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ISAIAH
The Gospel To Israel
Book 2

LESSON  TWENTY
Isaiah 41:14 - 42:13

Isaiah 41:14-16
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(14) Fear not, O worm Jacob, O men of  Israel: I will help you – declares the Lord - I your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.

Fear not, Jacob, and thou Israel few in number; I have helped thee, saith thy God, he that redeems thee, O Israel.

Fear not, ye tribes of the house of Jacob, ye families of the house of Israel; my Memra shall support you, saith the Lord, and your savior is, the Holy One of Israel.

(15) I will make of you a threshing board, a new thresher, with many spikes; you shall thresh mountains to dust, and make hills like chaff.

Behold, I have made thee as new saw shaped threshing wheels of a wagon; and thou shalt thresh the mountains, and beat the hills to powder, and make them as chaff:

Behold I have made thee a strong threshing instrument, new, full of spikes: thou shalt slay the nations, and destroy them, and shalt make the kingdoms as chaff.

(16) You shall winnow them and the wind shall carry them off; the whirlwind shall scatter them. But you shall rejoice in the Lord, and glory in the Holy One of Israel.

and thou shalt winnow them, and the wind shall carry them away, and a tempest shall scatter them: but thou shalt rejoice in the holy ones of Israel.

Thou shalt fan them, and the wind shall carry them away, and my Memra shall scatter them as a whirlwind the stubble; but thou shalt exult in the Memra of the Lord, and glory in the Holy One of Israel.

From the NKJV
(14)  "Fear not, you worm Jacob, you men of Israel!  I will help you," says the LORD and your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.    (15)    "Behold, I will make you into a new threshing sledge with sharp teeth; you shall thresh the mountains and beat them small, and make the hills like chaff.    (16)    You shall winnow them, the wind shall carry them away, and the whirlwind shall scatter them; you shall rejoice in the LORD, and glory in the Holy One of Israel."

The consolatory words,  "Fear not,"  are now repeated,  for the purpose of  once more adding the promise that Israel will not succumb to its foes,  but will acquire power over its enemies.

Israel,  which is now helplessly oppressed,  is called  "worm of Jacob"  in compassion, i.e.,  Jacob that is like a worm,  probably with some allusion to Ps 22:7 (All those who see Me ridicule Me; they shoot out the lip, they shake the head);  for the image of  the Messiah [Memra] enriches itself in these discourses,  inasmuch as Israel itself is looked upon in a Messianic light,  so that the second David does not stand by the side of  Israel,  but appears as Israel's heart,  or true and inmost essence.

They no longer formed the compact mass of  a nation;  the band of  the commonwealth was broken:  they were melted down into a few individuals,  scattered about hither and thither.  But it would not continue so.

Samtiikh - "I will help you"  (perfect of  certainty) -  is Jehovah's solemn declaration;  and the Redeemer of   His now enslaved people is the Holy One of  Israel,  with His love,  which perpetually triumphs over wrath.

Not only will He set it free,
but He will also endow it with might over its oppressors.

Moorag  (a roller - a threshing instrument)  signifies a threshing-sledge,  which has here the term
chaaruwts (OT: 2782) - "sharp" - as a secondary name along with
chaadaash (OT: 2319) - "new" -  and is described as furnished on the under part of  the two arms of  the sledge not only with sharp knives,
piypiyowt (OT:  6374) - "teeth" - but with two-edged knives.

The instrument here referred to was serrated,  or so made as to cut up the straw and separate the grain from the chaff.  The following descriptions from Lowth and Niebuhr,  may serve still further to illustrate the nature of  the instrument here referred to.

The drag consisted of a sort of frame of strong planks made rough at the bottom with hard stones or iron; it was drawn by horses or oxen over the corn-sheaves spread on the floor, the driver sitting upon it. The wain was much like the drag, but had wheels of iron teeth, or edges like a saw. The axle was armed with iron teeth or serrated wheels throughout: it moved upon three rollers armed with iron teeth or wheels, to cut the straw.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Just like such a threshing machine would Israel thresh and grind to powder from that time forth both mountains and hills.  This is evidently a figurative expression for proud and mighty foes,  just as wind and tempest denote the irresistible force of  Jehovah's aid.  The might of  the enemy would be broken down to the very last remnant,  whereas Israel would be able to rejoice and glory in its God.

Tizreem (OT: 2219) - "you shall winnow them" - keeping up the figure commenced in the previous verse.
An operation which was performed by throwing the threshed grain up with a shovel into the air,  so that the wind drove the chaff away.

Uwc`aaraah (OT: 5591) - "whirlwind" - from OT:5590  a hurricane.

So all their enemies,  and all the obstacles which were in their way should be scattered.

By herself Israel was but a feeble worm,  to be despised and stepped on by the world.
But as a yielded instrument in God's hand,  she was to be the means of  overthrowing the mightiest of  the nations and bringing them to ruin.  The prayers of  the faithful unleash the mightiest forces in human history,  and even the invincible armies of  Persia,  Greece,  and Rome would crumble before the decrees of God,  leaving the people of  God triumphant amid their ruins.
(from The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1962 by Moody Press)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(14)  Do not fear, you worm Jacob and People of Israel. I will help you, Says the Lord and your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.  (15)   See, I will make you into a new, sharp, multi-edged thresher. You will thresh and crush mountains and turn the hills to chaff.  (16)  You will winnow them, and the wind will carry them away, and the whirlwind will scatter them. You will rejoice in the Lord, and you will glory in the Holy One of Israel.
See Note in lesson 15 on the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

Isaiah 41:17-20
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(17)  The poor and the needy seek water, and there is none; their tongue is parched with thirst. I the Lord will respond to them. I, the God of Israel, will not forsake them.

And the poor and the needy shall exult: for when they shall seek water, and there shall be none, and their tongue is parched with thirst, I the Lord God, I the God of Israel will hear, and will not forsake them:

As for the humble and needy that desire instruction, even as one that thirsts for water, and find it not, and their spirit faints because of affliction, I the Lord will receive their prayer: I the God of Israel will not cast them away.

(18)  I will open up streams on the bare hills and fountains amid the valleys; I will turn the desert into ponds, the arid land into springs of water.

but I will open rivers on the mountains, and fountains in the midst of plains: I will make the desert pools of water, and a thirsty land watercourses.

I will bring near their exiles from among the nations, and lead them in the right way, and will open rivers unto them upon the steppes, and springs in the midst of the deserts; I will make the wilderness pools of water, and the thirsty land springs of water.

(19)  I will plant cedars in the wilderness, Acacias and myrtles and oleasters; I will set cypresses in the desert, box trees and elms as well –

I will plant in the dry land the cedar and box, the myrtle and cypress, and white poplar:

I will set in the wilderness cedars, acacias, and myrtles, and oil trees; I will cause to grow in the desert fir trees, planes and box trees together:

(20)  that men may see and know, consider and comprehend that the Lord’s hand has done this, that the Holy One of Israel has wrought it.

that they may see, and know, and perceive, and understand together, that the hand of the Lord has wrought these works, and the Holy One of Israel has displayed them.

that they may see, and know, and set my fear in their heart, and understand together, that the might of the Lord hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it.

From the NKJV
(17)  "The poor and needy seek water, but there is none, their tongues fail for thirst.  I, the LORD, will hear them; I, the God of Israel, will not forsake them.   (18)   I will open rivers in desolate heights, and fountains in the midst of the valleys; I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water.   (19)   I will plant in the wilderness the cedar and the acacia tree, the myrtle and the oil tree;  I will set in the desert the cypress tree and the pine and the box tree together,   (20)   that they may see and know, and consider and understand together, that the hand of the LORD has done this, and the Holy One of Israel has created it.

At the present time,  indeed,  the state of  His people was a helpless one,  but its cry for help was not in vain.  Kimchi,  Hitzig,  and others refer these promises to the returning exiles;  but there is also a description,  without any restriction to the return home,  of  the miraculous change which would take place.

The shephâyiim - "desolate heights" - bare,  woodless hills rising up from the plain

Rivers will be opened
The beqâ'ooth - "valleys" -  or deep valleys,  by the sides of  which there rise precipitous mountains
There will be fountains
The midbaar - "wilderness" -  a desert
Will be changed into a pool of water
The 'erets tsiyyâh - "dry land" -  the land of burning heat or drought,
Will be changed to springs of water

Just when they are thus on the point of pining away,  they receive an answer to their prayer:  their God opens streams,  i.e.,  causes streams to break forth on the hills of  the field,  and springs in the midst of  the valleys.  The desert is transformed into a lake,  and the steppe of  burning sand into fountains of  water.  What was predicted in Isa 35:6-7 is echoed again here - a figurative representation of  the manifold fullness of  refreshing,  consolation,  and marvelous help which was to burst all at once upon those who had seemed to be forsaken of  God.

It is not merely a scanty vegetation that springs up,  but a corresponding manifold fullness of  stately,  fragrant,  and shady trees;  so that the steppe,  where neither foot nor eye could find a resting-place,  is changed,  as by a stroke of  magic,  into a large,  dense,  well-watered forest,  and shines with  sevenfold glory - an image of  the many-sided manifestations of  divine grace which are experienced by those who are comforted now.

There are seven trees named;  seven indicating the divine character of  this manifold development.
Cedar

The large and beautiful cedar, with lofty height, and extended branches such as grew on Lebanon
Acacia
Or "shittah" - It is a large tree, growing abundantly in Egypt and Arabia, and is the tree from which the gum-arabic is obtained. It is covered with large black thorns, and the wood is hard, and, when old, resembles ebony.
Myrtle
A tree which rises with a shrubby upright stem, eight or ten feet high. Its branches form a dense, full head, closely garnished with oval lanceolate leaves. It has numerous small pale flowers from the axillas, singly on each footstalk. There are several species of the myrtle, and they are especially distinguished for their forming a dense and close top, and thus constituting a valuable tree for shade. It is a tree that grows with great rapidity
Oil tree
'Tree of oil'  that is,  producing oil.  Doubtless the olive is intended here,  from whose fruit oil was obtained in abundance.  This was a common tree in Palestine,  and was one of  the most valued that grew.
Cyprus
'fir-tree'  There are various kinds of cypress. Some are evergreen, and some are deciduous, as the American white cedar. The wood of these trees is remarkable for its durability. Among the ancients, coffins were made of it, and the tree itself was an emblem of mourning. It is mentioned here because its extended branches and dense foliage would produce a grateful shade.
Pine
The Septuagint renders this leukeen (NT:3022),  And -`The white poplar.'
The Vulgate renders it, 'The elm.'
Gesenius supposes that a species of  hard oak,  holm or ilex,  is intended.  It is not easy, however, to determine what species of tree is meant.
Box-tree
Gesenius supposes that by this word is denoted some tall tree-a species of cedar growing on mount Lebanon that was distinguished by the smallness of its cones, and the upward direction of its branches. The word here denotes a tree-such as was sufficient to constitute a shade.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

The crowded synonyms indicating sensual and spiritual perception in verse 20  (see - know - consider - understand)  are meant to express as strongly as possible the irresistible character of  the impression.
They will be quite unable to regard all this as accidental or self-produced,  or as anything but the production of  the power and grace of  their God - the Holy one of  Israel.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(17)  The poor, the needy, those seeking  (and the needy seeking MT)  water when there is none, whose tongues are parched with thirst – I, the Lord, will answer them. I, the God of Israel, will not abandon them.  (18)   I will open up rivers on the bare heights and fountains in the midst of the valleys. I will make the wilderness a pool of water and the dry land springs of water.  (19)   In the wilderness, I will put the cedar, the acacia, the myrtle, and the olive; in the desert, I will set the cypress, the yew,  (1Q1sa and MT have different spellings of this obscure tree.)  and the elm together;   (20)   so that together they may see and recognize, consider and comprehend, that the hand of the Lord has done this, and the Holy One of Israel created it.



Isaiah 41:21-29
Type - Cyrus

Isaiah 41:21-23 Challenge as to Prediction
Isaiah 41:24 Nothingness
Isaiah 41:25- Cyrus Raised up The Act
Isaiah 41:-25 Cyrus Raised up The Purpose
Isaiah 41:26-28 Challenge as to Prediction
Isaiah 41:29 Nothingness
 
THE  FUTILITY  OF  IDOLS

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Isaiah 41:21-23
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(21)  Submit your case, says the Lord; offer your pleas, says the King of Jacob.

Your judgment draws nigh, saith the Lord God: your counsels have drawn nigh, saith the King of Jacob.

Bring near your cause, saith the Lord; bring forth your evidence, saith the king of Jacob.

(22)  Let them approach and tell us what will happen. Tell us what has occurred, and we will take note of it; or announce to us what will occur, that we may know the outcome.

Let them draw nigh, and declare to you what things shall come to pass; or tell us what things were of old, and we will apply our understanding, and we shall know what are the last and the future things:

Let them draw near, and declare unto us what shall happen unto us; declare ye the former things what they be, that we may pay heed, and know their end; or proclaim to us the things which are about to come.

(23)  Foretell what is yet to happen, that we may know that you are gods! Do anything, good or bad, that we may be awed and see.

tell us, declare ye to us the things that are coming on at the last time, and we shall know that ye are gods: do good, and do evil, and we shall wonder, and see at the same time.

Declare the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know whether ye are serving idols wherein is any profit, whether they can do good or evil, that we may consider, and judge together.

From the NKJV
(21)  "Present your case," says the LORD.  "Bring forth your strong reasons," says the King of Jacob.   (22)   "Let them bring forth and show us what will happen; Let them show the former things, what they were, that we may consider them, and know the latter end of them; or declare to us things to come.   (23)   Show the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that you are gods; yes, do good or do evil, that we may be dismayed and see it together."

There follows now the second stage in the suit.

In the first stage Jehovah appealed,  in support of  His deity,  to the fact that it was He who had called the oppressor of  the nations upon the arena of  history.
There the challenge was addressed to the worshippers of idols.
In this second stage He appeals to the fact that He only knows or can predict the future.
Here the challenge is addressed to the idols themselves.
In both cases both of these are ranged on the one side,  and Jehovah with His people upon the other.

It is with purpose that Jehovah is called the "King of Jacob,” as being the tutelar God of  Israel,  in contrast to the tutelar deities of  the heathen.
The challenge to the latter to establish their deity is first of  all addressed to them directly in verse 21,  and then indirectly in verse 22 a,  where Jehovah connects Himself with His people as the opposing party;  but in verse 22 b He returns again to a direct address.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Jehovah for His part has displayed this knowledge,  inasmuch as,  at the very time when He threatened destruction to the heathen at the hands of  Cyrus,  He consoled His people with the announcement of  their deliverance (vv. 8-20).  It is therefore the turn of  the idol deities now:  "Let them bring forward and announce to us the things that will come to pass."  the general idea of  what is in the future stands at the head.

This is the explanation adopted by Stier and Hahn,  the latter of whom has correctly expounded the word,  as denoting  "the events about to happen first in the immediate future, which it is not so difficult to prognosticate from signs that are discernible in the present."

The choice is given them

either to foretell  "things at the beginning" - that which will take place first
or to foretell  "what they be" - that which will take place next
so that now,  when the achariith, "the latter end"  (i.e., the issue of that which is held out to view),  as prognosticated from the standpoint of  the present,  really occurs,  the prophetic utterance concerning it may be verified;  or  "things to come,"  i.e.,  things further off,  in later times (in the remote future),  the prediction of  which is incomparably more difficult,  because without any point of contact in the present.

1 Kings 18:21
And Elijah came unto all the people, and said, How long halt ye between two opinions? if the LORD be God, follow him: but if Baal, then follow him. And the people answered him not a word.     (KJV)

1 Kings 18:27-29
(27)  At noon Elijah mocked them, saying, Cry aloud, for he is a god; either he is musing, or he has gone aside, or he is on a journey, or perhaps he is asleep and must be awakened.
(28)  And they cried aloud and cut themselves after their custom with knives and lances until the blood gushed out upon them.
(29)  Midday passed, and they played the part of prophets until the time for offering the evening sacrifice, but there was no voice, no answer, no one who paid attention.     (AMP)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(21)   Present your case, says the Lord. Submit your arguments, says the King of Jacob.   (22)   Let them approach and tell us what will happen. The former things, what were they? Tell us, so that we may consider them and know. Or  (And we may know MT)  the latter things or the things to come, let us hear.   (23)   Report on what is to come in the future, so that we may know that you are gods. Yes, do good or do evil, so that we together may hear  (stare at one another MT)  and see it.

Isaiah 41:24
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(24)  Why, you are less than nothing, your effect is less than nullity; one who chooses you is an abomination.

Whence ye are, and whence is your work: they have chosen you an abomination out of the earth.

Behold ye are naught, and your works are nothing; an abomination is that wherein ye take pleasure.

From the NKJV
(24)   Indeed you are nothing, and your work is nothing; he who chooses you is an abomination.

Jehovah has thus placed Himself in opposition to the heathen and their gods,  as the God of  history and prophecy.

It now remains to be seen whether the idols will speak,  to prove their deity.
By no means;  not only are they silent,  but they cannot speak.
Therefore Jehovah breaks out into words of  wrath and contempt.

You and your doings are equally nothing;  and whoever chooses you for protectors,  and makes you the objects of  his worship,  is morally the most degraded of  beings.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(24)  Indeed, you and your work are nothing, (you are nothing, and your work does not exist MT) and whoever chooses you is an abomination.

Isaiah 41:25
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(25)  I have roused him from the north, and he has come, from the sunrise, one who invokes My name; and he has trampled rulers like mud, like a potter treading clay.

But I have raised up him that comes from the north, and him that comes from the rising of the sun: they shall be called by my name: let the princes come, and as potter’s clay, and as a potter treading clay, so shall ye be trodden down.

I will bring quickly a king that is strong as the north wind, and he shall come as the going forth of the sun in his strength from the east; I will make him strong in my name, and he shall come and shall trample on the rulers of the nations as men trample on the dust, and as the potter who kneaded the clay.

From the NKJV
(25)  "I have raised up one from the north, and he shall come; from the rising of the sun he shall call on My name; and he shall come against princes as though mortar, as the potter treads clay.

One from the north: i.e.  Cyrus.
This prophecy was made 137 years before its fulfillment. Compare Isaiah 44:28; 45:1.
Isaiah 44:28
Who says of Cyrus, 'He is My shepherd, and he shall perform all My pleasure.
Isaiah 45:1
"Thus says the LORD to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have held — to subdue nations before him and loose the armor of kings.

The more conclusively and incontrovertibly,  therefore,  does Jehovah keep the field as the molder of  history and foreteller of  the future,  and therefore as God above all gods.

The object of  the verb hâ'iiroothii  (I have raises up)  is he who came when wakened up by Jehovah from the north and east,  i.e.,  from Media and Persia,  and,  as the second clause affirms,  who invokes or will invoke the name of  Jehovah.

For although the Zarathustrian religion,  which Cyrus followed,  was nearest to the Jehovah religion of  all the systems of  heathenism, it was still a heathen religion.
The doctrine of  a great God  (baga vazarka),  the Creator of  heaven and earth,  and at the same time of  a great number of  Bagas and Yazatas,  behind whose working and worship the great God was thrown into the shade,  is  (apart from the dualism condemned in Isa 45:7)  the substance of  the sacred writings of  the Magi in our possession,  as confirmed by the inscriptions of the Achemenides.

But the awakened of  Jehovah would,  as is here predicted,  "call with the name,  or  by means of the name,  of Jehovah,"  which may mean either call upon this name,  or call out the name.

History:
The main sources of  information on the genealogy of  the Persian kings are Herodotus,  Zenophon,  Ctesias,  Nicolas of  Damascus (all B.C.E);  and Arrian (2nd century AD).
In 1846 Major (afterward Sir Henry) Rawlinson published a complete translation of  the trilingual Persian text on the isolated rock of  Behistun, (or more correctly Bahistun) which rises 1,700 feet out of  the Plain,  on the high road from Babylonia to the East;  in which Darius Hystaspis gives his own genealogy.
In the Cuneiform Cylinder account of  the capture of  Babylon,  Cyrus states: - “I am Cyrus the king…the great king, the mighty king, king of Tintir (Babylon), king of  Sumir,  and Akkad,  king of  the regions of  the earth,  the son of  Cambyses the great king, ...etc.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(25)  You are (I am MT) Stirring one up from the north, and they are (one is MT) coming from the rising of the sun. And he is called by his (my MT) name. Rulers will come like mire (He will come, rulers like mire MT) and like the potter, and he will trample the clay.

Isaiah 41:26-28
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(26)  Who foretold this from the start, that we may note it; from aforetime, that we might say, “He is right?” Not one foretold, not one announced; no one has heard your utterance!

For who will declare the things from the beginning, that we may know also the former things, and we will say that they are true? There is no one that speaks beforehand, nor any one that hears your words.

Who hath declared it from the beginning that we may know? And before time, that we may say, it is true? Yea, there is none that declares; yea, there is none that announces; yea, there is none that hears your words.

(27)  The things once predicted to Zion – behold, here they are! and again I send a herald to Jerusalem.

I will give dominion to Sion, and will comfort Jerusalem by the way.

The words of comfort that the prophets prophesied aforetime concerning Zion, behold, they have come to pass; and I will give to Jerusalem one that brings good tidings.

(28)  But I look and there is not a man; not one of them can predict or can respond when I question him.

For from among the nations, behold, there was no one; and of their idols there was none to declare anything: and if I should ask them, whence are ye?

And it is revealed before me that there is no man whose works are good; and of these that there is no one that gives counsel: and I asked them to see if they would answer a word.

From the NKJV
(26)  Who has declared from the beginning, that we may know?  And former times, that we may say, 'He is righteous'?  Surely there is no one who shows,  surely there is no one who declares,  surely there is no one who hears your words.
(27)  The first time I said to Zion, 'Look, there they are!' And I will give to Jerusalem one who brings good tidings.
(28)  For I looked, and there was no man; I looked among them, but there was no counselor, who, when I asked of them, could answer a word.
As verse 25 points back to the first charge against the heathen and their gods (vv. 2-7)
So verses 26-28 point back to the second (vv 21-24)

Not only did Jehovah manifest Himself as the Universal Ruler in the waking up of  Cyrus,
but as the Omniscient Ruler also.

If any one of  the heathen deities had foretold this appearance of  Cyrus so long before as at the very commencement of  that course of  history which had thus reached its goal,  Jehovah with His people,  being thus taught by experience,  would admit and acknowledge their divinity.

meero'sh (OT: 7218)  from the beginning -
Is used in the same sense as in Isa 48:16: and also in ch. 41:4 and 40:21,  where it refers according to the context in each case,  to the beginning of  the particular line of  history.
Tsadiyq (OT: 6662)   righteous -
Signifies either  "he is right,"  i.e.,  in the right  (compare the Arabic siddikgenuine),
or in a neuter sense,  "it is right" (= true),  i.e.,  the claim to divine honors is really founded upon divine performances.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The only reply that we can look for to the question in v. 26 is not,  "I on the contrary do it,"  but  "I did it."
At the same time,  the rendering is a correct one:  "Behold, behold them.

"As the first," Jehovah replies (i.e., without any one anticipating me), "have I spoken to Zion: behold, behold, there it is," pointing with the finger of prophecy to the coming salvation,  which is here regarded as present;
"and I gave to Jerusalem messengers of joy;"  i.e.,  long ago,  before what is now approaching could be known by any one,  I foretold to my church,  through the medium of  prophets,  the glad tidings of  the deliverance from Babylon.

It follows from vv. 26, 27 that the overthrow of  Babylon and the redemption of  Israel had long before been proclaimed by Jehovah through His prophets; and the futures in v. 28 are to be taken as imperfects:

And I looked round,  and there was no one  (who announced anything of the kind);
and of these  (the idols)  there was no adviser  (with regard to the future, Num 24:14),
and none whom I could ask,  and who answered me  (the questioner).
Consequently,
just as the raising up of  Cyrus proclaimed the sole omnipotence of  Jehovah,
so did the fact that the deliverance of Zion-Jerusalem, for which the raising up of Cyrus prepared the way, had been predicted by Him long before, proclaim His sole omniscience.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(26)  Who has declared it from the beginning that we may know? Beforehand, that we may say, “It is right?” (He is right MT)  Indeed, no one declared it, no one made a proclamation, and no one heard your words.   (27)   First, for Zion, there is slumber. (look, there they are MT)  To Jerusalem, I will send a messenger.   (28)   When I look, no one is there among them; no one gives counsel or responds when I enquire of them.

Isaiah 41:29
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(29)  See, they are all nothingness, their works are nullity, and their statues are naught and nil.

For these are your makers, as ye think, and they that cause you to err in vain.

Behold, they are all naught, and their works are nothing; plunder and destruction are the subject of their thoughts.

From the NKJV
(29)  Indeed they are all worthless; their works are nothing; their molded images are wind and confusion.

This closing declaration of  Jehovah terminates with similar words of  wrath and contempt to those with which the judicial process ended in verse 24.

They are all worthless

They are unable to predict future events
They are unable to defend their friends
They are unable to injure their enemies.
This is the conclusion of  the trial or debate,  and that conclusion is,  that they were utterly destitute of  strength,  and that they were entirely unworthy of  confidence and regard.

Wind and confusion

They have no power
They have no solidity

The doctrine of  the whole chapter is

Confidence should be reposed in God,  and in him alone.
He is the friend of his people, and he is able to protect them.
He will deliver them from the hand of all their enemies.
He will always be their God.
He will always be their protector.
He will always be their guide.

The idols of  the pagan have no power

It is folly to trust in them.
It is sin to trust in them

It may be added, also, that it is equally vain to trust in any being for salvation but God. He only is able to protect and defend us; and it is a source of unspeakable consolation now, as it was in times past, that he is the friend of his people; and that, in times of deepest darkness and distress, he can raise up deliverers, as he did Cyrus, and will in his own way and time rescue his people from all their calamities.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(29)  Indeed, none of them exists, and their works are nothing. Their molten images are formless wind.



Isaiah 42:1-43:13
Third Prophecy
The Mediator of Israel and Savior of the Gentiles

In Isaiah chapter 2 The kingdom of  Christ
In Isaiah chapter 4:2-6 The succeeding blessings and security of Christ’s kingdom
In Isaiah chapter 7:14 The Lord himself shall give Israel a sign, by a virgin having a son,
who’s name will be Immanuel which means God with us according to Matthew 1:23
In Isaiah chapter 9 The great joy that Israel will have in the midst of afflictions by the birth and kingdom of Christ
In Isaiah chapter 11 The peaceable kingdom of the Branch (Christ) out of the root of Jesse
In Isaiah chapter 32 The king that shall reign in righteousness who is the Christ
In Isaiah chapter 35 The joyful flourishing in the kingdom of Christ
In Isaiah chapter 40 The preaching of John the Baptist,
And now we will deal with the Office of Christ and God’s promise to him.
Paul the Learner

Matthew 12:17-21
(17)  This was in fulfillment of what was spoken by the prophet Isaiah,
(18)  Behold, My Servant Whom I have chosen, My Beloved in and with Whom My soul is well pleased and has found its delight. I will put My Spirit upon Him, and He shall proclaim and show forth justice to the nations.
(19)  He will not strive or wrangle or cry out loudly; nor will anyone hear His voice in the streets;
(20)  A bruised reed He will not break, and a smoldering (dimly burning) wick He will not quench, till He brings justice and a just cause to victory.
(21)  And in and on His name will the Gentiles (the peoples outside of Israel) set their hopes. [Isa 42:1-4.]
(AMP)

ISAIAH 42:1-17
ANTITYPE - MESSIAH

  Isaiah 42:1-4 Messiah Presented
  Isaiah 42:5-7 Messiah Addressed
 
Isaiah 42:8 Images
Isaiah 42:9 Predictions
Isaiah 42:10-12 Praise
  Isaiah 42:13 Messiah Presented
  Isaiah 42:14-16 Messiah Addressed
 
Isaiah 42:17 Images
THE  SERVANT  OF  THE  LORD

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Isaiah 42:1
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(1) This is My servant, whom I uphold, My chosen one, in whom I delight. I have put My spirit upon him, He shall teach the true way to the nations.

Jacob is my servant, I will help him: Israel is my chosen, my soul has accepted him; I have put my Spirit upon him; he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.

Behold my servant, I will bring him near; my chosen in whom my Memra is well pleased: I will set my holy spirit upon him; my judgment shall be reveal to the nations.

From the NKJV
(1)  "Behold! My Servant whom I uphold, My Elect One in whom My soul delights!  I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice to the Gentiles.

My Servant
Three are so called in this book of  Isaiah:

David Isaiah 37:35
Israel* Isaiah 41:8; 42:19; 43:10; 44:1; 45:4; 48:20; 49:3-26
Messiah Isaiah 42:1; 65:8
*Or Jacob [the nation]

The heen (behold) in Isa 41:29 is now followed by a second heen.
With the former,  Jehovah pronounced sentence upon the idolaters and their idols.
With the latter,  He introduces His  "servant."
In Isa 41:8 this epithet was applied to the nation, which had been chosen as the servant and for the service of Jehovah.  
But the servant of  Jehovah who is presented to us here is distinct from Israel,  and has so strong an individuality and such marked personal features,  that the expression cannot possibly be merely a personified collective.
Nor can the prophet himself be intended;  for what is here affirmed of  this servant of  Jehovah goes infinitely beyond anything to which a prophet was ever called,  or of which a man was ever capable.
It must therefore be the future Christ; and this is the view taken in the Targum, where the translation of our prophecy commences thus: "Hâ' 'abhdii Meshiichâ'" (Behold my Servant).
Still there must be a connection between the national sense,  in which the expression  "servant of Jehovah" was used in Isa 41:8,  and the personal sense in which it is used here.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The coming Savior is not depicted as the Son of David, as in chapter 7-12,  and elsewhere,  but appears as the embodied idea of  Israel,  i.e.,  as its truth and reality embodied in one person.
The idea of  "the servant of Jehovah"  assumed,  to speak figuratively,  the form of  a pyramid.

The Apex is the person of the Mediator of salvation springing out of Israel
The Central Section was that Israel, which was not merely Israel according to the flesh, but according to the spirit also
The Base was Israel as a whole
And the last of  the three is regarded
(1) as the center of the circle of the promised kingdom the second David
(2) the center of the circle of the people of salvation the second Israel
(3) the center of the circle of the human race the second Adam

Israel's true nature as a servant of  God,  which had its roots in the election and calling of Jehovah,  and manifested itself  in conduct and action in harmony with this calling,  is all concentrated in Him,  the One,  as its ripest fruit.  The gracious purposes of  God towards the whole human race,  which were manifested even in the election of  Israel,  are brought by Him to their full completion.  While judgments are inflicted upon the heathen by the oppressor of  the nations,  and display the nothingness of  idolatry,  the servant of  Jehovah brings to them in a peaceful way the greatest of  all blessings.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  Here is my servant, whom I support, my chosen, in whom my soul delights. I have placed my spirit on him so that he may deliver his justice to the nations.

Isaiah 42:2
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(2)  He shall not cry out or shout aloud, or make his voice heard in the streets.

He shall not cry, nor lift up his voice, nor shall his voice be heard without.

He shall not call out, nor cry aloud, nor lift up his voice in the street.

From the NKJV
(2)   He will not cry out, nor raise His voice, nor cause His voice to be heard in the street.

The prophet then proceeds to describe how the servant of  Jehovah will manifest Himself in the world outside Israel by the promulgation of  this right.

"His voice"  is the object of  "lift up,"  as well as  "cause to be heard."
Although He is certain of  His divine call,  and brings to the nations the highest and best,  His manner of appearing is nevertheless quiet,  gentle,  and humble;  the very opposite of  those lying teachers,  who endeavored to exalt themselves by noisy demonstrations.  He does not seek His own,  and therefore denies Himself;  He brings what commends itself,  and therefore requires no forced trumpeting.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(2)  He will not cry out or raise his voice or make it heard in the street.

Isaiah 42:3
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(3)  He shall not break even a bruised reed, or snuff out even a dim wick.  He shall bring forth the true way.

A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench; but he shall bring forth judgment to truth.

The meek who are like a crushed reed shall he not break, and the needy who are like a dimly burning wick shall he not quench: he shall bring forth judgment in truth.

From the NKJV
(3)  A bruised reed He will not break, and smoking flax He will not quench; He will bring forth justice for truth.

With this unassuming appearance there is associated a tender pastoral care.

The reference is a general one,  to those whose inner and outer life is only hanging by a slender thread.
In the statement that in such a case as this He does not completely break or extinguish,  there is more implied than is really expressed.

Not only will He not destroy the life that is dying out,
but He will actually save it;
His course is not to destroy,
but to save.

Matthew 12:20 quotes it, "He shall send forth judgment unto victory."
Truth has in itself the elements of  victory over all opposing forces.
Truth is the victory of  Him who is "the truth" (John 14:6).
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(3)  A crushed reed he will not break, and a faintly burning wick he will not quench. (Or perhaps be quenched 1Q1sa. quench it MT.) He will truly bring forth justice.

Isaiah 42:4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(4)  He shall not grow dim or be bruised till he has established the true way on earth; and the coastlands shall await his teaching.

He shall shine out, and shall not be discouraged, until he have set judgment on the earth: and in his name shall the Gentiles trust.

He shall not tire nor weary, until he establish judgment in the earth; and the coastlands shall wait for his law.

From the NKJV
(4)  He will not fail nor be discouraged, till He has established justice in the earth; and the coastlands shall wait for His law."

Matt 12:17-21
That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying:
"Behold! My Servant whom I have chosen, My Beloved in whom My soul is well pleased!
I will put My Spirit upon Him, and He will declare justice to the Gentiles.
He will not quarrel nor cry out, nor will anyone hear His voice in the streets.
A bruised reed He will not break, and smoking flax He will not quench, till He sends forth justice to victory; and in His name Gentiles will trust."       (NKJV)

As yikªheh (OT:3543) (will not fail) points back to keehaah uwpishtaah (smoking flax),
so yaaruwts (OT:7323) must point back to rtswts qnh (the bruised or broken reed).
His zeal will not be extinguished,  nor will anything break His strength,  till He shall have secured for right a firm standing on the earth.

The courage and constancy with which He should persevere in this undertaking,  so as to carry his point at last He shall not fail nor be discouraged.  Though he meets with hard service and much opposition, and foresees how ungrateful the world will be, yet he goes on with his part of the work, till he is able to say, It is finished; and he enables his apostles and ministers to go on with theirs too, and not to fail nor be discouraged, till they also have finished their testimony.  And thus he accomplishes what he undertook.

He brings forth judgment unto truth.
By a long course of  miracles,  and his resurrection at last,  he shall fully evince the truth of  his doctrine and the divine origin and authority of  that holy religion which he came to establish.
He establishes justice in the earth.
He erects his government in the world, a church for himself among men, reforms the world, and by the power of  his gospel and grace fixes such principles in the minds of men as tend to make them wise and just.
The isles of the Gentiles wait for his law.
They shall become his disciples, shall sit at his feet, and be ready to receive the law from his mouth.
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(4)  And He will not grow faint or be crushed until he has established justice on earth; and the coastlands will inherit (wait for MT.) his law.

Isaiah 42:5-7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(5)  Thus said God the Lord, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread out the earth and what it brings forth, Who gave breath to the people upon it and life to those who walk thereon:

Thus saith the Lord God, who made the heaven, and established it; who settled the earth, and the things in it, and gives breath to the people on it, and spirit to them that tread on it:

Thus saith the everlasting God, the Lord that created the heavens, and suspended them; who established the earth and the dwellers thereof, giving breath to the people that are upon it, and a spirit to them that walk therein.

(6)  I the Lord, in My grace, have summoned you, and I have grasped you by the hand. I created you, and appointed you a covenant people, a light of nations.

I the Lord God have called thee in righteousness, and will hold thine hand, and will strengthen thee: and I have given thee for the covenant of a race, for a light of the Gentiles:

I the Lord have appointed thee in truth, and taken thee by the hand, and I will establish thee, and give thee for a covenant of a people, for a light of the nations;

(7)  Opening eyes deprived of light, rescuing prisoners from confinement, from the dungeon those who sit in darkness.

to open the eyes of the blind, to bring the bound and them that sit in darkness out of bonds and the prison house.

to open the eyes of the house of Israel who are as it were blind to the law, to bring forth their exiles from among the nations, where they are like prisoners, and to deliver them from the bondage of the kingdoms, where they are imprisoned like them that are bound in darkness.

From the NKJV
(5)  Thus says God the LORD, Who created the heavens and stretched them out, Who spread forth the earth and that which comes from it, Who gives breath to the people on it, and spirit to those who walk on it:   (6)   "I, the LORD, have called You in righteousness, and will hold Your hand;  I will keep You and give You as a covenant to the people, as a light to the Gentiles,   (7)   To open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners from the prison, those who sit in darkness from the prison house.

Luke 2:25-32
Now there was a man in Jerusalem called Simeon, who was righteous and devout. He was waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him.  It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he would not die before he had seen the Lord's Christ.  Moved by the Spirit, he went into the temple courts. When the parents brought in the child Jesus to do for him what the custom of the Law required,  Simeon took him in his arms and praised God, saying:

"Sovereign Lord, as you have promised, you now dismiss your servant in peace.
For my eyes have seen your salvation, which you have prepared in the sight of all people, a light for revelation to the Gentiles
and for glory to your people Israel."       (NIV)

Isaiah 49:6
He says,  It is too light a thing that you should be My servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the survivors [of the judgments] of Israel;  I will also give you for a light to the nations, that My salvation may extend to the end of the earth.   (AMP)

To open the blind eyes.  Renewing the prophecy found in Isaiah 35:5.

The words of  Jehovah are now addressed to His servant himself.  He has not only an exalted vocation,  answering to the infinite exaltation of  Him from whom he has received his call;  but by virtue of  the infinite might of  the Caller,  he may be well assured that he will never be wanting in power to execute his calling.

What is it that Jehovah,  the Author of  all being and all life,  the Creator of the heaven and the earth,  says to His servant here?  "I Jehovah have called thee 'in righteousness' " (cf., Isa 45:13,  where Jehovah also says of  Cyrus,  "I have raised him up in righteousness").

The righteousness of  God is the stringency with which He acts,  in accordance with the will of  His holiness.  This will of holiness is,  so far as the human race is concerned,  and apart from the counsels of  salvation,  a will of wrath;

but from the standpoint of  these counsels it is a will of  love,
which is only changed into a will of  wrath towards those who despise the grace thus offered to them.

Accordingly, tsedeq (in righteousness) denotes the action of  God in accordance with His purposes of  love and the plan of  salvation.

It signifies just the same as what we should call in New Testament phraseology the holy love of God, which,  because it is a holy love,  has wrath against its despisers as its obverse side,  but which acts towards men not according to the law of works,  but according to the law of grace.

The word has this evangelical sense here,  where Jehovah says of  the Mediator of  His counsels of  love,  that He has called Him in strict adherence to the will of  His love,  which will show mercy as right,  but at the same time will manifest a right of  double severity towards those who scornfully repel the offered mercy.  That He had been called in righteousness, is attested to the servant of Jehovah by the fact that Jehovah has taken Him by the hand,  and guards Him,  and appoints Him.

An unprejudiced commentator must admit that the  "servant of Jehovah"  is pointed out here, as

He in whom and through whom Jehovah concludes a new covenant with His people,
in the place of the old covenant that was broken.
The mediator of  this covenant with Israel cannot be Israel itself,  not even the true Israel,  as distinguished from the mass;  on the contrary,  the remnant left after the sweeping away of  the mass is the object of this covenant.

Let us bear in mind,  that the servant of  Jehovah appears here not only as one who is the medium of a covenant to the nation, and of  light to the Gentiles,

but as being himself the people's covenant and heathen's light,
inasmuch as in his own person he is the band of a new fellowship between Israel and Jehovah,
and becomes in his own person the light which illumines the dark heathen world.

This is surely more than could be affirmed of  any prophet,  even of  Isaiah or Jeremiah.
Hence the  "servant of Jehovah"  must be

That One who was the goal and culminating point to which,  from the very first,  the history of  Israel was ever pressing on;
That One who throws into the shade not only all that prophets did before, but all that had been ever done by Israel's priests of kings;
That One who arose out of Israel, for Israel and the whole human race, and who stood in the same relation not only to the wider circle of the whole nation, but also to the inner circle of the best and noblest within it, as the heart to the body which it animates, or the head to the body over which it rules.

All that Cyrus did was simply to throw the idolatrous nations into a state of  alarm,  and set the exiles free.  But the Servant of  Jehovah opens blind eyes;  and therefore the deliverance which He brings is not only redemption from bodily captivity,  but from spiritual bondage also.

He leads His people,  and the Gentiles also,  out of  night into light
He is the Redeemer of all that need redemption and desire salvation
And we call His name Jesus who is the Christ of God.

Matthew 9:27-31
(27)  And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed him, crying, and saying, Thou Son of David, have mercy on us.
(28)  And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord.
(29)  Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith be it unto you.
(30)  And their eyes were opened; and Jesus straightly charged them, saying, See that no man know it.
(31)  But they, when they were departed, spread abroad his fame in all that country.   (KJV)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(5)  Thus says the God, and God (the God the Lord MT.) who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread out the earth and its produce, who gives breath to the people upon it, and spirit to those who walk on it:   (6)   I have called you in righteousness and have taken hold of your hand. I have preserved you and established you as a covenant to the people, (An everlasting covenant 4Q1sa (h).) as a light to the nations,   (7)   to open blind eyes, to lead those bound (prisoners 4Q1sa (h) and MT.) out of the dungeon and those sitting in darkness out of the prison.

Isaiah 42:8
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(8)  I am the Lord, that is My name; I will not yield My glory to another, nor My renown to idols.

I am the Lord God: that is my name: I will not give my glory to another, nor my praises to graven images.

I am the Lord; that is my name: and my glory wherewith I have revealed myself to you, I will not give to another people, nor my praise to them that serve images.

From the NKJV
(8)   I am the LORD, that is My name; and My glory I will not give to another, nor My praise to carved images.

I am Yahweh
Here he turns to the people,  and assures them that he is the only true God,  and that he will not suffer the praise that is due to him to be given to any other,  or to any graven image.

The name Yahweh signifies being, or essential existence.
It is a name which is given to none but the true God,
and which is everywhere in the Scriptures used to distinguish him from all others.

God claims that all appropriate honors should be rendered to him,  and that men should cherish no opinions,  maintain no doctrines,  indulge in no feelings,  that would be derogatory to the honor of  his name.
This declaration is designed to counteract the propensity everywhere manifest to attribute to man that which belongs to God,  or to ascribe to our own wisdom,  skill,  or power,  that which he alone can accomplish.

He would not permit graven images to receive the praise of  having done that which he himself had accomplished.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

John 5:43
I am come in my Father's name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.    (KJV)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(8)  I the Lord am the one, and I will not give my name or my glory to another nor my praise to idols.

Isaiah 42:9
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(9) See, the things once predicted have come, and now I foretell new things, announce to you ere they sprout up.

Behold, the ancient things have come to pass, and so will the new things which I tell you: yea, before I tell them they are made known to you.

Behold, the former things are come to pass, and new things do I declare: before they come I will announce them to you.

From the NKJV
(9)  Behold, the former things have come to pass, and new things I declare; before they spring forth I tell you of them."

First the overthrow of  idolatry,
then the restoration of  Israel and conversion of the Gentiles:
this is the double work of  Jehovah's zeal which is already in progress.

The "first" is the rise of  Cyrus,  and the agitation of  the nations which it occasioned - events which not only formed the starting-point of  the prophecy in these addresses,  whether the captivity was the prophet's historical or ideal standpoint,  but which had no less force in themselves,  as the connection between the first and second halves of  the verse before us imply,  as events both foreknown and distinctly foretold by Jehovah.

The  "new things"  which Jehovah now foretells before their visible development (Isaiah 43:19 - See, I am doing a new thing! Now it springs up; do you not perceive it?),

the restoration of  Israel,  for which the defeat of their oppressors prepares the say, and
the conversion of the heathen,
to which an impulse is given by the fact that God thus glorifies Himself in His people.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(9)  See, the former things have come about, and I am announcing the new things. Before they unfold I am making you aware of them.


PRAISE  TO  THE  LORD

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Isaiah 42:10-13
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(10)  Sing to the Lord a new song, His praise from the ends of the earth – you who sail the sea and you creatures in it, You coastlands – and their inhabitants!

Sing a new hymn to the Lord: Ye, who are his dominion, glorify his name from the end of the earth: ye that go down to the sea, and sail upon it; the islands, and they that dwell in them.

Sing before the Lord a new song, ye that tell his praise from the ends of the earth, ye that go down to the sea and all that is therein, ye coastlands and the inhabitants thereof.

(11)  Let the desert and its towns cry aloud, the villages where Kedar dwells; let Sela’s inhabitants shout, call out from the peaks of the mountains.

Rejoice, thou wilderness, and the villages thereof, the hamlets, and the dwellers in Kedar: the inhabitants of the rock shall rejoice, they shall shout from the top of the mountains.

Let the wilderness sing praises, and the cities that are in the wilderness of the Arabs: let the dead sing praises when they come forth from their tombs, let them lift up their voice from the top of the mountains.

(12)  Let them do honor to the Lord, and tell His glory in the coastlands.

They shall give glory to God, and shall proclaim his praises in the islands.

Let them give glory before the Lord, and declare his praise in the coastlands.

(13)  The Lord goes forth like a warrior, like a fighter He whips up His rage. He yells, He roars aloud, He charges upon His enemies.

The Lord God of hosts shall go forth, and crush the war: he shall stir up jealousy, and shall shout mightily against his enemies.

The Lord reveals himself to do mighty deeds; he reveals himself to do mighty deeds: with wrathful words, yea, with an earthquake doth he reveal himself in his might against his enemies.

From the NKJV
(10)  Sing to the LORD a new song, and His praise from the ends of the earth, you who go down to the sea, and all that is in it, you coastlands and you inhabitants of them!
(11)  Let the wilderness and its cities lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar inhabits.  Let the inhabitants of Sela sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains.   (12)  Let them give glory to the LORD, and declare His praise in the coastlands.
(13)  The LORD shall go forth like a mighty man;  He shall stir up His zeal like a man of war. He shall cry out, yes, shout aloud; He shall prevail against His enemies.

The prediction of  these "new things,"  which now follows,  looks away from all human mediation.
They are manifestly the work of  Jehovah Himself,  and consist primarily in the subjugation of  His enemies,  who are holding His people in captivity.
The  "new things"  furnish the impulse and materials of  "a new song,"  such as had never been heard in the heathen world before.

This whole group of  verses is like a variation of  Isa 24:14-15.

The standing-place, whence the summons is uttered, is apparently Ezion-geber,  at the head of the Elanitic Gulf,  that seaport town from which in the time of the kings the news of the nations reached the Holy Land through the extensive commerce of  Israel.  From this point the eye stretches to the utmost circle of  the earth,  and then returns from the point where it meets with those who

Go down to the sea
who navigate the ocean which lies lower than the solid ground. These are to sing, and everything that lives and moves in the sea is to join in the sailors' song.
The islands and coast lands
that are washed by the sea are likewise to sing together with their inhabitants.
The desert and its cities
are to lift up their voice in song to
The villages that Kedar inhabits
Kedar was a son of Ishmael (Gen 25:13),  the father of the Kedarenians or Cedrei,  mentioned by Pliny (Nat. Hist. v. 2),  who dwell in the vicinity of  the Nabathaeans in Arabia Deserta.  They often changed their place,  though it would seem that they usually dwelt in the neighborhood of  Petra,  or Sela.
The inhabitants of Sela
The reference to Sela',  the rock-city of  Edomitish Nabataea,  which is also mentioned in Isa 16:1 (the Wady Musa, which is still celebrated for its splendid ruins).
Their inhabitants are to ascend the steep mountains by which the city is surrounded, and to raise a joyful cry

In verse 13 there follows the reason for this summons,  and the theme of  the new song in honor of  the God of  Israel, viz.,  His victory over His enemies,  the enemies of  His people.

Revelations 19:11-16
(11)  After that I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse [appeared]! The one Who was riding it is called Faithful (Trustworthy, Loyal, Incorruptible, Steady) and True, and He passes judgment and wages war in righteousness (holiness, justice, and uprightness). [Ezek 1:1.]
(12)  His eyes [blaze] like a flame of fire, and on His head are many kingly crowns (diadems); and He has a title (name) inscribed which He alone knows or can understand. [Dan 10:6.]
(13)  He is dressed in a robe dyed by dipping in blood, and the title by which He is called is The Word of God.
(14)  And the troops of heaven, clothed in fine linen, dazzling and clean, followed Him on white horses.
(15)  From His mouth goes forth a sharp sword with which He can smite (afflict, strike) the nations; and He will shepherd and control them with a staff (scepter, rod) of iron. He will tread the winepress of the fierceness of the wrath and indignation of God the All-Ruler (the Almighty, the omnipotent). [Ps 2:9.]
(16)  And on His garment (robe) and on His thigh He has a name (title) inscribed, KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS. [Deut 10:17; Dan 2:47.]               (AMP)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(10)  Sing to the Lord a new song and his praise from the end of the earth, you who travel the sea and everything in it, coastlands and their inhabitants.   (11)   Let the desert cry out, its cities and the villages that Kedar inhabits, and let the inhabitants of Sela sing for joy. Let them shout aloud (cry joyfully MT.) from the tops of the mountains.   (12)   Let them give glory to the Lord and declare his praise in the coastlands.   (13)   The Lord goes forth like a warrior. He fires up his furor like a man of war. Showing his anger, he shouts aloud. (He makes a war cry and shouts his anger aloud MT.) He prevails against his enemies.


LESSON  20  FROM  THE  AMPLIFIED  VERSION

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Isaiah 41:14 - 42:13 - from the Amplified Version

41:14     Fear not,  you worm Jacob, you men of Israel! I will help you, says the Lord; your Redeemer is the Holy One of Israel.
(15)  Behold, I will make you to be a new, sharp, threshing instrument which has teeth; you shall thresh the mountains and beat them small, and shall make the hills like chaff.
(16)  You shall winnow them, and the wind shall carry them away, and the tempest or whirlwind shall scatter them. And you shall rejoice in the Lord, you shall glory in the Holy One of Israel.
(17)  The poor and needy are seeking water when there is none; their tongues are parched with thirst. I the Lord will answer them; I, the God of Israel, will not forsake them.
(18)  I will open rivers on the bare heights, and fountains in the midst of the valleys; I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water.
(19)  I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the acacia, the myrtle, and the wild olive; I will set the cypress in the desert, the plane [tree] and the pine [tree] together,
(20)  That men may see and know and consider and understand together that the hand of the Lord has done this, that the Holy One of Israel has created it.
(21)  [You idols made by men's hands, prove your divinity!] Produce your cause [set forth your case], says the Lord. Bring forth your strong proofs, says the King of Jacob.
(22)  Let them bring them forth and tell us what is to happen. Let them tell us the former things, what they are, that we may consider them and know the outcome of them; or declare to us the things to come.
(23)  Tell us the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that you are gods; yes, do good or do evil [something or other], that we may stare in astonishment and be dismayed as we behold [the miracle] together!
(24)  Behold, you [idols] are nothing, and your work is nothing! The worshiper who chooses you is an abomination [extremely disgusting and shamefully vile in God's sight]. [1 Corinthians 8:4.]
(25)  I have raised up and impelled to action one from the north [Cyrus], and he comes; from the rising of the sun he calls upon My name [recognizing that his victories have been granted to him by Me]. And he shall tread upon rulers and deputies as upon mortar and as the potter treads clay. [He comes with the suddenness of a comet, but none of the idol oracles of the nations has anticipated it.] [2 Chronicles 36:23; Ezra 1:1-3.]
(26) [What idol] has declared this from the beginning, that we could know? And beforetime, that we could say that he is [unquestionably] right? Yes, there is none who declares it, yes, there is none who proclaims it; yes, [for the truth is, O you dumb idols] there is none who hears you speak!
(27)  I [the Lord] first gave to Zion the announcement, Behold, [the Jews will be restored to their own land, and the man Cyrus shall be raised up who will deliver them] behold them! And to Jerusalem I gave a herald [Isaiah] bringing the good news. [Isaiah 40:9; 52:7.]
(28)  For I look [upon the heathen prophets and the priests of pagan practices] and there is no man among them [who could predict these events], and among these [idols] there is no counselor who, when I ask of him, can answer a word.
(29)  Behold, these [pagan prophets and priests] are all emptiness (falseness and futility)! Their works are worthless; their molten images are empty wind (confusion and waste).

42:1   BEHOLD MY Servant, Whom I uphold, My elect in Whom My soul delights! I have put My Spirit upon Him; He will bring forth justice and right and reveal truth to the nations. [Matthew 3:16,17.]
(2)    He will not cry or shout aloud or cause His voice to be heard in the street.
(3)    A bruised reed He will not break, and a dimly burning wick He will not quench; He will bring forth justice in truth. [Matthew 12:17-21.]
(4)    He will not fail or become weak or be crushed and discouraged till He has established justice in the earth; and the islands and coastal regions shall wait hopefully for Him and expect His direction and law. [Romans 8:22-25.]
(5)    Thus says God the Lord — He Who created the heavens and stretched them forth, He Who spread abroad the earth and that which comes out of it, He Who gives breath to the people on it and spirit to those who walk in it:
(6)    I the Lord have called You [the Messiah] for a righteous purpose and in righteousness; I will take You by the hand and will keep You; I will give You for a covenant to the people [Israel], for a light to the nations [Gentiles],
(7)    To open the eyes of the blind, to bring out prisoners from the dungeon, and those who sit in darkness from the prison. [Matthew 12:18-21.]
(8)    I am the Lord; that is My name! And My glory I will not give to another, nor My praise to graven images.
(9)    Behold, the former things have come to pass, and new things I now declare; before they spring forth I tell you of them.
Isaiah 42:10-13
(10)  Sing to the Lord a new song, and His praise from the end of the earth! You who go down to the sea, and all that is in it, the islands and coastal regions and the inhabitants of them [sing a song such as has never been heard in the heathen world]!
(11)  Let the wilderness and its cities lift up their voices, the villages that Kedar inhabits. Let the inhabitants of the rock [Sela or Petra] sing; let them shout from the tops of the mountains!
(12)  Let them give glory to the Lord and declare His praise in the islands and coastal regions.
(13)  The Lord will go forth like a mighty man, He will rouse up His zealous indignation and vengeance like a warrior; He will cry, yes, He will shout aloud, He will do mightily against His enemies.

 

(End of  Lesson 20)


  

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