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ISAIAH
The Gospel To Israel
Book 3

LESSON  THIRTY ONE
Isaiah 60:1 - 61:11


Isaiah 61:1-66:24
Messiah In Person
  Isa 61:1-9 Messiah in Person Grace
 
Isa 61:10, 11 Joy for present blessings
Isa 62:1-7 Prayer incited
Isa 62:8-12 Answer promised
  Isa 63:1-6 Messiah in Person Judgment
 
Isa 63:7-14 Praise for past blessings
Isa 63:15-64:12 Prayer offered
Isa 65:1-66:24 Answer given
       

Isaiah Chapter 60
Third Prophecy
The Glory of the Jerusalem of the Last Days

Isaiah 60:1
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(1)  Arise, shine, for your light has dawned; the presence of the Lord has shone upon you!

Be enlightened, be enlightened, O Jerusalem, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee.

Arise, shine, O Jerusalem; for the time of thy salvation has arrived, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed upon thee.

From the NKJV
(1)  Arise, shine;  for your light has come!  And the glory of the LORD is risen upon you.

Ephesians 5:14
Therefore He says:  "Awake, you who sleep, arise from the dead, and Christ will give you light."      (NKJV)

Compare

Isa 51:9, 17 “awake” and put on strength
Isa 60:1 “arise” for your light has come
And contrast the cry to Babylon
Isa 47:1 "come down" sit in the dust

Note: The Formula of Prophetic Utterance
It is clear that there was an appropriate and recognized style of prophetic address,  and of the introduction to special prophetic utterances.  Since we are dealing with Isaiah here,  I will only go into Isaiah at this time.
In Isaiah,  the prophetic utterances have two distinct forms.

1. As to Israel, the chosen People, they open with exclamations, commands, or appeals, such as “Hear,” “Listen,” “Awake,” “Ho,” “Arise, shine,” “Behold.”
2. While in the case of surrounding nations it was a series of “Burdens” or “Woes;” as well as to Ephraim (Isa 28), and to the rebellious sons who go down to Egypt, to the “Assyrian,” &c.
Look for these words at the beginning of a prophecy.
Paul the Learner

In his inward penetration of the substance of his own preaching, he has come close to the time when faith is to be turned to sight.  The appeal so addressed to Zion-Jerusalem,  which is regarded as a woman,  and indeed as the mother of Israel.  Here,  however,  it is regarded as the church redeemed from banishment,  and settled once more in the holy city and the holy land, the church of salvation, which is now about to become the church of glory.

Note: To fully understand this time period of 70 weeks of years,  when Israel came out of bondage to Babylon,  please see Prophecy and then the seventy weeks of years.

Zion lies prostrate on the ground,  smitten down by the judgment of God,  brought down to the ground by inward prostration,  and partly overcome by the sleep of self-security.

She now hears the cry,  "Arise!" (quumii).
This is not a mere admonition,  but a word of power which puts new life into her limbs,  so that she is able to rise from the ground,  on which she has lain,  as it were,  under the ban.  The night,  which has brought her to the ground mourning,  and faint,  and intoxicated with sleep,  is now at an end.

The mighty word quumii,  "arise,"  is supplemented by a second word: 'oorii,  “shine.”
What creative force there is in these two trochees, quumii 'oorii,  which hold on,  as it were,  till what they express is accomplished;  and what force of consolation in the two iambi, ki-bhâ 'ooreekh (for your light has come),  which affix,  as it were, t o the acts of Zion the seal of the divine act,  and add to the a'rsis (or elevation)  its the'sis (or foundation)!  Zion is to become light;  it is to,  because it can.

But it cannot of itself,  for in itself it has no light,  because it has so absolutely given itself up to sin;  but there is a light which will communicate itself to her,  viz.,  the light which radiates from the holy nature of God Himself.  And this light is salvation,  because the Holy One loves Zion:  it is also glory,  because it not only dispels the darkness,  but sets itself,  all glorious as it is,  in the place of the darkness. Zârach (is risen) is the word commonly applied to the rising of the sun. The sun of suns is Jehovah,  the God who is coming.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The light here referred to is evidently that of the gospel; and when the prophet says that that light 'has come,' he throws himself into future times, and sees in vision the Messiah as having already come, and as pouring the light of salvation on a darkened church and world
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  Arise, shine; for your light has come, the glory of the Lord has risen upon you.
See Note in lesson 15 on the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

Isaiah 60:2 & 3
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(2)  Behold! Darkness shall cover the earth and thick clouds the peoples; but upon you the Lord will shine and His Presence be seen over you.

Behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and there shall be gross darkness on the nations: but the Lord shall appear upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.

For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and gloom the kingdoms; but the Shekinah of the Lord shall dwell in thee, and his glory shall be revealed upon thee.

(3)  And nations shall walk by your light, Kings, by your shinning radiance.

And kings shall walk in thy light and nations in thy brightness.

And the nations shall go to thy light, and kings towards thy brightness.

From the NKJV
(2)  For behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and deep darkness the people; but the LORD will arise over you,  and His glory will be seen upon you.   (3)   The Gentiles shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising.

It is now all darkness over mankind;  but Zion is the east,  in which this sun of suns will rise.

This prophecy no doubt stands in progressive connection with the previous one;  but,  according to Isa 59:19,  the manifestation of judgment,  through which Zion is redeemed,  brings even the heathen from west to east,  i.e.,  those who survive the judgment,  to the fear of Jehovah.

After the judgments of God have passed,  darkness in its greatest depth still covers the earth,   and a night of clouds the nations.  It is still night as on the first day,  but a night which is to give place to light.  Where,  then,  will the sun rise,  by which this darkness is to be lighted up?  The answer is,  "Over Zion, the redeemed church of Israel."  But whilst darkness still covers the nations,  it is getting light in the Holy Land,  for a sun is rising over Zion,  viz.,  Jehovah in His unveiled glory.

The consequence of this is,  that Zion itself becomes thoroughly light,  and that not for itself only,  but for all mankind.  When Jehovah has transformed Zion into the likeness of His own glory,  Zion transforms all nations into the likeness of her own.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Deep darkness
Lowth renders this, 'A thick vapor.'
Herder. 'Deep obscurity.'
Septuagint, gnofos - Cloud, shade, tempest.
The Hebrew word `Şraapel usually denotes thick cloud,  cloudy darkness,  gloom;  and is often applied to the thick clouds of a tempest.  It is a word of more intense meaning than that which is rendered 'darkness' choshek and the idea here is,  that the nations would be enveloped in a cloud of ignorance and sin so dense and obscure that no light could penetrate it - a description strikingly applicable to the whole pagan world.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

His glory will be seen
There is more emphatic meaning in the original here than is conveyed in our translation.  The Hebrew word yeeraa'eh does not mean merely that that glory would be visible,  but that it would be conspicuous.
It would be so bright and luminous that it would be seen afar - like a cloud or column of glory standing over Jerusalem that would be conspicuous to far distant people.

And what is that light to which the whole world will come?

John 8:12
Then Jesus spoke to them again, saying,  "I am the light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life."      (NKJV)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(2)  For see, darkness will cover the earth and thick darkness the peoples, but the Lord will arise upon you and his glory will appear over you.   (3)   Nations will come to your light, and kings before (to the brightness of MT.) your dawn.

Isaiah 60:4
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(4)  Raise your eyes and look about: they have all gathered and come to you. Your sons shall be brought from afar, your daughters like babes on shoulders.

Lift up thine eyes round about, and behold thy children gathered: all thy sons have come from far, and thy daughters shall be borne on men’s shoulders.

Lift up, O Jerusalem, thine eyes round about, and see all the children of the people of thy exiles which gather themselves together, and come to thy midst; thy sons shall come from afar, and thy daughters shall be carried in the arms.

From the NKJV
(4)  Lift up your eyes all around, and see: they all gather together, they come to you; your sons shall come from afar, and your daughters shall be nursed at your side.

Sons…daughters
These are not Gentiles therefore, but true Israelites (Jeremiah 31:10).

Jeremiah 31:10
Hear the word of the LORD, O nations, and declare it in the isles afar off, and say,  "He who scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him as a shepherd does his flock."

Zion is now exhorted, as in Isa 49:18, to lift up her eyes,  and turn them in all directions;  for she is the object sought by an approaching multitude.

The multitude that are crowding together and coming near are the Diaspora of her sons and daughters that have been scattered far away (Isa 11:12),  and whom the heathen that are now drawing near to her bring with them,  conducting them and carrying them,  so that they cling  "to the side"  of those who are carrying them upon their arms and shoulders (Isa 49:22).  A foster-father,  a nurse who has a child in safe keeping.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(4)   Lift up your eyes and look around: they all assemble, they come to you; your sons will come from far away, and your daughters will be carried on the hip.

Isaiah 60:5
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(5)  As you behold, you will glow; your heart will throb and thrill - for the wealth of the sea shall pass on to you, the riches of nations shall flow to you.

Then shalt thou see, and fear, and be amazed in thine heart; for the wealth of the sea shall come round to thee, and of nations and peoples; and herds of camels shall come to thee,

Then shalt thou see, and be lightened, and shalt fear and thy heart shall be enlarged for fear of sins: for the wealth of the west has been transferred to thee, and the riches of the peoples shall be brought into thy midst.

From the NKJV
(5)  Then you shall see and become radiant, and your heart shall swell with joy;  because the abundance of the sea shall be turned to you, the wealth of the Gentiles shall come to you.

Swell with joy
Fear = praise - The Hebrew word is pachad (OT:6342).  This is called a Homonym,  with two meanings:

(1) To fear as in Deuteronomy 28:66. Job 23:15
Deuteronomy 28:66
...you shall fear day and night...
Job 23:15
...I am afraid of Him...
(2) To rejoice which is what it means here

Of the sea = of the rich seafaring peoples, for which “sea” is put by Figure of Speech called Metonymy (of Adjunct), or, Change of Noun.  When one name or noun is used instead of another,  to which it stands in a certain relation.

Forces = fullness, riches, wealth, or resources.
This prophecy looks far beyond the return under Ezra – Nehemiah.

When this takes place,  Zion will be seized with the greatest delight,  mingled with some trembling.

Keil & Delitzsch renders it: "Then wilt thou see and shine,"  i.e.,  when thou seest this thou wilt thine,  thy face will light up with joy;  nâhar as in Ps 34:6.
Luther renders it,  "Then wilt thou see thy desire, and break out," viz.,  into shouting.
Jerome, on the contrary, has, "Thou wilt overflow, i.e., thou wilt be inundated with waters coming suddenly like rivers."
The impression produced by this revolution is so overpowering,  that Zion's heart trembles;  yet at the same time it is so elevating,  that the straitened heart expands.

Isaac Nathan in his Concordance, (entitled ntyb m'yr): for hâmoon yâm, i.e., everything of value that is possessed by islands and coast lands (hâmoon,  groaning,  a groaning multitude,  more especially of possessions.),  is brought to her;  and cheel gooyim, the property, i.e., (looking at the plural of the predicate which follows; cf., Hag 2:7) the riches (gold, silver, etc., Zech 14:14) of the heathen,  are brought into her,  that she may dispose of them to the glory of her God.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Haggai 2:7
And I will shake all nations, and they shall come to the Desire of All Nations, and I will fill this temple with glory,' says the LORD of hosts.     (NKJV)

Zechariah 14:14-16
14 And Judah also shall fight at Jerusalem, and the wealth of all the nations round about shall be gathered together--gold and silver and apparel in great abundance.
15 And as that plague on men, so shall be the plague on the horse, on the mule, on the camel, on the donkey, and on all the livestock and beasts that may be in those camps.
16 And everyone who is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the Lord of hosts, and to keep the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths.     (AMP)

See also Ezekiel 38:1-23 [After this battle called in Revelation 16:14-21 Armageddon, these things happen.]
Paul the Learner

The wealth of the lands beyond the sea, as in Solomon's time, the type of the coming reign of the Prince of Peace, instead of being turned to purposes of sin and idolatry, shall be turned to minister to the Lord and His people.
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(5)  Then you will look and be radiant; your heart will swell with joy, (will throb and swell with joy 1Q1sa (b). MT) because the wealth of the seas will be brought to you, the riches of the nations will come to you.

Isaiah 60:6 & 7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(6)  Dust clouds of camels shall cover you, Dromedaries of Midian and Ephah. They shall bear gold and frankincense, and shall herald the glories of the Lord.

And the camels of Madiam and Gaepha shall cover thee: all from Saba shall come bearing gold, and shall bring frankincense, and they shall publish the salvation of the Lord.

The caravans of the Arabians shall cover thee round about, the dromedaries of Midian and Hawalak; they all shall come from Sheba: with gold and frankincense shall they be laden, and they that come with them shall be recounting the praises of the Lord.

(7)  All the flocks of Kedar shall be assembled for you, the rams of Nebaioth shall serve your needs; they shall be welcome offerings on My altar, and I will add glory to My glorious House.

And all the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered, and the rams of Nabaeoth shall come; and acceptable sacrifices shall be offered on my altar, and my house of prayer shall be glorified.

All the sheep of the Arabians shall be gathered together into thy midst; the rams of Nebat shall minister to thee: they shall be offered up with acceptance upon mine altar, and I will glorify the house of my praise.

From the NKJV
(6) The multitude of camels shall cover your land, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all those from Sheba shall come; they shall bring gold and incense, and they shall proclaim the praises of the LORD. (7) All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together to you, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you; they shall ascend with acceptance on My altar, and I will glorify the house of My glory.

Ephah - Sheba
Both descended from Abraham and Keturah.

Ephah A Midianite tribe (Genesis 25:4 And the sons of Midian were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abidah, and Eldaah).
Sheba (Genesis 10:7 The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtechah; and the sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan)
All of these,  both Midianites and Ephaeans,  come out of Sheba,  which Strabo (xvi. 4, 10) describes as  "the highly blessed land of the Sabeans,  in which myrrh,  frankincense, and cinnamon grow."
The tribe of Midian, which sprang from Abraham and Keturah (Gen 25:2),  and of which Ephah (Targum Hoolâd,  the Hutheilites?)  formed one of the several branches (Gen 25:4),  had its seat on the eastern coast of the Elanitic Gulf,  which is still indicated by the town of Madyan, situated,  according to the geographers of Arabia,  five days' journey to the south of Aila.  These come in such long and numerous caravans,  that all the country round Jerusalem swarms with camels.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

It is true that the following passage of Strabo (xvi. 14, 21) is apparently at variance with the opinion that the seat of the Sabeans was in southern Arabia. "First of all," he says, "above Syria, Arabia Felix is inhabited by the Nabataean and Sabeans, who frequently marched through the former before it belonged to the Romans."

But as,  according to every other account given by Strabo,  the Sabeans had their home in Arabia Felix,  and the Nabataean at the northern extremity of the Red Sea,  in Arabia Petraea,  all that this passage can imply is,  that at that part of Arabia which stretches towards the Syrian boundary,  the expeditions of the Sabeans came upon the Nabataean.) where spices,  jewels,  and gold abound,  they have purchased gold and frankincense,  and these valuable gifts they now bring to Jerusalem,  not as unwilling tribute,  but with the joyful proclamation of the glorious deeds and attributes of Jehovah,  the God of Israel.

And not only do the trading nations come,  but the nomad tribes also:  viz.,  Kedar,  the Kedarenes,  with their bows (Isa 21:17),  who lived in the desert,  between Babylonia and Syria,  in chatseeriym (OT:2691) (Isa 42:11),  i.e.,  fixed settlements;  and Nebaitoh,  also in Ishmaelitish tribe (according to the incontrovertible account of Gen 25:13),  a nomad tribe,  which was still of no note even in the time of the kings of Israel,  but which rose into a highly cultivated nation in the centuries just before Christ,  and had a kingdom extending from the Elanitic Gulf to the land on the east of the Jordan,  and across Belka as far as Hauran;  for the monuments reach from Egypt to Babylonia, though Arabia Petraea is the place where they chiefly abound.

The prophet,  indeed,  cannot describe even what belongs to the New Testament in any other than Old Testament colors,  because he is still within the Old Testament limits.  But from the standpoint of the New Testament fulfillment,  that which was merely educational and preparatory,  and of which there will be no revival,  is naturally transformed into the truly essential purpose at which the former aimed;  so that all that was real in the prophecy remains unaffected and pure,  after the dedication of what was merely the unessential medium employed to depict it.

The very same Paul who preaches Christ as the end of the law,  predicts the conversion of Israel as the top stone of the gracious counsels of God as they unfold themselves in the history of salvation,  and describes the restoration of Israel as  "the riches of the Gentiles."
And the very same John who wrote the Gospel was also the apocalyptist,  [writer of Revelation] by whom the distinction between Israel and the Gentiles was seen in vision as still maintained even in the New Jerusalem.

Romans 11:11-12
So I ask, Have they stumbled so as to fall [to their utter spiritual ruin, irretrievably]? By no means! But through their false step and transgression salvation [has come] to the Gentiles, so as to arouse Israel [to see and feel what they forfeited] and so to make them jealous.   Now if their stumbling (their lapse, their transgression) has so enriched the world [at large], and if [Israel's] failure means such riches for the Gentiles, think what an enrichment and greater advantage will follow their full reinstatement!      (AMP)

It must therefore be possible,  that the Israel of the future may have a very prominent position in the perfect church,  and be,  as it were,  the central leader of its worship,  though without the restoration of the party-wall of particular’s and ceremonial shadows,  which the blood of the crucified One has entirely washed away.

The house of God in Jerusalem,  as the prophet has already stated in Isa 56:7,  will be a house of prayer (beeth tephillâh) for all nations.  Here Jehovah calls the house built in His honor,  and filled with His gracious presence,  "the house of my glory."  He will make its inward glory like the outward,  by adorning it with the gifts presented by the converted Gentile world.

When you read Ezekiel 38 you find that in the latter years,  that Russia,  Iran,  Ethiopia,  Libya and Germany,  also Turkey will come to Israel to destroy and obtain wealth,  all in the will of God.  This great army will be destroyed by the power of the Lord.  Those that remain of these nations will know that there is a God in Israel and that He demands respect and worship.  I believe that these Scriptures relate to this time period.  Remember that  ‘prophecy is not for private interpretation’  so this is only a theory.
Paul the Learner

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(6)  A multitude of camels will cover you, the young camels of Midian and Ephu; all those from Shebu will come. They will bear gold and frankincense, and proclaim the praise of the Lord.    (7)     All Kedar’s flocks will be gathered to you, the rams of Nebaioth will serve you; and they will come up with acceptance upon on my altar, and I will glorify my glorious house.

Isaiah 60:8 & 9
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(8)  Who are these that float like a cloud, like doves to their cotes?

Who are these that fly as clouds, and as doves with young one to me?

Who are these that come quickly like swift clouds, and cannot be held back? The exiles of Israel which gather themselves together, and come to their land, even as doves which return to the midst of their cotes.

(9)  Behold, the coastlands await me; with ships of Tarshish in the lead, to bring your sons from afar, and their silver and gold as well – for the name of the Lord your God, for the Holy One of Israel, who has glorified you.

The isles have waited for me, and the ships of Tharsis among the first, to bring thy children from afar, and their silver and their gold with them, and that for the sake of the holy name of the Lord, and because the Holy One of Israel is glorified.

For the coastlands will wait for my Memra, and as for them which go down in ships of the sea – which spreadeth out its sails first? – To bring thy sons from afar, their silver and their gold with them, for the name of the Lord thy God, and for the Holy One of Israel, because he hath glorified thee?

From the NKJV
(8)  Who are these who fly like a cloud, and like doves to their roosts?    (9)    Surely the coastlands shall wait for Me; and the ships of Tarshish will come first, to bring your sons from afar, their silver and their gold with them, to the name of the LORD your God, and to the Holy One of Israel, because He has glorified you.

Who are these…?
Referring probably to the ships whose sails are compared to wings,  developed in the next verse.

From the mainland,  over which caravans and flocks are coming,  the prophet now turns his eyes to the sea.

Upon the sea there appear first of all enigmatical shapes,  driving along as swiftly as if they were light clouds flying before the wind,   or like doves flying to their dovecots,  i.e.,  to the round towers with their numerous pigeon-holes,  which are provided for their shelter.
The question is addressed to Zion,  and the answer may easily be anticipated - namely,  that this swarm of swiftly flying figures are hurrying to a house which they long to reach,  as much as pigeons do to reach their pigeon-house.

The kii (surely) which follows is explanatory:  this hurrying presents itself to thine eyes,  because the isles wait for me.  The reason for all this haste is to be found in the faith of those who are hurrying on.
The Old Testament generally speaks of faith as hope;  not that faith is the same as hope,  but it is the support of hope,  just as hope is the comfort of faith.

In the Old Testament,  when the true salvation existed only in promise,  this epithet,  for which there were many synonyms in the language,  was the most appropriate one.  The faith of the distant lands of the west is now beginning to work.  The things thus flying along like clouds and doves are ships;  with the Tartessus ships,  which come from the farthest extremity of the European insular quarter of the globe,  at their head.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

In multitudes so numerous,  that they appear as a dense cloud.
The prophet,  in vision,  sees a vast multitude coming to Jerusalem,  or hastening to embrace the true religion - so numerous as to excite surprise,  and to lead to the question,  Who can they be?

It is not uncommon to compare a multitude of persons to a cloud.  Thus in Hebrews 12:1,  the number of witnesses who are said to encompass Christians is compared to a cloud nefos marturoon.
The comparison relates probably to the number,  rather than to the swiftness with which they would come.  Converts would be multiplied in such numbers,  that they would seem to be like dense clouds making their way to Zion.  This strikingly expresses the fact of the numerous conversions among the Gentiles,  and is a most beautiful description of a revival of religion.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(8)  Who are these that fly like clouds, and like doves to their dovecotes?    (9)    For the coastlands will wait for me, the ships of Tarshish in the lead, to bring my children from far away, their silver and gold with them, for the name of the Lord your God, and for the Holy One of Israel, because he has glorified you.

Isaiah 60:10-12
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(10)   Aliens shall rebuild your walls, their kings shall wait upon you – for in anger I struck you down, but in favor I take you back.

And strangers shall build thy walls and their kings shall wait upon thee: for by reason of mercy I loved thee.

And strangers shall build thy walls, and their kings shall minister to thee: for in mine anger I smote thee, but in my good pleasure I will have compassion upon thee.

(11)  Your gates shall always stay open – Day and night they shall never be shut – to let in the wealth of the nations, with their kings in procession.

And thy gates shall be opened continually; they shall not be shut day nor night; to bring in to thee the power of the Gentiles, and their kings as captives.

And thy gates shall be open continually; day and night they shall not be shut; to bring into thy midst the riches of the peoples and their kings in chains.

(12)  For the nation or the kingdom that does not serve you shall perish; such nations shall be destroyed.

For the nations and the kings which will not serve thee shall perish; and those nations shall be made utterly desolate.

For the people and kingdom that shall not serve thee, O Jerusalem shall perish, and the peoples shall be utterly destroyed.

From the NKJV
(10)  The sons of foreigners shall build up your walls, and their kings shall minister to you; for in My wrath I struck you, but in My favor I have had mercy on you.    (11)    Therefore your gates shall be open continually; they shall not be shut day or night, that men may bring to you the wealth of the Gentiles, and their kings in procession.    (12)    for the nation and kingdom which will not serve you shall perish, and those nations shall be utterly ruined.
     
The first turn (verses 1-3) described the glorification of Zion through the rising of the glory of Jehovah.
The second turn (verses 4-9) described her glorification through the recovery of her scattered children, and the gifts of the Gentiles who bring them home.
The third turn (verses 10-12) depicts her glorification through the service of the nations, especially of her former persecutors, and generally through the service of all that is great and glorious in the world of nature and the world of men.

Not only do the converted heathen offer their possessions to the church on Zion,

but they offer up themselves and their kings to pay her homage and render service to her.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

For the nation and the kingdom which will not serve thee will perish,  and the nations be certainly laid waste.
The walls of Zion rise up from their ruins through the willing co-operation of converted foreigners (Isa 56:6-7),  and foreign kings place themselves at the service of Zion (Isa 49:23);  the help rendered by the edicts of Cyrus,  Darius,  and Artaxerxes Longimanus being only a prelude to events stretching on to the end of time,  though indeed,  in the view of the prophet himself,  the period immediately succeeding the captivity really would be the end of time.

At the same time,  "day and night"  may be connected with  "shall not be shut,"  as in Rev 21:25-26. The gates of Zion may always be left open,  for there is no more fear of a hostile attack;  and they must be left open ad importandum,  that men may bring in the possession of the heathen through them (a thing which goes on uninterruptedly).

Revelations 21:24-27
24 The nations shall walk by its light and the rulers and leaders of the earth shall bring into it their glory.
25 And its gates shall never be closed by day, and there shall be no night there. [Isa 60:11.]
26 They shall bring the glory (the splendor and majesty) and the honor of the nations into it.
27 But nothing that defiles or profanes or is unwashed shall ever enter it, nor anyone who commits abominations (unclean, detestable, morally repugnant things) or practices falsehood, but only those whose names are recorded in the Lamb's Book of Life.     (AMP)
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(10)  Foreigners will rebuild your walls, and their kings will serve you. Though in my wrath I struck you down, in my favor I have shown you mercy.    (11)    Your gates will always stand open, day or night, and they will not be shut, so that nations will bring you their wealth, with their kings led in procession.    (12)    For the nations or kingdom that will not serve you will perish: those nations will be utterly ruined.

Isaiah 60:13
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(13)  The majesty of Lebanon shall come to you – Cypress and pine and box – to adorn the site of My Sanctuary, to glorify the place where My feet rest.

And the glory of Libanus shall come to thee, with the cypress, and pine, and cedar together, to glorify my holy place.

The glory of Lebanon shall be brought into thy midst, the firs and the planes and the box trees together, to beautify the place of my sanctuary; and the place where my Shekinah dwells will I make glorious.

From the NKJV
(13)  The glory of Lebanon shall come to you, the cypress, the pine, and the box tree together, to beautify the place of My sanctuary; and I will make the place of My feet glorious.

From the thought that everything great in the world of man is to be made to serve the Holy One and His church,  the prophet passes to what is great in the world of nature.

The trees,  that is to say,  which tower in regal glory above all the rest of the vegetable world,  are to adorn the environs of the temple,  so that avenues of cedars and plane-trees lead into it;  a proof that there is no more fear of any further falling away to idolatry.  On the names of the trees,  see Isa 41:19.

The splendid cedars,  which are the glory of Lebanon,  and in fact the finest trees of all kinds,  will be brought to Zion,  not as trunks felled to be used as building materials,  but dug up with their roots,  to ornament the holy place of the temple,  and also to this end,  that Jehovah may glorify the  "holy place of His feet,"  i.e.,  the place where He,  who towers above the heaven of all heavens,  has as it were to place His feet. 

The place of My feet - the Temple.
Figure of Speech is called Periphrasis, or, Circumlocution. When a description is used instead of the name.

The temple is frequently called His footstool (hadoom raglâiv),  with especial reference to the ark of the covenant  (Ps 99:5; 132:7; 1 Chron 28:2)  as being the central point of the earthly presence of God.

1 Chronicles 28:2
Then King David rose to his feet and said, "Hear me, my brethren and my people: I had it in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covenant of the LORD, and for the footstool of our God, and had made preparations to build it.     (NKJV)
Psalms 99:5
Exalt the LORD our God, and worship at His footstool — He is holy.     (NKJV)
Psalms 132:7
Let us go into His tabernacle; let us worship at His footstool.     (NKJV)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(13)  He has given you the glory of Lebanon, and it will come (Lebanon will come 1Q1sa (b). MT. and LXX.) to you, the cypress, and the plane, and the pine, to adorn the place of my sanctuary; and I will glorify the place where my feet rest.

Isaiah 60:14
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(14)  Bowing before you, shall come the children of those who tormented you; prostrate at the soles of your feet shall be all those who reviled you; and you shall be called “City of the Lord, Zion of the Holy One of Israel.”

And the sons of them that afflicted thee, and of them that provoked thee, shall come to thee in fear; and thou shalt be called Sion, the city of the Holy One of Israel.

And the sons of them that enslaved thee shall come bending into thy midst; and all they that used to provoke thee shall cast themselves down at the soles of thy feet to make intercession from thee; and they shall call thee, The city of the Lord, Zion wherein the Holy One of Israel delighted.

From the NKJV
(14)  Also the sons of those who afflicted you shall come bowing to you, and all those who despised you shall fall prostrate at the soles of your feet; and they shall call you The City of the LORD, Zion of the Holy One of Israel.

The prophecy now returns to the world of man.

In the previous verses the prophet had said that strangers and foreigners would become tributary to the true religion.
Here,  he says that even the descendants of those who had oppressed them would become tributary to them,  and acknowledge them as favored by Yahweh.
In regard to the fulfillment of this,  we may observe:

1. That there was a partial fulfillment of it in the conquest of Babylon
The sons,  the descendants of those who had destroyed Jerusalem,  and led the Jews into captivity,  were constrained to acknowledge them,  and,  under Cyrus,  to re-conduct them to the land of their fathers (Isa 14:1-2).
2. It has often occurred,  in times of persecution,  that the immediate descendants of the persecutors,  and that too by means of the persecution,  became converted to the true religion,  and acknowledged the God of those whom they bad persecuted to be the true God.
3. It often occurs in times when there is no open and public persecution.
Many of those now in the church are the children or descendants of those who had been the enemies of the gospel.  They themselves did all that could be done,  by their lives and examples,  to train up their children in opposition to it.  But the sovereign mercy of God interposed,  and from such he selected heralds of salvation and preachers of righteousness to a lost world,  or such as should become shining lights in the more obscure walks of the Christian life.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Matthew 8:11
And I say to you that many will come from east and west, and sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven.     (NKJV)

Malachi 1:11
For from the rising of the sun, even to its going down, My name shall be great among the Gentiles; in every place incense shall be offered to My name, and a pure offering; for My name shall be great among the nations," says the LORD of hosts.     (NKJV)

Ezekiel 43:7
And He [the Lord] said to me, Son of man, this is the place of My throne and the place of the soles of My feet, where I will dwell in the midst of the children of Israel forever; and My holy name the house of Israel shall no more profane, neither they nor their kings, by their [idolatrous] harlotry, nor by the dead bodies and monuments of their kings.     (AMP)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(14)  All the descendants of those who oppressed you will come bowing low before you, and all who despised you will bow down at your feet; they will call you the City of the Lord, Zion of the Holy One of Israel.

Isaiah 60:15 & 16
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(15)  Whereas you have been forsaken, rejected, with none passing through, I will make you a pride everlasting, a joy for age after age.

Because thou hast become desolate and hated, and there was no helper, therefore I will make thee a perpetual gladness, a joy of many generations.

Whereas thou hast been forsaken and cast out, with no man passing through, I will make thee an everlasting honor, a house of joy for many generations.

(16)  You shall suck the milk of the nations, suckle at royal breasts, and you shall know that I the Lord am your Savior, I The Mighty One of Jacob, am your Redeemer.

And thou shalt suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt eat the wealth of kings: and shalt know that I am the Lord that saves thee and delivers thee, the Holy One of Israel.

And thou shalt be satisfied with the riches of the peoples, and shalt delight thyself in the spoil of their kings; and thou shalt know that I the Lord am thy deliverer, and thy savior, the Mighty One of Jacob.

From the NKJV
(15)  Whereas you have been forsaken and hated, so that no one went through you, I will make you an eternal excellence, a joy of many generations.   (16)   You shall drink the milk of the Gentiles, and milk the breast of kings; you shall know that I, the LORD, am your Savior and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.

The fourth turn  (verses 15-18)  describes the glorification of Zion through the growth and stability of its community both without and within.  A glorious change takes place in the church,  not only in itself,  but also in the judgment of the nations.

Of the two ideas of

a church (the mother of Israel)
a city (Metropolis)
involved in the term Zion,  the former prevails in verse 15, the latter in verse 16. For although `azuwbaah [forsaken] (OT: 5800) and sŞnuw'aah [to hate] (OT: 8130) are equally applicable to a city and a church (Isa 54:6, 11), the expression "no one went through you" applies only to the desolate city as she lay in ruins (see Isa 34:10).

Jerusalem will now become thoroughly a splendor,  and in fact an eternal splendor,  a rapture of successive generations so long as the history of this world continues.  The nations and their kings give up their own vital energy to the church,  just as a mother or nurse gives the milk of her breasts to a child; and the church has thereby rich food for a prosperous growth,  and a constant supply of fresh material for grateful joy.

The church sees in all this the gracious superintendence of her God;  she learns from experience that

Jehovah is her Savior Mowshiy`eek (OT:3467) bring (having) salvation, save, get victory
Jehovah is her Redeemer wŞ-Go'aleek (OT:1350) to redeem (according to the Oriental law of kinship), i.e. to be the next of kin (and as such to buy back a relative's property)
Jehovah is the Mighty One 'Abiyr (OT:46) mighty (spoken of God); from (OT:82) a primitive root; to soar
Who has conquered for her,  and now causes her to triumph as in Isa 49:26b, (which passage is repeated almost verbatim here, and Isa 61:8).
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(15)  Although you have been forsaken and hated, with no one traveling through, I will make you the everlasting pride, the joy of all generations.   (16)   You will suck the milk of nations, you will suck the breasts of kings; then you will know that I, the Lord, am your Savior and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.

Isaiah 60:17-22         Israel's Glory
Isa 60:17 Materials
Isa 60:18 Evil removed
Isa 60:19, 20 Luminaries
Isa 60:21, 22 Good bestowed

Isaiah 60:17 & 18
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(17)  Instead of copper I will bring gold, instead of iron I will bring silver; instead of wood, copper; and instead of stone, iron. And I will appoint Well-being as your government, Prosperity as your officials.

And for brass I will bring thee gold, and for iron I will bring thee silver, and instead of wood I will bring thee brass, and instead of stones, iron; and I will make thy princes peaceable, and thine overseers righteous.

Instead of the brass whereof they despoiled thee, O Jerusalem, I will bring gold, and instead of iron I will bring silver, and instead of wood brass, and instead of stones iron; and I will set thy governors in peace and thy rulers in righteousness.

(18)  The cry “Violence!” Shall no more be heard in your land, nor “Wrack and ruin!” Within your borders. And you shall name your walls “Victory” and your gates “Renown.”

And injustice shall no more be heard in thy land, nor destruction nor misery in thy coasts; but thy walls shall be called Salvation, and thy gates Sculptured Work.

Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, spoiling and destruction in thy borders: and they shall proclaim salvation upon thy walls, and at thy gates they shall be offering praises.

From the NKJV
(17)  Instead of bronze I will bring gold, instead of iron I will bring silver, instead of wood, bronze, and instead of stones, iron.  I will also make your officers peace, and your magistrates righteousness.    (18)    Violence shall no longer be heard in your land, neither wasting nor destruction within your borders; but you shall call your walls Salvation, and your gates Praise.

The outward and inward beauty of the new Jerusalem is now depicted by the materials of her structure,  and the powers which prevail within her.

Wood and stone are not used at all in the building of the New Jerusalem.
Just as in the time of Solomon silver was counted as nothing (1 Kings 10:21 "Not one was silver, for this was accounted as nothing.") and had only the value of stones (1 Kings 10:27  "The king made silver as common in Jerusalem as stones."),  so here Jehovah gives her

gold instead of copper
silver instead of iron
bronze instead of wood
iron instead of stones

Thus the city will be a massive one,  and not even all of stone,  but

entirely built of metal
indestructible not only by the elements,  but by all kinds of foes

The meaning is,  that tsedâqâh (righteousness) is to Jerusalem what the whole body of civil officers together are:

Righteousness is a substitute for the police force in every form
Under such magistracy and such police, nothing is ever heard within the land, of which Jerusalem is the capital, of either
châmâs a rude and unjust attack of the stronger upon the weaker
shood conquest and devastation
shebher dashing to pieces, or breaking in two
Salvation is regarded as its impregnable fortifications
Praise is really better than any gate, whether for ornament or protection
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Regarding Spiritual Jerusalem:
Revelations 21:10, 16
10 Then in the Spirit He conveyed me away to a vast and lofty mountain and exhibited to me the holy (hallowed, consecrated) city of Jerusalem descending out of heaven from God, [Ezek 40:2.]
16 The city lies in a square, its length being the same as its width. And he measured the city with his reed--12,000 stadia (about 1,500 miles); its length and width and height are the same.     (AMP)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(17)  Instead of bronze I will bring gold, and instead of iron I will bring silver; instead of wood, bronze, and instead of stones, iron. I will appoint Peace as your sentry and Righteousness as your taskmaster.    (18)    And violence will no longer be heard in your land, nor devastation or destruction within your borders; you will call your walls Salvation, and your gates Praise.
Note: As is evident in this translation, 1Q1sa (b) usually agrees with the Masoretic Text for the text of Isaiah.  In Isa 60:19-20,  however,  this scroll contains a much shorter text than that found in 1Q1sa. MT. or LXX.  In this case the scribe of 1Q1sa (b),  who was usually careful in his work,  appears to have made a major error.   His eye inadvertently skipped from  "for the Lord will be your everlasting light"  in verse 19 to the identical phrase found in verse 20,  resulting in the omission of the words in between.  Such a  “skipping over”  is technically known as a parablepsis (from the Greek, an oversight or a sideways look).




GOD, THE  GLORY  OF  HIS  PEOPLE

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Isaiah 60:19 & 20
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(19)  No longer shall you need the sun for light by day,  nor the shining of the moon for radiance; for the Lord shall be your light everlasting, your God shall be your glory.

And thou shalt no more have the sun for a light by day, nor shall the rising of the moon lighten thy night; but the Lord shall be thine everlasting light, and God thy glory.

Thou shalt no longer need the sun for light by day, nor the moon for brightness at night: but the Lord shall be to thee for an everlasting light, and thy God for thy glory.

(20)  Your sun shall set no more, your moon no more withdraw; for the Lord shall be a light to you forever, and your days of mourning shall be ended.

For the sun shall no more set, nor shall the moon be eclipsed; for the Lord shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be completed.

Thy kingdom shall no more cease, neither shall thy glory depart; for the Lord shall be to thee for an everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning shall be ended.

From the NKJV
(19)   The sun shall no longer be your light by day, nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you; but the LORD will be to you an everlasting light, and your God your glory.    (20)    Your sun shall no longer go down, nor shall your moon withdraw itself; for the LORD will be your everlasting light, and the days of your mourning shall be ended.

The fifth turn celebrates the glorifying of Jerusalem,

through the shining of Jehovah as its everlasting light
through the form of its ever-growing membership which is so well-pleasing to God
The prophecy returns to the thought with which it set out,  and by which the whole is regulated,  viz.,  that Jerusalem will be light.  This leading thought is now unfolded in the most majestic manner, and opened up in all its eschatological depth.

Although,  in the prophet's view,  the Jerusalem of the period of glory in this world and the Jerusalem of the eternal glory beyond flow into one another;  the meaning of this prophecy is not that the sun and moon will no longer exist.

Even of the Jerusalem which is not to be built by Israel with the help of converted heathen, but which comes down from heaven to earth, the seer in Revelations 21:23 merely says,  that the city needs neither the shining of the sun nor of the moon (as the Targum renders the passage before us),  for the glory of God lightens it,  and the Lamb is the light thereof,  i.e.,  God Himself is instead of a sun to her,  and the Lamb instead of a moon.

Revelations 21:23
And the city has no need of the sun nor of the moon to give light to it, for the splendor and radiance (glory) of God illuminate it, and the Lamb is its lamp. [Isa 24:23; 60:1, 19.]     (AMP)

Stier, who infers from this passage that  "there is a final new creation approaching,  when there will be no more turning round into the shadow (James 1:17  "the Father of lights, with whom there is no variation or shadow of turning"),  when the whole planetary system,  including the earth,  will be changed,  and when the earth itself will become a sun,  yea,  will become even more than that, in the direct and primary light which streams down upon it from God Himself."
Hofmann believes that  "there will still be both sun and moon,  but the Holy Place will be illuminated without interruption by the manifestation of the presence of God,  which outshines all besides."
These are only two theories.

So let's see what God says about it:
Revelation 21:1, 2, 23
(1)   Then I saw a new sky (heaven) and a new earth, for the former sky and the former earth had passed away (vanished), and there no longer existed any sea.
(2)   And I saw the holy city, the new Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God,
(23) And the city has no need of the sun nor of the moon to give light to it, for the splendor and radiance (glory) of God illuminate it, and the Lamb is its lamp.     (AMP)

The prophet has here found the most complete expression,  for that which has already been hinted at in such prophecies in Isa 30:26; 24:23.  As the city receives its light neither from the sun nor from the moon,  this implies what Revelations 21:25 distinctly affirms,  that there will be no more night there.

The glory of Jehovah,  which soars above Jerusalem,  and has come down into her,  is henceforth her sun and her moon -

a sun that never sets
a moon which is not taken in towards morning
The triumph of light over darkness,  which is the object of the world's history,  is concentrated in the New Jerusalem.

How this is to be understood,  is explained in the closing clause of verse 20.

The sum of the days of mourning allotted to the church is complete.
The darkness of the corruption of sin and state of punishment is overcome.
The church is nothing but holy blessed joy without change or disturbance
The church walks no longer in sidereal light, but in the eternally unchangeable light of Jehovah.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(19)  The sun will no longer be your light by day, nor for brightness will the moon shine on you by night;  for the Lord will be your everlasting light, and your God will be your glory.   (20)   Your sun will not (will no longer MT.) set, or your moon withdraw itself; for the Lord will be your everlasting light, and your days of mourning will end.

Isaiah 60:21
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(21)  And your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for all time; they are the shoot that I planted, My handiwork in which I glory.

Thy people also shall be all righteous; they shall inherit the land for ever, preserving that which they have planted, even the works of their hands, for glory.

And thy people shall all of them be righteous; they shall inherit the land for ever; the plant of my joy, the work of my might, that I may be glorified.

From the NKJV
(21)  Also your people shall all be righteous; they shall inherit the land forever,  the branch of My planting,  the work of My hands, that I may be glorified.

The next verse shows how deep was his consciousness of the close connection between darkness, wrath, and sin.
The church of the New Jerusalem consists of none but righteous ones, who have been cleansed from guilt, and keep themselves henceforth pure from sinning, and therefore possess the land of promise for ever, without having to fear repeated destruction and banishment.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The branch of my planting On the meaning of the word branch (neetzer),  see the notes at Isaiah 11:1.  Here it means a scion or shoot which Yahweh had planted,  and which had sprung up under his culture.
Grotius supposes it means posterity.
The idea seems to be,  that they would inherit the land and all which would grow up under the culture of the hand of Yahweh.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(21)  Then your people will all be righteous; they will possess the land forever. They are the shoot that the Lord planted, the works of his hands, so that I might be glorified.

Isaiah 60:22
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(22)  The smallest shall become a clan; the least, a mighty nation. I the Lord will speed it in due time.

The little one shall become thousands, and the least a great nation; I the Lord will gather them in due time.

He that is little among them shall become a thousand and he that is weak a mighty people: I the Lord will bring it in its time.

From the NKJV
(22)  A little one shall become a thousand, and a small one a strong nation.  I, the LORD, will hasten it in its time.

The life of this church,  which is newly created,  new-born,  through judgment and grace,  gradually expands from the most unassuming centre in ever widening circles until it has attained the broadest dimensions.

"The little one,"  or,  as the idea is a relative one,  "the smallest and weakest one."  At the same time,  the reference is not exclusively to growth through the blessing of children,  but also to growth through the extension of fellowship.

The whole of the prophetic address is now sealed with this declaration:  "I, the LORD, will hasten it in its time."
The neuter e-naah (shall become) refers to everything that has been predicted from verse 1 downwards.
Jehovah will fulfill it rapidly,  when the point of time which He has fixed for it shall have arrived.  As this point of time is known to Him only,  the predicted glory will burst all at once with startling suddenness upon the eyes of those who have waited believingly for Him.

This chapter forms a connected and self-contained whole,  as we may see very clearly from the address to Zion-Jerusalem,  which is sustained throughout.  If we compare together such passages as

Isa 51:17-23 ("Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem")
Isa 52:1-2 ("Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O Zion")
Chapter 54 ("Sing, O barren")
which are all closely related so far as their contents are concerned,  we shall find that these addresses to Zion form an ascending series, chapter 60 being the summit to which they rise,  and that the whole is a complete counterpart to the address to the daughter of Babylon in ch. 47.

Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown believes:
It is impossible to understand this chapter,  with its glowing and magnificent promises,  as having been fulfilled in the first advent of Christ, and the establishment of the Christian Church,  the spiritual Israel of God.
Nothing yet has taken place to realize the terms of this prophecy,  even in the present Church,  much less in the literal Israel.  Now,  it is plain from the contrast which is herein drawn between  "Zion"  and  "the Gentiles,"  that it is the literal Jerusalem,  the representative of all Israel,  which is meant.

Zion which is now abased is hereafter to "arise."
Zion who is now in darkness is to he illuminated with "light"
Even  'the glory of the Lord rising upon her.'
As yet only an election has been and is being gathered from among the Gentiles.
But when Jerusalem shall assume her rightful place as Mother-Church of Christendom,   'the Gentiles shall come to her light, and kings to the brightness of her sunrising.'
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(22)  The least of them will become a thousand and the smallest one a mighty nation. I am the Lord; in its time I will do this quickly.


Isaiah Chapter 61
Fourth Prophecy
The Glory of the Office Committed to the Servant of Jehovah


THE  GOOD  NEWS  OF  SALVATION

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Isaiah 61:1-3
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(1)  The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me; He has sent me as a herald of joy to the humble, to bind up the wounded of heart, to proclaim release to the captives, liberation to the imprisoned;

The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me; he has sent me to preach glad tidings to the poor, to heal the broken in heart, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind;

The prophet said, The spirit of prophecy from before the Lord Elohim is upon me; because the Lord hath appointed me to preach good tidings to the afflicted: he hath sent me to strengthen the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and to say to the prisoners, Come forth to the light;

(2)  To proclaim a year of the Lord’s favor and a day of vindication by our God; to comfort all who mourn

to declare the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of recompense; to comfort all that mourn;

to proclaim the year of acceptance before the Lord, and the day of vengeance before our God; to comfort all that mourn;

(3)  to provide for the mourners in Zion – to give them a turban instead of ashes, the festive ointment instead of a drooping spirit. They shall be called Terebinths of victory, planted by the Lord for His glory.

that there should be given to them that mourn in Sion glory instead of ashes, the oil of joy to the mourners, the garment of glory for the spirit of heaviness: and they shall be called generations of righteousness, the planting of the Lord for glory.

to appoint unto the mourners of Zion, to give unto them a garland for ashes, the oil of gladness for mourning, a spirit of praise for their spirit which was troubled; and they shall call them princes of righteousness, the people of the Lord, that he may be glorified.

From the NKJV
(1)  Because the LORD has anointed Me to preach good tidings to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to those who are bound;    (2)    to proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all who mourn,    (3)    to console those who mourn in Zion, to give them beauty for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of praise for the spirit of heaviness; that they may be called trees of righteousness, the planting of the LORD, that He may be glorified.

The words of Jehovah Himself pass over here into the words of another,  whom He has appointed as the Mediator of His gracious counsel.

Who is the person speaking here?
The Targum introduces the passage with  nŞbiyaa' [prophet] (OT: 5029‘amar [declare, say] (OT: 560).
Nearly all the modern commentators support this view.  Even the closing remarks to Drechsler (iii. 381) express the opinion,  that the prophet who exhibited to the church the summit of its glory in chapter 60,  an evangelist of the rising from on high,  an apocalyptist who sketches the painting which the New Testament apocalyptist is to carry out in detail,  is here looking up to Jehovah with a grateful eye,  and praising Him with joyful heart for his exalted commission.  But this view,  when looked at more closely,  cannot possibly be sustained.  It is open to the following objections:

(1) The prophet never speaks of himself as a prophet at any such length as this;  on the contrary,  with the exception of the closing words of Isa 57:21,  "saith my God,"  he has always most studiously let his own person fall back into the shade.
(2) Wherever any other than Jehovah is represented as speaking,  and as referring to his own calling,  or his experience in connection with that calling,  as in Isa 49:1 ff., 50:4 ff.,  it is the very same  "servant of Jehovah"  of whom and to whom Jehovah speaks in Isa 42:1 ff., Isa 52:13-53,  and therefore not the prophet himself,  but He who had been appointed to be
the Mediator of a new covenant,
the light of the Gentiles,
the salvation of Jehovah for the whole world,
and who would reach this glorious height,  to which He had been called,  through self-abasement even to death.
(3) All that the person speaking here says of himself is to be found in the picture of the unequalled  "Servant of Jehovah,"  who is highly exalted above the prophet.
(Isa 42:1) He is endowed with the Spirit of Jehovah
(Isa 48:16b) Jehovah has sent Him,  and with Him His Spirit
(Isa 50:4) He has a tongue taught of God, to help the exhausted with words
(Isa 42:7) He spares and rescues those who are almost despairing and destroyed,  the bruised reed and expiring wick
To open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house:"  this is what He has chiefly to do for His people,  both in word and deed (Isa 42:7; 49:9).
(4) We can hardly expect that,  after the prophet has described the Servant of Jehovah,  of whom He prophesied,  as coming forward to speak with such dramatic directness as in Isa 49:1 ff., 50:4 ff. (and even ch. 48:16 b),  he will now proceed to put himself in the foreground,  and ascribe to himself those very same official attributes which he has already set forth as characteristic features in his portrait of the predicted One.
For these reasons we have no doubt that we have here the words of the Servant of Jehovah.

The glory of Jerusalem is depicted in ch. 60 in the direct words of Jehovah Himself,  which are well sustained throughout.  And now,  just as in Isa 48:16 b,  though still more elaborately,  we have by their side the words of His servant,  who is the mediator of this glory,  and who above all others is the pioneer thereof in his evangelical predictions.  Just as Jehovah says of him in Isa 42:1,  "I have put my Spirit upon him;"  so here he says of himself,  "The Spirit of Jehovah is upon me."

Anointed
mâshach (more emphatic than meshâchanii),  notwithstanding the fact that mâshach is used here in the sense of prophetic and not regal anointing (1 Kings 19:16  you shall anoint),  we may find in the choice of this particular word a hint at the fact,  that the Servant of Jehovah and the Messiah are one and the same person.

So also the account given in Luke 4:16-22  -  that when Jesus was in the synagogue at Nazareth,  after reading the opening words of this address,

He closed the book with these words, "This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears"
cannot be interpreted more simply in any other way,  than on the supposition that Jesus here declares Himself to be the predicted and divinely anointed Servant of Jehovah,  who brings the gospel of redemption to His people. Moreover,  the speaker not only appears as the herald of the new and great gifts of God,  but also as the dispenser of them.

It was customary in synagogue services to ask visiting rabbis to read the Scripture lesson and make whatever comments they felt were appropriate.  By this time,  Jesus had ministered about a year and was very popular;  so it was natural that the synagogue leader asks Him to participate.  The appointed lesson included Isa 61:1-2, and Jesus used it as the text for His sermon.
(From The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright (c) 1992 by SP Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.

Acceptable Year - Day of Vengeance
Again, he is sent to promise with a loud proclamation a year of good pleasure (râtsoon)  and a day of vengeance, which Jehovah has appointed;  a promise which assigns

the length of a year for the thorough accomplishment of the work of grace
only the length of a day for the work of vengeance.
The vengeance applies to those who hold the people of God in fetters,  and oppress them;  the grace to all those whom the infliction of punishment has inwardly humbled,   though they have been strongly agitated by its long continuance (Isa 57:15).

Dake says:

The acceptable year of the LORD
The present time is the age of the acceptable year of the Lord,  as proved by the fact that Christ claimed this was fulfilled in Him (Luke 4:16-19).
Now is the accepted time and the day of salvation (2 Cor. 6:2).
2 Corinthians 6:2
For He says: "In an acceptable time I have heard you, and in the day of salvation I have helped you."
Behold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day of salvation."     (NKJV)
The day of vengeance of our God
This part was not quoted by Christ in Luke 4:16-19,  showing clearly how He rightly divided the Word of Truth (2 Tim. 2:15  "correctly analyzing and accurately dividing [rightly handling and skillfully teaching] the Word of Truth").
There has been already a period of nearly 2,000 years between the beginning of the acceptable year of the Lord and the future day of vengeance of God which will be the tribulation judgments of the seals,  trumpets,  vials, etc. of God's wrath as in Revelations 6-19.
This is a clear case of the law of prophetic perspective.
(Dake's Annotated Reverence Bible, Finis Jennings Dake, Dake Publishing, Lawrenceville, GA)

Beauty for Ashes
Instead of 'eeper (OT: 665),  the ashes of mourning or repentance laid upon the head,  he brings pŞ'eer (OT: 6287), a diadem to adorn the head  (a transposition even so far as the letters are concerned,  and therefore the counterpart of 'eepr).

The oil with which they henceforth anoint themselves is to be joy or gladness,  and renown the cloak in which they wrap themselves.

And whence is all this?  The gifts of God,  though represented in outward figures,  are really spiritual,  and take effect within,  rejuvenating and sanctifying the inward man;  they are the sap and strength,  the marrow and impulse of a new life.

The church thereby becomes "Terebinths of righteousness" ('eeyleey (OT:352):  Targ., Symm., Jer.,  render this,  strong onesmighty ones), i.e.,  possessors of righteousness,  produced by God and acceptable with God,  having all the firmness and fullness of Terebinths,  with their strong trunks,  their luxuriant verdure,  and their perennial foliage - a planting of Jehovah,  to the end that He may get glory out of it (a repetition of Isa 60:21).

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because the Lord has anointed me; he has sent me to bring good news to the oppressed, and to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives, and release from darkness for the prisoners;   (2)   to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor, the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all who mourn;   (3)   to provide for those who mourn in Zion – to bestow on them a garland instead of ashes, the oil of gladness instead of mourning, a mantle of praise instead of a disheartened spirit. And people will call them (they will be called MT) oaks of righteousness, the planting of the Lord, in order to display his splendor.

Isaiah 61:4-6
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(4)  And they shall build the ancient ruins, raise up the desolations of old, and renew the ruined cities, the desolations of many ages.

And they shall build the old waste places, they shall raise up those that were before made desolate, and shall renew the desert cities, even those that had been desolate for many generations.

And they shall build the old wastes, they shall raise up the former desolations and the cities that were waste shall be repaired, the desolations of many generations.

(5)  Strangers shall stand and pasture your flocks, Aliens shall be your plowmen and vine-trimmers;

And strangers shall come and feed thy flocks, and aliens shall be thy ploughmen and vine-dressers.

And strangers shall rise up and feed your flocks; and the aliens shall be your ploughmen and your vinedressers.

(6)  while you shall be called “Priest of the Lord,” and termed “Servants of our God.” You shall enjoy the wealth of nations and revel in their riches.

But ye shall be called priests of the Lord, the ministers of God: ye shall eat the strength of nations, and shall be admired because of their wealth.

But ye shall be called the priests of the Lord, those who minister before our God shall you be named; ye shall eat the riches of the peoples and delight yourselves in their glory.

From the NKJV
(4)  And they shall rebuild the old ruins, they shall raise up the former desolations, and they shall repair the ruined cities, the desolations of many generations.    (5)     Strangers shall stand and feed your flocks, and the sons of the foreigner shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers.    (6)    But you shall be named the priests of the LORD, they shall call you the servants of our God.  You shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory you shall boast.

The second turn in the address,   which follows in verses 4-9,  continues the use of  perfects,  which afterwards pass into futures.  But the whole is still governed by the commencement in verse 1.
The Servant of Jehovah celebrates the glorious office committed to him,  and expounds the substance of the gospel given him to proclaim.  It points to the restoration of the Promised Land,  and to the elevation of Israel,  after its purification in the furnace of judgment,  to great honor and dignity in the midst of the world of nations.

The desolations and wastes of 'oolâm (old) and dwor vâdoor (many generations), i.e.,  of ages remote and near,  are not confined to what had lain in ruins during the seventy years of the captivity.

The land will be so thickly populated,  that the former places of abode will not suffice (Isa 49:19, 20); so that places must be referred to which are lying waste beyond the present bounds of the promised land (Isa 54:3),  and which will be rebuilt,  raised up,  and renewed by those who return from exile,  and indeed by the latest generations (Isa 58:12).  The rebuilding naturally suggests the thought of assistance on the part of the heathen (Isa 60:10).
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Israel is now,  in the midst of the heathen who have entered into the congregation of Jehovah and become the people of God (Isa 19:25),  what the Aaronites [Tribe of Priests] formerly were in the midst of Israel itself.
It stands upon the height of its primary destination to be a kingdom of priests (Ex 19:6  "And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation").

They are called  "priests of Jehovah,"  and the heathen call them  "servants of our God;"  for even the heathen speak with believing reverence of the God,  to whom Israel renders priestly service,  as "our God."
This reads as if the restored Israelites were to stand in the same relation to the converted heathen as the clergy to the laity;  but it is evident,  from Isa 66:21,  that the prophet has no such hierarchical separation as this in his mind.

We can infer from his prophecy that the nationality of Israel will not be swallowed up by the entrance of the heathen into the community of the God of revelation.  The people created by Jehovah,  to serve as the vehicle of the promise of salvation and the instrument in preparing the way for salvation,  will also render Him special service,  even after that salvation has been really effected.

The Old Testament prophet utters New Testament prophecies in an Old Testament form.
Even when he continues to say,  "Ye will eat the riches of the Gentiles, and pride yourselves in their glory,"  i.e.,  be proud of the glorious things which have passed from their possession into yours,   this is merely coloring intended to strike the eye,  which admits of explanation on the ground that he saw the future in the mirror of the present,  as a complete inversion of the relation in which the two had stood before.

The figures present themselves to him in the form of contrasts.
The New Testament apostle,  on the other hand,  says in Romans 11:12 that the conversion of all Israel to Christ will be "the riches of the Gentiles."  But if even then the Gentile church should act according to the words of the same apostle in Romans 15:27 (For if the Gentiles have been partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister to them in material things.),  and show her gratitude to the people whose spiritual debtor she is,  by ministering to them in carnal things,  all that the prophet has promised here will be amply fulfilled.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(4)  They will rebuild the ancient ruins, they will restore the places formerly devastated; they will repair the ruined cities, they will erect again the places devastated for many generations.   (5)   Strangers will stand and feed your flocks, foreigners will work your land and dress your vines;    (6)    but you will be called priests of the Lord, and you will be named ministers of our God. You will feed on the wealth of the nations, and in their riches you will glory.

Isaiah 61:7-9
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(7)  Because your shame was double – Men cried, “Disgrace is their portion-b assuredly, they shall have a double share in their land, joy shall be theirs for all time.

Thus shall they inherit the land a second time and everlasting joy shall be upon their head.

Because ye were ashamed, and confounded, I will bring you the double of the good things which I promised you; and the peoples which were glorying in their portion shall be put to shame: then they shall inherit double in their land; they shall have everlasting joy.

(8)  For I the Lord love justice, I hate robbery with a burnt offering.  I will pay them their wages faithfully, and make a covenant with them for all time.

For I am the Lord who love righteousness, and hate robberies of injustice; and I will give their labor to the just, and will make an everlasting covenant with them.

For I the Lord love judgement; abhorred (from) before me are falsehood and oppression; and I will give the reward of their deeds in truth, and will make an everlasting covenant with them.

(9)  Their offspring shall be known among the nations, their descendants in the midst of the peoples. All who see them shall recognize that they are a stock the Lord has blessed.

And their seed shall be known among the Gentiles, and their offspring in the midst of peoples: everyone that sees them shall take notice of them, that they are a seed blessed of God;

And their sons shall be brought up among the peoples, and their sons’ sons in the midst of the kingdoms: all who see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the seed which the Lord hath blessed.

From the NKJV
(7)  Instead of your shame you shall have double honor, and instead of confusion they shall rejoice in their portion. Therefore in their land they shall possess double; everlasting joy shall be theirs.    (8)    "For I, the LORD, love justice; I hate robbery for burnt offering; I will direct their work in truth, and will make with them an everlasting covenant.    (9)    Their descendants shall be known among the Gentiles, and their offspring among the people. All who see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the posterity whom the LORD has blessed.

Isaiah 61:7      Israel - Restoration
Isa 61:7- Complete compensation
Isa 61:-7- Rejoicing
Isa 61:-7- Complete compensation
Isa 61:-7 Rejoicing

The shame of banishment will then be changed into an excess of joy and honorable distinction.

The enigmatical first half of verse 7 is explained in verse 2,  where mishneh (double) is shown to consist of double possession in the land of their inheritance,  which has not only been restored to them,  but extended far beyond the borders of their former possession;  and yâroonnuu chelqâm (they shall rejoice) denotes excessive rejoicing in the ground and soil belonging to them (according to the appointment of Jehovah).

The Land Of Israel As God Sees It

Genesis 13:14-15
(14)  The Lord said to Abram after Lot had left him, Lift up now your eyes and look from the place where you are, northward and southward and eastward and westward;
(15)  For all the land which you see I will give to you and to your posterity forever. [Acts 7:5.]     (AMP)
Gen 15:18-21
(18)  On the same day the Lord made a covenant (promise, pledge) with Abram, saying, To your descendants I have given this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river Euphrates--the land of
(19)  The Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites,
(20)  The Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaim,
(21)  The Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.     (AMP)

This reward He would give be'emet [in truth] (OT: 571),  exactly as He had promised,  without the slightest deduction.  The posterity of those who have been ill-treated and insulted will be honorably known (nowda` [shall be known] (OT: 3045) ) in the world of nations,  and men will need only to catch sight of them to recognize them,  for they are a family blessed of God.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The time shall come when the true friends of the Redeemer will be universally honored.   They shall be regarded as the favored of the Lord;  and instead of being persecuted and despised,   the nations of the earth will regard them as worthy of their confidence and esteem.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(7)  Instead of your shame (you will receive) double,  and instead of dishonor they will rejoice in your lot; (their lot MT) therefore you (they MT) will inherit a double portion in their land, everlasting joy will be yours. (theirs MT).    (8)    For I the Lord love justice, and I hate robbery and iniquity; I will faithfully give (you) your reward (give (them) their reward MT) and make an everlasting covenant with you (with them MT).    (9)    Your (Their MT) Descendants will be known among the nations, and your (their MT) offspring among the peoples; all who see them will acknowledge them, that they are a people whom the Lord has blessed.

Isaiah 61:10 & 11
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(10)  I greatly rejoice in the Lord, my whole being exults in my God. For He has clothed me with garments of triumph, wrapped me in a robe of victory, like a bridegroom adorned with a turban, like a bride bedecked with her finery.

And they shall greatly rejoice in the Lord. Let my soul rejoice in the Lord; for he has clothed me with the robe of salvation, and the garment of joy: he has put a mitre on me as on a bridegroom, and adorned me with ornaments as a bride.

Jerusalem hath said, I will greatly rejoice in the Memra of the Lord; my soul shall exult in the salvation; he hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom who is happy in his bride-chamber, and as the high priest that is adorned with his garments, and as a bride who decks herself with her ornaments.

(11)  For as the earth brings forth her growth and a garden makes the seed shoot up, so the Lord God will make victory and renown shoot up in the presence of all the nations.

And as the earth putting forth her flowers, and as a garden its seed; so shall the Lord, even the Lord, cause righteousness to spring forth, and exultation before all nations.

For as the earth which bringeth forth her flowers and as a well-watered garden which causeth its seedlings to grow apace; so shall the Lord Elohim reveal the righteousness and the glory of Jerusalem before all the peoples.

From the NKJV
(10)  I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for He has clothed me with the garments of salvation, He has covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.    (11)    For as the earth brings forth its bud, as the garden causes the things that are sown in it to spring forth, so the Lord GOD will cause righteousness and praise to spring forth before all the nations.

This is the joyful calling of the Servant of Jehovah to be the messenger of such promises of God to His people.

The Targum precedes this last turn with  "Thus saith Jerusalem. [Jerusalem hath said]"  But as verses 4-9 are a development of the glorious prospects,  the realization of which has to be effected through the instrumentality of the person speaking in verses 1-3 both in word and deed,  the speaker here is certainly the same as there.

Nor is it even the fact that he is here supposed to commence speaking again;  but he is simply continuing his address by expressing at the close,  as he did at the beginning,  the relation in which he stands in his own person to the approaching elevation of His people.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Barnes says that the prosperity and enlargement of Zion is an occasion of joy,  and should lead to thanksgiving and praise.  The phrase,  'I will rejoice in the Lord,'  means that the joy would arise from the view of the faithfulness and perfections of Yahweh manifested in the redemption of his people.  See similar expressions of joy in the song of Mary (Luke 1:46-47  "My soul magnifies the Lord, and my spirit has rejoiced in God my Savior.").
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Exalted joy, which impels him to exult,  is what he experiences in Jehovah his God (bŞ-Yahweh - in the LORD - denoting the ground and orbit of his experience):  for the future,  which so abounds in grace,  and which he has to proclaim as a prophet and as the evangelist of Israel,  and of which he has to lay the foundation as the mediator of Israel,  and in which he is destined to participate as being himself an Israelite,  consists entirely of salvation and righteousness;  so that he,  the bearer and messenger of the divine counsels of grace,  appears to himself as one to whom Jehovah has given clothes of salvation to put on,  and whom He has wrapped in the robe of righteousness.

Tsedâqâh (righteousness),  looked at from the evangelical side of the idea which it expresses,  is here the parallel word to yeshuu'âh (salvation).
The figurative representation of both by different articles of dress is similar to Isa 59:17: yâ'at,  which only occurs here,  is synonymous with 'âtâh, from which comes ma'ateh, a wrapper or cloak (v. 3).

He appears to himself,  as he stands there hoping such things for his people,  and preaching such things to his people,  to resemble a bridegroom,  who makes his turban in priestly style,  i.e.,  who winds it round his head after the fashion of the priestly migbâ'ooth,  which are called pŞ'eeriym [fancy head-dress] (OT: 6287) in Exodus 39:28 (a turban of fine linen, exquisite hats of fine linen).

As often as he receives the word of promise into his heart and takes it into his mouth,  it is to him like the turban of a bridegroom,  or like the jewelry which a bride puts on.  For the substance of the promise is nothing but salvation and renown,  which Jehovah causes to sprout up before all nations,  just as the earth causes its vegetation to sprout,  or a garden its seed.

Keil & Delitzsch put forth this picture:

The word in the mouth of the servant of Jehovah
is the seed,  out of which great things are developed before the entire world.
The ground and soil ('erets) of this development
is mankind
The enclosed garden therein (gannâh)
is the church
The great things themselves
are tsedâqâh, [righteousness] as the true inward nature of His church
The tehillâh [praise]
as its outward manifestation
The force which causes the seed to germinate
is Jehovah
The bearer of the seed
is the servant of Jehovah
The ground of his festive rejoicing
is the fact that he is able to scatter the seed of so gracious and glorious a future
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(10)  I shall greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul will delight in my God; for he has clothed me with garments of salvation, he has arrayed me in a robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom, as a priest (decks himself MT) with a garland, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.    (11)    For as the soil brings forth its shoots, and as a garden makes what is sown in its spring up, so the Lord God will make righteousness and praise spring up before all the nations for Zion’s sake.



LESSON  31  FROM  THE  AMPLIFIED  VERSION

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Isaiah 60:1 - 61:11  -  from the Amplified Version

60:1       ARISE [from the depression and prostration in which circumstances have kept you — rise to a new life]! Shine (be radiant with the glory of the Lord), for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon you! [Zechariah 8:23.]
(2)     For behold, darkness shall cover the earth, and dense darkness [all] peoples, but the Lord shall arise upon you [O Jerusalem], and His glory shall be seen on you. [Isaiah 60:19-22; Malachi 4:2; Revelation 21:2,3.]
(3)    And nations shall come to your light, and kings to the brightness of your rising. [Isaiah 2:2,3; Jeremiah 3:17.]
(4)    Lift up your eyes round about you and see! They all gather themselves together, they come to you. Your sons shall come from afar, and your daughters shall be carried and nursed in the arms.
(5)    Then you shall see and be radiant, and your heart shall thrill and tremble with joy [at the glorious deliverance] and be enlarged; because the abundant wealth of the [Dead] Sea shall be turned to you, unto you shall the nations come with their treasures. [Psalms 119:32.]
(6)    A multitude of camels [from the eastern trading tribes] shall cover you [Jerusalem], the young camels of Midian and Ephah; all the men from Sheba [who once came to trade] shall come, bringing gold and frankincense and proclaiming the praises of the Lord. [Matthew 2:11.]
(7)    All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered to you [as the eastern pastoral tribes join the trading tribes], the rams of Nebaioth shall minister to you; they shall come up with acceptance on My altar, and My glorious house I will glorify.
(8)    Who are these who fly like a cloud, and like doves to their windows?
(9)    Surely the isles and distant coastlands shall wait for and expect Me; and the ships of Tarshish [shall come] first, to bring your sons from afar, their silver and gold with them, for the name of the Lord your God, for the Holy One of Israel, because He has beautified and glorified you.
(10)  Foreigners shall build up your walls, and their kings shall minister to you; for in My wrath I smote you, but in My favor, pleasure, and goodwill I have had mercy, love, and pity for you.
(11)  And your gates shall be open continually, they shall not be shut day or night, that men may bring to you the wealth of the nations — and their kings led in procession [your voluntary captives]. [Revelation 21:24-27.]
(12)  For the nation and kingdom that will not serve you in that day [Jerusalem] shall perish; yes, those nations shall be utterly laid waste.
(13)  The glory of Lebanon shall come to you, the cypress, the plane, and the pine [trees] together, to beautify the place of My sanctuary; and I will make the place of My feet glorious.
(14)  The sons of those who afflicted you shall come bending low to you, and all those who despised you shall bow down at your feet, and they shall call you the City of the Lord, the Zion of the Holy One of Israel. [Revelation 3:9.]
(15)  Whereas you have been forsaken and hated, so that no man passed through you, I will make you [Jerusalem] an eternal glory, a joy from age to age.
(16)  You shall suck the milk of the [Gentile] nations and shall suck the breast of kings; and you shall recognize and know that I, the Lord, am your Savior and your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.
(17)  Instead of bronze I will bring gold, and instead of iron I will bring silver; and instead of wood, bronze, and instead of stones, iron. [Instead of the tyranny of the present] I will appoint peace as your officers and righteousness as your taskmasters.
(18)  Violence shall no more be heard in your land, nor devastation or destruction within your borders, but you shall call your walls Salvation and your gates Praise.
(19)  The sun shall no more be your light by day, nor for brightness shall the moon give light to you, but the Lord shall be to you an everlasting light, and your God your glory and your beauty. [Jeremiah 9:23,24; Revelation 21:23.]
(20)  Your sun shall no more go down, nor shall your moon withdraw itself, for the Lord shall be your everlasting light, and the days of your mourning shall be ended.
(21)  Your people also shall all be [uncompromisingly and consistently] righteous; they shall possess the land forever, the branch of My planting, the work of My hands, that I may be glorified.
(22)  The least one shall become a thousand [a clan], and the small one a strong nation. I, the Lord, will hasten it in its [appointed] time.

61:1       THE SPIRIT of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed and qualified me to preach the Gospel of good tidings to the meek, the poor, and afflicted; He has sent me to bind up and heal the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the [physical and spiritual] captives and the opening of the prison and of the eyes to those who are bound, [Romans 10:15.]
(2)    To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord [the year of His favor] and the day of vengeance of our God, to comfort all who mourn, [Matthew 11:2-6; Luke 4:18,19; 7:22.]
(3)    To grant [consolation and joy] to those who mourn in Zion — to give them an ornament (a garland or diadem) of beauty instead of ashes, the oil of joy instead of mourning, the garment [expressive] of praise instead of a heavy, burdened, and failing spirit — that they may be called oaks of righteousness [lofty, strong, and magnificent, distinguished for uprightness, justice, and right standing with God], the planting of the Lord, that He may be glorified.
(4)    And they shall rebuild the ancient ruins; they shall raise up the former desolations and renew the ruined cities, the devastations of many generations.
(5)    Aliens shall stand [ready] and feed your flocks, and foreigners shall be your plowmen and your vinedressers.
(6)    But you shall be called the priests of the Lord; people will speak of you as the ministers of our God. You shall eat the wealth of the nations, and the glory [once that of your captors] shall be yours. [Exodus 19:6; 1 Peter 2:5; Revelation 1:6; 5:10; 20:6.]
(7)    Instead of your [former] shame you shall have a twofold recompense; instead of dishonor and reproach [your people] shall rejoice in their portion. Therefore in their land they shall possess double [what they had forfeited]; everlasting joy shall be theirs.
(8)    For I the Lord love justice; I hate robbery and wrong with violence or a burnt offering. And I will faithfully give them their recompense in truth, and I will make an everlasting covenant or league with them.
(9)    And their offspring shall be known among the nations and their descendants among the peoples. All who see them [in their prosperity] will recognize and acknowledge that they are the people whom the Lord has blessed.
(10)  I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my soul will exult in my God; for He has clothed me with the garments of salvation, He has covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom decks himself with a garland, and as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.
(11)  For as [surely as] the earth brings forth its shoots, and as a garden causes what is sown in it to spring forth, so [surely] the Lord God will cause rightness and justice and praise to spring forth before all the nations [through the self-fulfilling power of His word].


(End of  Lesson 31)


  

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