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ISAIAH
The Gospel To Israel
Book 3

LESSON  TWENTY THREE
Isaiah 45:14 - 47:7

 

Isaiah 45:14
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(14)  Thus said the Lord: Egypt’s wealth and Nubias gains and Sabaites, long of limb, shall pass over to you and be yours, pass over and follow you in fetters, bow low to you and reverently address you: “Only among you is God, there is no other god at all!"

Thus saith the Lord of hosts, Egypt has labored for thee; and the merchandise of the Ethiopians, and the Sabeans, men of stature, shall pass over to thee, and shall be thy servants; and they shall follow after thee bound in fetters, and shall pass over to thee, and shall do obeisance to thee, and make supplication to thee: because God is in thee; and there is no God beside thee, O Lord.

Thus saith the Lord, the labor of the Egyptians, and the merchants of Cush and Seba, men of merchandise, shall pass over to thee, and they shall be thine; according to thy command shall they go; in chains shall they pass over: and they shall bow down unto thee, and shall entreat thee, and shall confess, saying, Of a truth God is in thee, and there is no other God beside him.

From the NKJV
(14)  Thus says the LORD:
"The labor of Egypt and merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over to you, and they shall be yours; they shall walk behind you, they shall come over in chains; and they shall bow down to you.  They will make supplication to you, saying, 'Surely God is in you, and there is no other; there is no other God.'"

Assuming that ya`aboruw (OT: 5674)  (shall come over)  has the same meaning in both cases,  the prophet's meaning appears to be,  that the Egyptians,  Ethiopians,  and Meroites (see Isa 43:3),  who had been enslaved by the imperial power of Persia,  would enter the miraculously emancipated congregation of Israel (Ewald).

The labor of Egypt
The fruit,  or result of the labor of Egypt;  the wealth of Egypt.
The idea is,  that Egypt would be converted to the true religion,  and its wealth consecrated to the service of the true God.  See also Psalms 68:31.
Psalms 68:31
Envoys will come out of Egypt; Ethiopia will quickly stretch out her hands to God.     (NKJV)

Merchandise of Cush
The word  'merchandise'  here means the same as wealth,  since their wealth consisted in their traffic.
That Cush (or Ethiopia) would be converted to the true religion and be united to the people of God,  is declared in the passage above quoted from Psalms 68:31;  and also in various other places.
Thus in Psalms 67:4:  'Behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this man was born there;'
Zephaniah 3:10: ' From beyond the ruins of Ethiopia, my suppliants, even the daughters of my dispersed, shall bring mine offering.'
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Sabeans,  men of stature
The inhabitants of Seba Cªbaa' (OT:5434),  not Shªbaa' (OT:7614).
Seba,  here referred to,  was a different country from Sheba.

1. It was inhabited by a descendant of Cush (Genesis 10:7 - The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtechah; and the sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.).
2. That this people was distinguished for height of stature is expressly affirmed by Herodotus (iii. 20),  who says of the Ethiopians,  among whom the Sabeans are to be reckoned,  that they were  'the tallest of men'
3. Solinus affirms that the Ethiopians are 'twelve feet high.'
4. Agatharchides, an ancient Greek poet, quoted by Bochart (Phaleg. ii. 26), says of the Sabeans: `the bodies of those who dwell there are worthy of special remark.'
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

The second half is uttered in the prospect that the judgment which Cyrus brings upon the nations will prepare the way for the overthrow of heathenism,  and the universal acknowledgment of the God of Israel.  The heathen submit,  as the first strophe or group of verses (Isa 45:14-17) affirms,  to the congregation and it’s God;  the idolatrous are converted,  whilst Israel is for ever redeemed.  With the prospect of the release of the exiles,  there is associated in the prophet's perspective the prospect of an expansion of the restored church,  through the entrance of  "the fullness of the Gentiles."

Jehovah and His church are inseparably one.  Compare

1 Corinthians 12:12 where  "Christ"  stands for the church as one body,  consisting of both head and members
"For as the body is one and has many members, but all the members of that one body, being many, are one body, so also is Christ."   (NKJV)
Revelation 3:9 where the word  "worship" has all the ring of a passage taken from Isaiah
"Indeed I will make those of the synagogue of Satan, who say they are Jews and are not, but lie — indeed I will make them come and worship before your feet, and to know that I have loved you."   (NKJV)
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(14)   [Thus says] the Lord: The wealth of Egypt, and the merchandise of Cush, the Sabeans, men of height, will come over to you, and they will be yours. They will walk [behind you]; in chains they will come over. They will bow down to you; they will pray to you, “Surely God is in you; and there is no other [Go]d [at all].”
See Note in lesson 15 on the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

Isaiah 45:15
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(15)  You are indeed a God who concealed Himself, O God of Israel, who bring victory!

For thou art God, yet we knew it not, the God of Israel, the Savior.

Of a truth thou, O God, hast caused thy Shekinah to dwell in the great height, O God of Israel, the Savior.

From the NKJV
(15)  Truly You are God, who hide Yourself, O God of Israel, the Savior!

What follows in verse 15 is not a continuation of the words of the Gentiles,  but a response of the church to their confession.  The nations that have been idolatrous will now bend in humble spontaneous worship before the church and it’s God;  and at the sight of this,  the church,  from whose soul the prophet is speaking,  bursts out into an exclamation of reverential amazement.

The meaning is,  a God who guides with marvelous strangeness the history of the nations of the earth,  and by secret ways,  which human eyes can never discern,  conducts all to a glorious issue.
The exclamation in Rom 11:33 is a similar one.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

This verse teaches us that we should not repine or complain under the mysterious allotments of Providence.
They may be dark now.  But in due time they will be disclosed, and we shall be permitted to see his design,  and to witness results so glorious, as shall satisfy us that his ways are all just, and his dealings right.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Romans 11:33
Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out!    (NKJV)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(15)  Truly you are a hidden God, O God of Israel, the Savior.

Isaiah 45:16 – 47:15
Seventh Prophecy
God’s Controversy With The Nations

Vanity of  Idols
  Isaiah 45:16-25 The nations
  Isaiah 46:1-13 Babylon Idols
  Isaiah 47:1-15 Babylon Doom

Isaiah 45:16-25
The Nations
Isaiah 45:16 Idolaters Their shame and confusion
Isaiah 45:17 Israel Saved
Isaiah 45:18- Earth Its formation
Isaiah 45:-18 None beside Jehovah
Isaiah 45:19- The oracles of God Plain
Isaiah 45:-19 Call to the seed of Jacob
Isaiah 45:20- The escaped Nation Called
Isaiah 45:-20 Idolaters Their ignorance
Isaiah 45:21 Israel Their Savior
Isaiah 45:22- Earth Call to
Isaiah  45:-22 None beside Elohim
Isaiah 45:23 The oath of God Sure
Isaiah 45:24, 2 Call to the seed of Israel

Isaiah 45:16 & 17
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(16)  Those who fabricate idols, all are shamed and disgraced; to a man, they slink away in disgrace.

All that are opposed to him shall be ashamed and confounded, and shall walk in shame: ye isles, keep a feast to me.

They are ashamed, yea, they are confounded all of them; together have they fallen into confusion that serve images.

(17)  But Israel has won through the Lord triumph everlasting. You shall not be shamed or disgraced in all the ages to come!

Israel is saved by the Lord with an everlasting salvation: they shall not be ashamed nor confounded for evermore.

But Israel hath been delivered by the Memra of the Lord with an everlasting deliverance; ye shall not be ashamed nor confounded for ever and ever.

From the NKJV
(16)  They shall be ashamed and also disgraced, all of them; they shall go in confusion together, who are makers of idols.    (17)   But Israel shall be saved by the LORD with an everlasting salvation; you shall not be ashamed or disgraced forever and ever.

An everlasting salvation
It shall not be a temporary deliverance; but it shall be perpetual.

Jehovah shows Himself as a Savor by the fact that,  whereas the makers of idols perish,  Israel is redeemed with an everlasting redemption,  i.e.,  so that its redemption is one that lasts for aeons.

Referring primarily to the Jews in Babylon, but affirming the universal truth that the true Israel (compare Romans 2:28-29), that is, the people of God, shall be saved from all their trials, and shall be brought to his everlasting kingdom.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Romans 2:28-29
For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh; but he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the Spirit, not in the letter; whose praise is not from men but from God.    (NKJV)

Forever and ever
 `ad `ad- `owlªmeey world without end without end
owlªmeey = "eternity;  remotest time;  perpetuity"  This word has cognates in Ugaritic, Moabite, Phoenician, Aramaic, Arabic, and Akkadian.
It appears about 440 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods.
The word signifies "remotest time" or "remote time." In 1 Chronicles 16:36,  God is described as blessed "from everlasting to everlasting."
With the preposition `ad, the word can mean  "into the indefinite future."
(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright (c)1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers)

When the further promise is added,  You shall not be ashamed, etc.,  this clearly shows,  what is also certain on other grounds - namely,  that the redemption is not thought of merely as an outward and bodily one,  but also as inward and spiritual,  and indeed (in accordance with the prophetic blending of the end of the captivity with the end of all things)  as a final one.  Israel will never bring upon itself again such a penal judgment as that of the captivity by falling away from God;  that is to say,  its state of sin will end with its state of punishment.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Now that God was about to deliver them out of Babylon he directed them by his prophet,

1. To look up to him as the author of their salvation:
Israel shall be saved in the Lord.  Not only their salvation shall be wrought out by his power,  but it shall be treasured up for them in his grace and promise,  and so secured to them.  They shall be saved in him;  for his name shall be their strong tower, into which they shall run, and in which they shall be safe (Proverbs 18:10).
2. To look beyond this temporal deliverance to that which is spiritual and has reference to another world,  to think of that salvation by the Messiah which is an everlasting salvation,  the salvation of the soul,  a rescue from everlasting misery and a restoration to everlasting bliss.
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(16)  They will be shamed, indeed, disgraced, all of them to[gether];  the makers of idols will walk in confusion.   (17)   But Israel will be saved by the Lord with everlasting salvation. You will not be shamed or disgraced ever again.

Isaiah 45:18 & 19
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(18)  For thus said the Lord, The Creator of heaven who alone is God, Who formed the earth and made it, Who alone established it – He did not create it a waste, but formed it for habitation: I am the Lord, and there is none else.

Thus saith the Lord that made the heaven, this God that created the earth, and made it; he marked it out, he made it not in vain, but formed it to be inhabited: I am the Lord, and there is none beside.

For thus saith the Lord that created the heavens; he is Elohim; that founded the earth and made it; he formed it, he created it not in vain, but he formed it to multiply the sons of men upon it: I am the Lord; and there is none else.

I did not speak in secret, at a site in a land of darkness; I did not say to the stock of Jacob, “Seek Me out in a wasteland” – I the Lord, who foretell reliably, who announce what is true.

I have not spoken in secret, nor in a dark place of the earth: I said not to the seed of Jacob, Seek vanity: I, even I, am the Lord, speaking righteousness, and proclaiming truth.

I have not spoken in secret, in a place of the land of darkness; I said not unto the seed of the house of Jacob, Seek ye the fear of me in vain. I the Lord speak truth; I declare things that are right.

From the NKJV
(18)  For thus says the LORD, who created the heavens, who is God, who formed the earth and made it, who has established it, who did not create it in vain, who formed it to be inhabited:
"I am the LORD, and there is no other.   (19)   I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth; I did not say to the seed of Jacob,  'Seek Me in vain';  I, the LORD, speak righteousness, I declare things that are right.

Who created = the Creator of.
Note how these expressions are heaped together to impress us with the fact that the One Who created all ought to be able to tell us,  better than ignorant man,  how He created it.

By the fulfillment of the promise thus openly proclaimed,  those of the heathen who have been saved from the judgment will recognize Jehovah as the only God;  and the irresistible will of Jehovah,  that all mankind should worship Him,  be carried out.  The promise cannot remain unfulfilled.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The first parenthesis affirms that Jehovah is God in the fullest and most exclusive sense;
the second that He has created the earth for man's sake,  not "as a desert" - not to be and continue to be a desert, but to be inhabited.

Even in Gen 1:2, chaos is not described as of God's creation,  because (whatever may be men's opinions concerning it in other respects) the creative activity of God merely made use of this as a starting-point,  and because,  although it did not come into existence without God,  it was at any rate not desired by God for its own sake.  The words of Jehovah commence,  then,  with the assertion that Jehovah is the absolute One;  and from this two thoughts branch off:

(1) The first is,  that the prophecy which emanates from Him is an affair of light,  no black art,  but essentially different from heathen soothsaying.
By "a dark place of the earth" we are to understand,  according to Ps 139:15,  the interior of the earth.
Psalms 139:15
My frame was not hidden from You, when I was made in secret, and skillfully wrought in the lowest parts of the earth.    (NKJV)
And according to Job 10:21,  Hades;   the intention being to point out the contrast between the prophecies of Jehovah and the heathen cave-oracles and spirit-voices of the necromancers,  which seemed to rise up from the interior of the earth.
Job 10:21
Before I go to the place from which I shall not return, to the land of darkness and the shadow of death.    (NKJV)
(2) The second thought is, that the very same love of Jehovah,  which has already been displayed in the creation,  attests itself in His relation to Israel,  which He has not directed to Himself  "in vain" (toohuu),  just as He did not create the earth a toohuu.
On the contrary,  He has attached promises to the seeking of Himself,  which cannot remain unfulfilled,  for He is  "one speaking righteousness, declaring things that are right;"  i.e.,
when He promises,  He follows out the rule of His purpose and of His plan of salvation,  and the impulse of sincere desire for their good,  and love which is ever true to itself.
The present word of prophecy points to the fulfillment of these promises.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(18)  For thus says the Lord who created the heavens – he is God and the one who fashioned the earth and made it; and he is the one who established it; not for Chaos did he create it, but to be inhabited he formed it – I am the Lord and there is no other.    (19)    I have not spoken in secret, at a place in a land of darkness; I did not say to the descendants of Jacob, “Seek me in chaos;” I, the Lord, spea[k] righteousness, declaring what is right

Isaiah 45:20 & 21
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(20)  Come, gather together, draw nigh, you remnants of the nations! No foreknowledge had they who carry their wooden images and pray to a god who cannot give success.

Assemble yourselves and come; take counsel together, ye that escape of the nations: they that set up wood, even their graven image, have no knowledge, nor they who pray to gods that do not save.

Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, ye that are escaped of the nations; they have no knowledge that carry the wood of their image, and pray to an idol that saveth not.

(21)  Speak up, compare testimony – let them even take counsel together! Who announced this aforetime, foretold it of old? Was it not I the Lord? Then there is no god beside Me, no God exists beside Me who foretells truly and grants success.

If they will declare, let them draw nigh, that they may know together, who has caused these things to be heard from the beginning: then was it told you. I am God, and there is not another beside me; a just God and a Savior; there is none but me.

Declare ye, and draw near; yea, take counsel together; who hath announced this from ancient time and declared it of old? Have not I the Lord? And there is no God else beside me; a God that is just and a savior; there is none beside me.

From the NKJV
(20)  "Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, you who have escaped from the nations. They have no knowledge, who carry the wood of their carved image, and pray to a god that cannot save.    (21)   Tell and bring forth your case; yes, let them take counsel together.  Who has declared this from ancient time?  Who has told it from that time?  Have not I, the LORD?  And there is no other God besides Me,  a just God and a Savior; there is none besides Me.

The salvation of Israel,  foretold and realized by Jehovah,  becomes at the same time the salvation of the heathen world.

The fullness of the Gentiles,  which enters into the kingdom of God,  is a remnant of the whole mass of the unbelieving world:  for salvation comes through judgment;  and it is in the midst of great calamities that the work of that mission is accomplished,  which is represented in these prophecies on the one hand as the mission of Cyrus,  and on the other hand as the mission of Jehovah and His servant.

Hence this summons to listen to the self-assertion of the God of revelation is addressed to the escaped of the heathen,  who are not therefore the converted,  but those who are susceptible of salvation,  and therefore spared.

By "the heathen" (haggooyiim) Knobel understands the allies and auxiliaries of the Babylonians, whom Cyrus put to flight (according to the Cyropaedia) before his Lydian campaign.

For the future was foreshortened to the telescopic glance of the prophet,

so that he could not see it in all its length and breadth.
He saw in one mass what history afterwards unrolled;
and then behind the present he could just see as it were the summit of the end, although a long eventful way still lay between the two.

Accordingly,  our prophet here takes his stand not at the close of any particular victory of Cyrus,  but at the close of all his victories;  and,  in his view,  these terminate the whole series of catastrophes,  which are outlived by a remnant of the heathen,  who are converted to Jehovah,  and thus complete the final glory of the restored people of God.  Throughout the whole of these prophecies we see immediately behind the historical foreground this eschatological background lifting up its head.

The heathen who have been preserved will assemble together;  and from the fact that Jehovah proves Himself the sole foreteller of the events that are now unfolding themselves,  they will be brought to the conviction that He is the only God.

On mee'âz  (from that time),  from the olden time,  compare Isa 44:8.

A just God
God is  "a just God and a Savior,"  as a being Who acts most stringently according to the demands of His holiness,  and wherever His wrath is not wickedly provoked,  sets in motion His loving will,  which is ever concerned to secure the salvation of men.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

God Whose

Attribute it is always to do right
Word is true
Promises are fulfilled
Threatenings are executed
and Who always does that which,  under the circumstances of the case,  ought to be done.
This does not refer particularly to the fact that He will punish the guilty,  but,  in the connection here,  rather seems to mean that His course would always be one of equity.

None besides is fit to rule.

He is a just God, and rules in justice, and will execute justice for those that are oppressed.
None besides is able to help.
As he is a just God, so he is the Savior, who can save without the assistance of any, but without whom none can save.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(20)  Assemble and enter; draw near and come, escapees from the nations. Those who carry their wooden idols know nothing, nor do those who pray to a god that cannot save.   (21)   Explain, present a case, even let them take counsel together. Who announced this long ago, declared it of old? Was it not I, the Lord? There is no other god besides me; a just God and Savior, and there is none beside me.

Isaiah 45:22 & 23
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(22)  Turn to Me and gain success, all the ends of earth! For I am God, and there is none else.

Turn ye to me, and ye shall be saved, ye that come from the end of the earth: I am God, and there is none other.

Turn ye unto my Memra, and be saved, all ye that are in the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is none else.

(23)  By Myself have I sworn, from My mouth has issued truth, a word that shall not turn back: To Me every knee shall bend, every tongue swear loyalty.

By myself I swear, righteousness shall surely proceed out of my mouth; my words shall not be frustrated;

By my Memra have I sworn; a word is gone forth from before me in righteousness, and it shall not come to naught, that before me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear.

From the NKJV
(22)  "Look to Me, and be saved, all you ends of the earth!  For I am God, and there is no other.   (23)   I have sworn by Myself; the word has gone out of My mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, that to Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall take an oath.

All the ends of the earth
The invitation here proves:

1. That the offers of the gospel are universal.
None are excluded.  The ends of the earth,  the remotest parts of the world,  are invited to embrace salvation,  and all those portions of the world might,  under this invitation,  come and accept the offers of life.
2. That God is willing to save all;
since he would not give an invitation at all unless he was willing to save them.
3. That there is ample provision for their salvation;
since God could not invite them to accept of what was not provided for them, nor could he ask them to partake of salvation which had no existence.
4. That it is his serious and settled purpose that all the ends of the earth shall be invited to embrace the offers of life.
The invitation has gone from his lips,  and the command has gone forth that it should be carried to every creature  (Mark 16:15),  and now it pertains to his church to bear the glad news of salvation around the world. God intends that it shall be done, and on his church rests the responsibility of seeing it speedily executed.

I have sworn by myself
The expression,  'I have sworn by myself,'  denotes a purpose formed in the most solemn manner,  and ratified in the most sacred form.  God could swear by no greater (Heb 6:13);  and this,  therefore,  is the most solemn assurance that could be possibly given that the purpose which he had formed should be executed.  To swear by himself is the same as to swear by his life, or to affirm solemnly that the event shall as certainly occur as that he exists.
Hebrews 6:13
For when God made a promise to Abraham, because He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself.    (NKJV)

Every knee - every tongue
The Knee

To bow or bend the knee,  is indicative of homage or adoration.
The ancient mode of offering adoration,  or of paying homage,  was to place the knee on the ground,  and then slowly to incline the body until the head touched the earth.
The obvious and proper signification of this is,  that the time would come when God would be everywhere acknowledged as the true God.

The Tongue

This expression is evidently taken from the practice of taking an oath of allegiance to a sovereign.
Here it means that all would solemnly acknowledge him to be the true God,  and submit themselves to his government and will.
That this refers to the Messiah and his times,  is apparent from the fact that it is twice referred to by the apostle Paul,  and applied by him to the Lord Jesus (Rom 14:11; Phil 2:10).
It is a glorious promise which remains yet to be fulfilled, and there is no promise in the Bible more certain than that this earth shall yet be filled with the knowledge of the true God.

Numbers 14:21
But truly, as I live, all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the LORD.    (NKJV)

Romans 14:11
For it is written:  "As I live, says the LORD, every knee shall bow to Me, and every tongue shall confess to God."    (NKJV)

Philippians 2:9-11
Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.   (NKJV)

Ephesians 3:14-15
For this reason I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, from whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named.

It is wise to submit to God now, for He has issued an unchangeable decree that all will someday bow before Him and acknowledge His sovereignty.
(from Holman Bible Handbook. (c) Copyright 1992 by Holman Bible Publishers. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(22)  Turn to me and be saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is no other.   (23)   By myself I have sworn, from my mouth righteousness has gone forth, a word that will not come back: that to me every knee will bow, and every tongue will swear.

Isaiah 45:24 & 25
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(24)  They shall say: “Only through the Lord can I find victory and might. When people trust in Him, all their adversaries are put to shame.

That to me every knee shall bend, and every tongue shall swear by God, saying, Righteousness and glory shall come to him: and all that remove them from their borders shall be ashamed.

Only in the Memra of the Lord, hath one said unto me, can one bring righteousness and strength; by his Memra shall they come, and all the nations that were incensed against his people shall be ashamed of their idols.

(25)  It is through the Lord that all the offspring of Israel have vindication and glory.”

By the Lord shall they be justified, and in God shall all the seed of the children of Israel be glorified.

In the Memra of the Lord shall all the seed of Israel be justified and glorified.

From the NKJV
(24)  He shall say, 'Surely in the LORD I have righteousness and strength.  To Him men shall come, and all shall be ashamed who are incensed against Him.   (25)    In the LORD all the descendants of Israel shall be justified, and shall glory.'

The "righteousness" is abounding (superabundant) righteousness.
`oz (OT:5797) (strength)  is the strength of sanctification,  and of the conquest of the world.

He shall say
Probably these are the words of Cyrus,  who acknowledged that all his success came from Yahweh.  And this sentiment is in effect contained in his decree or proclamation, Ezra 1:2.
Ezra 1:2-3
Thus says Cyrus king of Persia:
All the kingdoms of the earth the LORD God of heaven has given me. And He has commanded me to build Him a house at Jerusalem which is in Judah.  Who is among you of all His people? May his God be with him, and let him go up to Jerusalem which is in Judah, and build the house of the LORD God of Israel (He is God), which is in Jerusalem.     (NKJV)

Cyrus is a striking type of Messiah, the Anointed One of God.
For the sake of Israel, the elect servant of Yahweh, Cyrus

was "called" by God.
and his "right hand" was upheld,
so that the nations were 'subdued before him
and the gates of mighty Babylon 'opened before him.'
So Yahweh
made "the crooked places straight" before Messiah,
and burst open for Him the gates of death,
and gave Him "the treasures" which Satan the strong man had long kept in his house of "darkness."
But the antitype always exceeds the type.
Cyrus knew not God when God called him by name.
But Messiah has been from eternity with God, "rejoicing always before Him."

The effect of God's designation of Messiah to be the Savior of mankind shall be ultimately that which the designation of Cyrus to be deliverer of the Jews effected only in part,  "from the rising of the sun,  and from the west,"  all shall know that there is "no God besides" Yahweh.
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(24)  “Only in the Lord,” one will say of me, “are victories and might; to him will come all who were incensed against him and they will be shamed.   (25)    In the Lord all the descendants of Israel will have victory and glory.”



DEAD  IDOLS  AND  THE  LIVING  GOD

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Isaiah 46:1-13
Seventh Prophecy
Fall of the Gods of Babel

Isaiah 46:1, 2 Impotence of idols
Isaiah 46:3, 4 Call to hear
Isaiah 46:5 Challenge as to comparison
Isaiah 46:6, 7 Impotence of idols
Isaiah 46:8-11 Challenge as to comparison
Isaiah 46:12, 13 Call to hear

Isaiah 46:1 & 2
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(1)  Bel is bowed, Nebo is cowering, their images are a burden for beasts and cattle; the things you would carry [in procession] are now piled as a burden on tired [beasts].

Bel has fallen, Nabo is broken to pieces, their graven images are gone to the wild beasts and the cattle: ye take them packed up as a burden to the weary, exhausted, hungry, and at the same time helpless man;

Bel is bowed down, Nebo is broken off; their images are in the likeness of beasts and cattle: the burdens of their idols are heavy upon those that bear them, and they are weary.

(2)  They cowered, they bowed as well, they could not rescue the burden, and they themselves went into captivity.

who will not be able to save themselves from war, but they themselves are led away captive.

They have been cut in two, and broken off together: they were not able to deliver those that bear them, and they that serve them have gone into captivity.

From the NKJV
(1)  Bel bows down, Nebo stoops; their idols were on the beasts and on the cattle.  Your carriages were heavily loaded, a burden to the weary beast.    (2)    They stoop, they bow down together; they could not deliver the burden, but have themselves gone into captivity.

Bel
The same as the Phoenician Baal - i.e., lord,  the chief god of Babylon.

To it was dedicated the celebrated tower of Babylon,  in the center of one of the two parts into which the city was divided,  the palace being in the center of the other.  Identical with the Sun, worshipped on turrets,  house-tops,  and other high places,  so as to be nearer the heavenly hosts.
We often meet with this name, as in Bel-shazzar, Bel-teshazzar, Baal-peor, Baal-zebub, Baal-gad, Baal-Berith.
Gesenius identifies Bel with the planet Jupiter,  which,  with the planet Venus (under the name Astarte or Astaroth),  was worshipped in the East as the god of fortune,  the most propitious star to be born under (note, Isa 65:11).
According to the Apocryphal Book,  Bel and the Dragon,  Bel was cast down by Cyrus.

Nebo
This was an idol-god of the Chaldeans.

In the astrological mythology of the Babylonians,  according to Gesenius  (Commentary zu Isaiah ii. 333 ff),  this idol was the planet Mercury.
He is regarded as the scribe of the heavens,  who records the succession of the celestial and terrestrial events;  and is related to the Egyptian Hermes and Anubis.
The extensive worship of this idol among the Chaldeans and Assyrians is evident from the many compound proper names occurring in the Scriptures,  of which this word forms a part,  as Neb-uchadnezzar,  Neb-uzaradan:  and also in the classics,  as  Nab-onad,  Nab-onassar.
Nebo was,  therefore,  regarded as an attendant on Bel,  or as his scribe.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

The judgment of Jehovah falls upon these gods through Cyrus.
Bel suddenly falls headlong,  and Nebo stoops till he also falls.  Their images come to fall to the lot of the
chayyâh,  i.e., the camels,  dromedaries,  and elephants;  and
beheemâh, i.e., horses, oxen, and asses.
Your nªsu'ot, gestamina, the prophet exclaims to the Babylonians, i.e.,  the images hitherto carried by you in solemn procession  (Jer 10:5),  are now packed up,  a burden for that which is wearied out,  i.e.,  for cattle that has become weary with carrying them.
Jeremiah 10:5
They are upright, like a palm tree, and they cannot speak; they must be carried, because they cannot go by themselves.    (NKJV)

The helplessness of heathen idols is contrasted with the omnipotence of Jehovah.

Bel  -  The god of the lower atmosphere and of the dry land, a patron deity of Babylon.
His name means Bel, protect the king!
Nebo  -  Bel's grandson (being the son of Marduk),  the god of writing and education.
His name means Nebo, protect the boundary!
The helpless images of these gods had to be packed like baggage on the draft animals of the Chaldean refugees as they fled before the Persian invaders.
(from The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1962 by Moody Press)

Note on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Chapter 46:
1. 1Q1sa has all of chapter 46
2. 1Q1sa (b) has 46:3-13
3. 4Q1sa (b) has 46:1-3
4. 4Q1sa (c) has 46:8-13
5. 4Q1sa (d) has 46:10-13

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  Bel bows down, Nebo stoops. Their images are on beasts, on cattle. Your loads are more burdensome than their reports. (burdensome, the load upon a weary (beast) 4Q1sa (b) )   (2)   They stoop; they bow down together, and they are not able to rescue the burden, but themselves go into captivity.

Isaiah 46:3-5
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(3)  Listen to Me, O House of Jacob, all that are left of the House of Israel, who have been carried since birth, supported since leaving the womb:

Hear me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of Israel, who are borne by me from the womb, and taught by me from infancy, even to old age:

Hearken unto my Memra, ye that are of the house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, which are more beloved than all the nations, and dearer than all the kingdoms:

(4)  Till you grow old, I will still be the same; when you turn gray, it is I who will carry; I was the Maker, and I will be the Bearer; and I will carry and rescue [you].

I am he; and until ye shall have grown old, I am he: I bear you, I have made, and I will relieve, I will take up and save you.

and for ever I am he, and for ever and ever doth my Memra endure: I created all men, I scattered them among the nations; yea, I will pardon their transgressions and forgive them.

(5)  To whom can you compare Me or declare Me similar? To whom can you liken Me, so that we seem comparable?

To whom have ye compared me? See, consider, ye that go astray.

To whom will ye liken me in truth?

From the NKJV
(3)  Listen to Me, O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, who have been upheld by Me from birth, who have been carried from the womb:   (4)   Even to your old age, I am He, and even to gray hairs I will carry you!  I have made, and I will bear; even I will carry, and will deliver you.
(5)  To whom will you liken Me, and make Me equal and compare Me, that we should be alike?

The house of Jacob is Judah here, which went into Babylonian captivity.
The house of Israel is the northern 10 tribes that went into Assyrian captivity.
The Assyrian exile was earlier than the Babylonian,  and had already naturalized the greater part of the exiles in a heathen land,  and robbed them of their natural character,  so that there was only a remnant left by whom there was any hope that the prophet's message would be received.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

What the exiles of both houses were to hear was the question in verse 5,  which called upon them to consider the incomparable nature of their God,  as deduced from what Jehovah could say of Himself in relation to all Israel.  Babylon carried its idols,  but all in vain:  they were carried forth,  without being able to save themselves;  but Jehovah carried His people,  and saved them.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(3)  Listen to me, house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, carried from birth, and Borne from the womb:   (4)   Even till old age I am he, and even till I have grown gray I will carry you. It is I, who have made, and I who will bear, and I who will carry and save.   (5)   To whom will you liken me, and consider me equal,  may seem similar?

Isaiah 46:6 & 7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(6)  Those who squander gold from the purse and weigh out silver on the balance, they hire a metal worker to make it into a god, to which they bow down and prostrate themselves.

They that furnish gold out of a purse, and silver by weight, will weight it in a scale, and they hire a gold smith and make idols, and bow down, and worship them.

Behold the nations take gold out of the bag, and weigh silver in the balance; they hire a smith, and he maketh it an idol; they worship, yea, they pay homage.

(7)  They must carry it on their backs and transport it; when they put it down, it stands, it does not budge from its place. If they cry out to it, it does not answer; it cannot save them from their distress.

They bear it upon the shoulder, and go; and if they put it upon its place, it remains, it cannot move: and whosoever shall cry to it, it cannot hear; it cannot save him from trouble.

They bear it upon their shoulders, they carry it, and set it down in its place, and it standeth; it cannot move from its place: yea, he pray unto it, but it will not answer him, nor save him out of his trouble.

From the NKJV
(6)  They lavish gold out of the bag, and weigh silver on the scales; they hire a goldsmith, and he makes it a god; they prostrate themselves, yes, they worship.   (7)   They bear it on the shoulder, they carry it and set it in its place, and it stands; from its place it shall not move.  Though one cries out to it, yet it cannot answer nor save him out of his trouble.

The metal weighed out is given to a goldsmith, who plates the idol with the gold, and makes the ornaments for it of silver. When it is finished, they lift it up, or shoulder it, carry it home, and set it down in the place which it is to have under it. There it stands firm, immoveable, and also deaf and dumb, hearing no one, answering no one, and helping no one. The first admonition closes here. The gods who are carried fall without being able to save themselves, whereas Israel's God carries and saves His people; He, the Incomparable, more especially in contrast with the lifeless puppets of idols.

Exodus 32:2-6
And Aaron said to them,  "Break off the golden earrings which are in the ears of your wives, your sons, and your daughters, and bring them to me."  So all the people broke off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them to Aaron,  and he received the gold from their hand, and he fashioned it with an engraving tool, and made a molded calf.
Then they said, "This is your god, O Israel that brought you out of the land of Egypt!"
So when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it. And Aaron made a proclamation and said,  "Tomorrow is a feast to the LORD."  Then they rose early on the next day, offered burnt offerings, and brought peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.     (NKJV)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(6)  Those who pour gold into a purse and weigh silver in a balance hire a goldsmith, that he may make a god; and they prostrate themselves and even worship it.   (7)   And they lift it onto their shoulder and carry it and set it in its place. It stands there and does not move (one does not remove it MT.) from its place. Indeed, one may cry out to it, but it cannot answer nor deliver anyone from distress.

Isaiah 46:8-11
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(8)  Keep this in mind, and stand firm!  Take this to heart, you sinners!

Remember ye these things, and groan: repent, ye that have gone astray, return in your heart;

Remember this, and take courage, and bring it again to mind, ye rebels.

(9)  Bear in mind what happened of old; for I am God, and there is none else, I am divine, and there is none like Me.

and remember the former things that were of old: for I am God, and there is none other beside me,

Remember the former things which are from of old, for I am God, and there is no other god beside me;

(10)  I foretell the end from the beginning, and from the start, things that had not occurred. I say: My plan shall be fulfilled; I will do all I have purposed.

telling beforehand the latter events before they come to pass, and they are accomplished together: and I said, All my counsel shall stand, and I will do all things that I have planned:

declaring the end from the beginning, and from of old things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall be established, and all my pleasure will I do:

(11)  I summoned that swooping bird from the East; from a distant land, the man for My purpose. I have spoken, so I will bring it to pass; I have designed it, so I will complete it.

calling a bird from the east, and from a land afar off, for the things which I have planned: I have spoken, and brought him; [a bird] I have created and made him; I have brought him, and prospered his way.

I who promise to gather the exiles from the east, to bring quickly as a swift bird from a far land the children of Abraham, my chosen; yea, I have spoken, I will also bring it to pass: I have ordained it, I will also do it.

From the NKJV
(8)  "Remember this, and show yourselves men; recall to mind, O you transgressors.   (9)   Remember the former things of old, for I am God, and there is no other;  I am God, and there is none like Me,   (10)  declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times things that are not yet done, saying, 'My counsel shall stand, and I will do all My pleasure,'    (11)   Calling a bird of prey from the east, the man who executes My counsel, from a far country.  Indeed I have spoken it; I will also bring it to pass.  I have purposed it;  I will also do it.

The second admonition is addressed to those who would imitate the heathen.
The object to which  "this"  points back is the nothingness of idols and idolatry.

So that they may strengthen themselves in faith and fidelity,  they are referred to the history of their nation: ri'shonowt (OT:7223)  - the former things - are not prophecies given at an earlier time - but former occurrences.
They are to pass before their minds the earlier history,  and indeed  "from the olden time."
An earnest and thoughtful study of history would show them that Jehovah alone was El, the absolutely Mighty One,  and  'Eloohiim,  the Being who united in Himself all divine majesty by which reverence was evoked.

The participles in verses 10, 11 are attached to the "I" of kaamowniy (OT: 3644) - like me of verse 9.
It is Jehovah,  the Incomparable,  who has now,  as at other times from the very commencement of the new turn in history,  predicted the issue of which it would lead,  long before predicted things that have not yet occurred,  and which therefore literally outside the sphere of human combination - another passage like
Isa 41:26; 45:21, etc.,  in which what is predicted in these prophecies lays claim to the character of a prediction of long standing,  and not of one merely uttered a few years before.

The man who executes My counsel = the man of My counsel: i.e. Cyrus,  a type of Messiah,  set apart by God for this special service.

The r'shyt (OT:7225) - from the beginning,  in which the former things are already in progress (Isa 42:9),  is to be regarded as the prophet's ideal present;  for

Jehovah not only foretells before the appearance of Cyrus what is to be expected of him,
but declares that His determination must be realized,
that He will bring to pass everything upon which His will is set,
and summons the man upon the stage of history as the instrument of its accomplishment,
so that He knew Cyrus before he himself had either consciousness or being (Isa 45:4-5).

The East  =  Persis (ch. 41:2)
The distant land =   the northern part of Media  (as in Isa 13:5).
Cyrus is called an eagle, or, strictly speaking, a bird of prey (‘ayit).

His word is made by Him into a deed - His idea into a reality.

yaatsar (OT:3335) - I have purposed -  is a word used particularly by Isaiah,  to denote the ideal preformation of the future in the mind of God.  The feminine suffixes refer in a neuter sense to the theme of the prophecy - the overthrow of idolatrous Babel,  upon which Cyrus comes down like an eagle,  in the strength of Jehovah.

So far we have the nota bene for those who are inclined to apostasy.

They are to lay to heart the nothingness of the heathen gods,  and, on the other hand,
the self-manifestation of Jehovah from the olden time,  that is to say,  of the One God who is now foretelling and carrying out the destruction of the imperial city through the eagle from the east.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Providence
Providence Defined. - The word "provide" (from Latin providere) means etymologically  "to foresee."
The corresponding Greek word,  pronoia,  means  "forethought."
Forethought and foresight imply a future end,  a goal and a definite purpose and plan for attaining that end.
(From International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Electronic Database Copyright (c) 1996 by Biblesoft)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(8)  Remember this, and remain firm; recall it to mind, you sinners.   (9)   Remember the former things of old; for I am God, and there is no other. I am God, and there is none like me,   (10)   declaring from the beginning things to follow, (the latter things 4Q1sa (c)   the future MT.) and from ancient times things that have not yet happened, saying, My counsel will stand, and whatever I desire he will do;   (11)   calling a bird of prey from the east, and from a distant country a man with his purpose. Indeed, I have spoken, I will certainly bring it to pass; I planned it, I will certainly do it.

Isaiah 46:12 & 13
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(12)  Listen to Me, you stubborn of heart, who are far from victory:

Hearken to me, ye senseless ones that are far from righteousness:

Hearken unto my Memra, ye stubborn-hearted, that are far from acts of righteousness.

(13)  I am bringing My victory close; It shall not be far, and My triumph shall not be delayed. I will grant triumph in Zion to Israel, in whom I glory.

 I have brought near my righteousness, and I will not be slow with the salvation that is from me: I have given salvation in Sion to Israel for glory.

Near is my righteousness; it shall not be far off, and my salvation shall not be kept back; and I will set a savior in Zion for Israel my glory.

From the NKJV
(12)  "Listen to Me, you stubborn-hearted, who are far from righteousness:   (13)   I bring My righteousness near, it shall not be far off;  My salvation shall not linger.  And I will place salvation in Zion, for Israel My glory.

These are  "far from righteousness" (tsedâqâh);  that is to say,  they have despaired of the true,  loving fidelity of Jehovah,  and have no wish for any further knowledge of it.
Therefore they shall hear,  and possibly not without impression,  that this loving fidelity is about to manifest itself,  and salvation is about to be realized.  Jehovah has given salvation in Zion,  that is to say,  is giving it even now,  so that it will become once more the centre of the renovated nation,  and impart its glory to this,  so that it may shine in the splendor bestowed upon it by its God.

We have here the side of light and love,  turned towards us by the two-faced tsedâqâh,  as a parallel word to theshuu'âh,  or salvation.
With this admonition to the indifferent and careless,  to whom the salvation of which they have given up all hope is proclaimed as at the door,  this prophecy is brought to a close.
In three distinct stages,  commencing with "hearken,"   "remember,"   "hearken,"   it has unfolded the spiritual influences which the fact declared in verses 1, 2 ought to have upon Israel,  and resembles a pastoral sermon in its tone.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(12)  Listen to me, you bold-hearted, who are far from triumph:   (13)   my triumph is brought near, and it is not far off, and my deliverance, and it will not tarry. I will give deliverance in Zion, and to Israel my glory.


Isaiah Chapter 47
Eighth Prophecy
Fall of Babel, the Capital of the Empire of the World

Isaiah 47:1-15
Babylon - Doom

47:1-5 Call to Babylon Darkness and Silence
47:6, 7 Crimination Cruelty and Self-exaltation
47:8, 9 Retribution Widowhood
47:10 Crimination Evil and Self-deification
47:11 Retribution Evil and Desolation
47:12-15 Call to Babylon Impotence

Daniel 2:36-39
(36) This was the dream, and we will tell the interpretation of it to the king.
(37) You, O king, are king of the [earthly] kings to whom the God of heaven has given the kingdom, the power, the might, and the glory. [Jer 25:9; 27:6; 28:14.]
(38) And wherever the children of men dwell, and the beasts of the field, and the birds of the heavens--He has given them into your hand and has made you to rule over them all. You [king of Babylon] are the head of gold.
(39) And after you shall arise another kingdom [the Medo-Persian], inferior to you, and still a third kingdom of bronze [Greece under Alexander the Great] which shall bear rule over all the earth.    (AMP)

THE  HUMILIATION  OF  BABYLON

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Isaiah 47:1-4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(1)  Get down, sit in the dust, fair maiden Babylon; sit, dethroned, on the ground, O fair Chaldea; nevermore shall they call you The tender and dainty one.

Come down, sit on the ground, O virgin daughter of Babylon: sit on the ground, O daughter of the Chaldeans: for thou shalt no more be called tender and luxurious.

Come down and sit in the dust, O kingdom of the congregation of Babylon; sit on the ground without a glorious throne, O kingdom of the Chaldeans: for they shall no more call thee tender and delicate.

(2)  Grasp the hand mill and grind meal. Remove your veil, strip off your train, bare your leg, and wade through the rivers.

Take a millstone, grind meal: remove thy veil, uncover thy white hairs, make bare the leg, pass through the rivers.

Endure dominion, and enter into servitude, uncover the glory of thy kingdom: thy rulers are dismayed, the people of thine armies scattered; they are carried away as the waters of a river.

(3)  Your nakedness shall be uncovered, and your shame shall be exposed. I will take vengeance, and let no man intercede.

Thy shame shall be uncovered, thy reproaches shall be brought to light: I will exact of thee due vengeance, I will no longer deliver thee to men.

Thy shame shall be revealed, yea, thy disgrace shall be seen; full vengeance will I exact of thee, and will make thy judgment different from that of the sons of men.

(4)  Our Redeemer – Lord of Hosts is His name – Is the Holy One of Israel.

Thy deliverer is the Lord of hosts; the Holy One of Israel is his name.

Our savior, the Lord of hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel.

From the NKJV
(1)  "Come down and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon;  sit on the ground without a throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans!  For you shall no more be called tender and delicate.   (2)   Take the millstones and grind meal.  Remove your veil, take off the skirt, uncover the thigh, pass through the rivers.   (3)   Your nakedness shall be uncovered, yes, your shame will be seen; I will take vengeance, and I will not arbitrate with a man."   (4)   As for our Redeemer, the LORD of hosts is His name, the Holy One of Israel.

From the gods of Babylon the proclamation of judgment passes onto Babylon itself.
This is the first strophe in the prophecy.   As verse 36 clearly shows,  what proceeds is a penal sentence from Jehovah.
Babel and Chaldeans (ksdym (OT: 3778))  are regarded as a woman,  and that as one not yet dishonored.

Come down - Descend from the throne; or from the seat of magnificence and power.
The design of this verse is to foretell that Babylon would be humbled,  and that she would be reduced from her magnificence and pride to a condition of abject wretchedness.  She is therefore represented as a proud female accustomed to luxury and ease,  suddenly brought to the lowest condition,  and compelled to perform the most menial services.

Without a throne -  Babylon shall be no longer the seat of empire,  or the capital of kingdoms.
How truly this was fulfilled, needs not to be told to those who are familiar with the history of Babylon.

Its power was broken when Cyrus conquered it
Its walls were reduced by Darius
Seleucia rose in its stead, and took away its trade and a large portion of its inhabitants, until it was completely destroyed, so that it became for a long time a question where it had formerly stood
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

The mistress becomes the maid,  and has to perform the low,  menial service of those who,  as Homer says in Od. vii. 104, aletreu'ousi mu'lees e'pi mee'lopa karpo'n  (grind at the mill the quince-colored fruit).
She has to leave her palace as a prisoner of war,  and,  laying aside all feminine modesty,  to wade through the rivers upon which she borders.

The shame of Babel is her shameful conduct, which is not to be exhibited in its true colors, inasmuch as a stronger one is coming upon it to rob it of its might and honor.  This stronger one,  apart from the instrument employed,  is Jehovah.
Stier gives a different rendering here, namely, "I will run upon no man, i.e., so as to make him give way;"
Hahn,  "I will not meet with a man,"  so destitute of population will Babylon be; and
Ruetschi,  "I will not step in as a man."

It means rather to strike against a person,  to assault any one,  then to meet or come in an opposite direction,  and that not only in a hostile sense,  but,  as in this instance,  in a friendly sense as well.
Hence,  "I shall not receive any man, or pardon any man" (Hitzig, Ewald, etc.).

As for our Redeemer
This verse stands absolutely,  and is not connected with the preceding or the following.
It seems to be an expression of admiration,  or of grateful surprise,  by which the prophet saw Yahweh as the Redeemer of his people.  He saw,  in vision,  Babylon humbled,  and,  full of the subject,  he breaks out into an expression of grateful surprise and rejoicing.

 'O! our Redeemer! it is the work of our Savior, the Holy One of Israel! How great is his power! How faithful is he! How manifestly is he revealed! Babylon is destroyed. Her idols could not save her. Her destruction has been accomplished by him who is the Redeemer of his people, and the Holy One of Israel.'
Lowth regards this verse as the language of a chorus that breaks in upon the midst of the subject, celebrating the praises of God. The subject is resumed in the next verse.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  Come down and sit in the dust, virgin daughter of Babylon. Sit on the ground without a throne, daughter of the Chaldeans; for no more will they call you delicate and attractive.   (2)   Take the millstones and grind meal. Remove your veil, strip off your robes, (skirt MT.) uncover your leg, pass through the rivers.   (3)   Your nakedness will be uncovered, and your shame will also be seen. I will exact vindication, and no mortal will I spare.
(4)  Our Redeemer – the Lord of hosts is his name, the Holy One of Israel.

Isaiah 47:5-7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

.(5)  Sit silent; retire into darkness, O fair Chaldea; nevermore shall they call you Mistress of Kingdoms.

Sit thou down pierced with woe, go into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans: thou shalt no more be called the strength of a kingdom.

Sit thou in silence, and get thee into darkness, O kingdom of the congregation of the Chaldeans; for they shall no more call thee the mighty one of the kingdoms.

(6)  I was angry at My people, I defiled My heritage; I put them into your hands,  but you showed them no mercy. Even upon the aged you made your yoke exceedingly heavy.

I have been provoked with my people; thou hast defiled mine inheritance: I gave them into thy hand, but thou didst not extend mercy to them: thou made the yoke of the aged man very heavy,

I was wrath with my people; I profaned my inheritance, and delivered them into thy hand: thou wast not filled with compassion towards them; upon the aged thou did make heavy thy rule exceedingly.

(7)  You thought, “I shall always be the mistress still.” You did not take these things to heart; you gave no thought to the end of it.

and said, I shall be a princess for ever: thou didst not perceive these things in thine heart, nor didst thou remember the latter end.

And thou did say, For ever shall I be the mighty one of the kingdoms, so that thou did not set these things to heart, nor remember the end thereof.

From the NKJV
(5)  "Sit in silence, and go into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans; for you shall no longer be called The Lady of Kingdoms.   (6)   I was angry with My people; I have profaned My inheritance, and given them into your hand. You showed them no mercy;  on the elderly you laid your yoke very heavily.   (7)   And you said, 'I shall be a lady forever,' so that you did not take these things to heart, nor remember the latter end of them.

Daniel 4:34-37
(34)  And at the end of the days [seven years], I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted up my eyes to heaven, and my understanding and the right use of my mind returned to me; and I blessed the Most High [God] and I praised and honored and glorified Him Who lives forever, Whose dominion is an everlasting dominion; and His kingdom endures from generation to generation.
(35)  And all the inhabitants of the earth are accounted as nothing. And He does according to His will in the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth, and none can stay His hand or say to Him, What are You doing?
(36)  Now at the same time my reason and understanding returned to me; and for the glory of my kingdom, my majesty and splendor returned to me, and my counselors and my lords sought me out; I was reestablished in my kingdom, and still more greatness [than before] was added to me.
(37)  Now I, Nebuchadnezzar, praise and extol and honor the King of heaven, Whose works are all faithful and right and Whose ways are just. And those who walk in pride He is able to abase and humble.   (AMP)

Daniel 5:22-24
(22)  And you his son, O Belshazzar, have not humbled your heart and mind, though you knew all this [knew it and were defiant].
(23)  And you have lifted yourself up against the Lord of heaven, and the vessels of His house have been brought before you, and you and your lords, your wives, and your concubines have drunk wine from them; and you have praised the gods of silver and gold, of bronze, iron, wood, and stone, which do not see or hear or know; but the God in Whose hand your breath is and Whose are all your ways you have not honored and glorified [but have dishonored and disgraced].
(24)  Then was the part of the hand sent from the presence of [the Most High God], and this writing was inscribed.   (AMP)

Daniel 5:26-28
(26)  This is the interpretation of the matter: MENE, God has numbered the days of your kingship and brought them to an end;
(27)  TEKEL, You are weighed in the balances and are found wanting;
(28)  PERES, Your kingdom and your kingship are divided and given to the Medes and Persians. [Foretold in Isa 21:2, 5, 9.]   (AMP)

In the second strophe the penal sentence of Jehovah is continued.
Babylon shall sit down in silent,  brooding sorrow,  and take herself away into darkness,  just as those who have fallen into disgrace shrink from the eyes of men.
She is looked upon as an empress (Isa 13:9; the king of Babylon called himself the king of kings),  who has been reduced to the condition of a slave,  and durst not show herself for shame.
This would happen to her,  because at the time when Jehovah made use of her as His instrument for punishing His people,  she went beyond the bounds of her authority,  showing ho pity,  and ill-treating even defenseless old men.

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(5)  Sit silent, and enter into the darkness, daughter of the Chaldeans; for no more will they call you mistress of kingdoms.   (6)   I was angry with my people, and I profaned my heritage and gave them into your power. You showed them no mercy; upon the elderly you laid your yoke very heavily.   (7)   You said, “Always shall I be mistress forever.” You did not take these things into your thinking nor were you mindful of their consequences.



LESSON  23  FROM  THE  AMPLIFIED  VERSION

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Isaiah 45:14 - 47:7  -  from the Amplified Version

45:14    THUS SAYS the Lord: The labor and wealth of Egypt and the merchandise of Ethiopia and the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over to you and they shall be yours; they shall follow you; in chains [of subjection to you] they shall come over, and they shall fall down before you; they shall make supplication to you, saying, Surely God is with you, and there is no other, no God besides Him. [1 Corinthians 14:25.]
(15)  Truly You are a God Who hides Himself, O God of Israel, the Savior.
(16)  They shall be put to shame, yes, confounded, all of them; they who are makers of idols shall go off into confusion together.
(17)  But Israel shall be saved by the Lord with an everlasting salvation; you shall not be put to shame or confounded to all eternity. [Hebrews 5:9.]
(18)  For thus says the Lord — Who created the heavens, God Himself, Who formed the earth and made it, Who established it and did not create it to be a worthless waste; He formed it to be inhabited — I am the Lord, and there is no one else.
(19)  I have not spoken in secret, in a corner of the land of darkness; I did not call the descendants of Jacob [to a fruitless service], saying, Seek Me for nothing [but I promised them a just reward]. I, the Lord, speak righteousness (the truth — trustworthy, straightforward correspondence between deeds and words); I declare things that are right. [John 18:20.]
(20)  Assemble yourselves and come; draw near together, you survivors of the nations! They have no knowledge who carry about [in religious processions or into battle] their wooden idols and keep on praying to a god that cannot save.
(21)  Declare and bring forward your strong arguments [for praying to gods that cannot save]; yes, take counsel together. Who announced this [the rise of Cyrus and his conquests] beforehand (long ago)? [What god] declared it of old? Was it not I, the Lord? And there is no other God besides Me, a rigidly and uncompromisingly just and righteous God and Savior; there is none besides Me.
(22)  Look to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth! For I am God, and there is no other.
(23)  I have sworn by Myself, the word is gone out of My mouth in righteousness and shall not return, that unto Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear [allegiance]. [Romans 14:11; Philippians 2:10,11; Hebrews 6:13.]
(24)  Only in the Lord shall one say, I have righteousness (salvation and victory) and strength [to achieve]. To Him shall all come who were incensed against Him, and they shall be ashamed. [1 Corinthians 1:30,31.]
(25)  In the Lord shall all the offspring of Israel be justified (enjoy righteousness, salvation, and victory) and shall glory.

46:1    BEL BOWS down, Nebo stoops [gods of Babylon, whose idols are being carried off]; their idols are on the beasts [of burden] and on the cattle. These things that you carry about are loaded as burdens on the weary beasts.
(2)   [The gods] stoop, they bow down together; they cannot save [their own idols], but are themselves going into captivity.
(3)   Listen to Me [says the Lord], O house of Jacob, and all the remnant of the house of Israel, you who have been borne by Me from your birth, carried from the womb:
(4)   Even to your old age I am He, and even to hair white with age will I carry you. I have made, and I will bear; yes, I will carry and will save you.
(5)   To whom will you liken Me and make Me equal and compare Me, that we may be alike? [Isaiah 40:18-20.]
(6)   They lavish gold out of the cup or bag, weigh out silver on the scales, and hire a goldsmith, and he fashions it into a god; [then] they fall down, yes, they worship it!
(7)   They bear it upon their shoulders [in religious processions or into battle]; they carry it and set it down in its place, and there it stands. It cannot move from its place. Even if one cries to it for help, yet [the idol] cannot answer or save him out of his distress.
(8)   [Earnestly] remember this, be ashamed and own yourselves guilty; bring it again to mind and lay it to heart, O you rebels!
(9)   [Earnestly] remember the former things, [which I did] of old; for I am God, and there is no one else; I am God, and there is none like Me,
(10)  Declaring the end and the result from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all My pleasure and purpose,
(11)  Calling a ravenous bird from the east — the man [Cyrus] who executes My counsel from a far country. Yes, I have spoken, and I will bring it to pass; I have purposed it, and I will do it.
(12)  Listen to Me, you stiff-hearted and you who have lost heart, you who are far from righteousness (from uprightness and right standing with God, and from His righteous deliverance).
(13)  I bring near My righteousness [in the deliverance of Israel], it will not be far off; and My salvation shall not tarry. And I will put salvation in Zion, for Israel My glory [yes, give salvation in Zion and My glory to Israel].

47:1   COME DOWN, and sit in the dust, O Virgin Daughter of Babylon; sit on the ground [in abject humiliation]; there is no throne for you, O Daughter of the Chaldeans, for you shall no longer be called dainty and delicate.
(2)   Take the millstones [like the poorest female slave of the household does] and grind meal; take off your veil and uncover your hair. Remove your skirt, bare your leg, wade through the rivers [at the command of your captors].
(3)  Your nakedness shall be exposed, and your shame shall be seen. I will take vengeance, and I will spare no man [none I encounter will be able to resist Me],
(4)   [Says] our Redeemer — the Lord of hosts is His name — the Holy One of Israel.
(5)  Sit in silence and go into darkness, O Daughter of the Chaldeans; for you shall no more be called the lady and mistress of kingdoms.
(6)  I was angry with My people, I profaned My inheritance [Judah]; and I gave them into your hand [Babylon]. You showed them no mercy; upon the old people you made your yoke very heavy.
(7)  And you said, I shall be the mistress forever! So you did not lay these things to heart, nor did you [seriously] remember the certain, ultimate end of such conduct.
 

(End of  Lesson 23)


  

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