But the redeemed shall walk on it.
(10)  And the ransomed of the Lord shall return and come to Zion with singing, and everlasting joy shall be upon their heads; they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away.

36:1    NOW IN the fourteenth year of King Hezekiah, Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and took them. [2 Kings 18:13,17-37; 2 Chronicles 32:9-19.]
(2)    And the king of Assyria sent the Rabshakeh [the military official] from Lachish [the Judean fortress commanding the road from Egypt] to King Hezekiah at Jerusalem with a great army. And he stood by the canal of the Upper Pool on the highway to the Fuller's Field.
(3)    Then came out to meet him Eliakim son of Hilkiah, who was over the [royal] household, and Shebna the secretary, and Joah son of Asaph, the recording historian.
(4)    And the Rabshakeh said to them, Say to Hezekiah, Thus says the great king, the king of Assyria: What reason for confidence is this in which you trust?
(5)    Do you suppose that mere words of the lips can pass for warlike counsel and strength? Now in whom do you trust and on whom do you rely, that you rebel against me? [2 Kings 18:7.]
(6)    Behold, you trust in the staff of this bruised and broken reed, Egypt, which will pierce the hand of any man who leans on it. So is Pharaoh king of Egypt to all who trust and rely on him.
(7)    But if you say to me, We trust in and rely on the Lord our God — is it not He Whose high places and Whose altars Hezekiah has taken away, saying to Judah and to Jerusalem, You shall worship before this altar? [2 Kings 18:4,5.]
(8)     Now therefore, I pray you, make a wager with my master the king of Assyria and give him pledges, and I will give you two thousand horses — if you are able on your part to put riders on them.
(9)    How then can you repulse the attack of a single captain of the least of my master's servants, when you put your reliance on Egypt for chariots and for horsemen?
(10)  Moreover, is it without the Lord that I have now come up against this land to destroy it? The Lord said to me, Go up against this land and destroy it.
 

(End of  Lesson 16)


  

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