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ISAIAH
The Gospel To Israel
Book 3

LESSON  THIRTY TWO
Isaiah 62:1 - 63:14


 

Chapter 62
Fifth Prophecy
The Gradual Extension of the Glory of Jerusalem

Isaiah 62:1-3
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(1)  For the sake of Zion I will not be silent, for the sake of Jerusalem I will not be still, till her victory emerges resplendent and her triumph like a flaming torch.

For Sion’s sake I will not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, until her righteousness go forth as light, and my salvation burn as a torch.

Until I accomplish salvation for Zion I will give no rest to the peoples, and until I bring comfort to Jerusalem I will give no quiet to the kingdoms; until her light be revealed as the dawn, and her salvation burn as a torch.

(2)  Nations shall see your victory, and every king your majesty; and you shall be called by a new name which the Lord Himself shall bestow.

And the Gentiles shall see thy righteousness, and kings thy glory: and one shall call thee by a new name, which the Lord shall name.

And all the peoples shall see thy righteousness, and all the kings thy glory; and they shall call thee by a new name, which the Lord shall define by his Memra.

(3)  You shall be a glorious crown in the hand of the Lord, and a royal diadem in the palm of your God.

And thou shalt be a crown of beauty in the hand of the Lord, and a royal diadem in the hand of thy God.

And thou shalt be a crown of joy before the Lord, and a diadem of praise before thy God.

From the NKJV
(1)   For Zion's sake I will not hold My peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest, until her righteousness goes forth as brightness, and her salvation as a lamp that burns.    (2)    The Gentiles shall see your righteousness, and all kings your glory.  You shall be called by a new name, which the mouth of the LORD will name.    (3)    You shall also be a crown of glory in the hand of the LORD, and a royal diadem in the hand of your God.

Nearly all the more recent commentators regard the prophet himself as speaking here.  Having given himself up to praying to Jehovah and preaching to the people,  he will not rest or hold his peace till the salvation,  which has begun to be realized,  has been brought fully out to the light of day.  It is,  however,  really Jehovah who is speaking through Isaiah

It is evident that Jehovah is the speaker here,  both from verse 6 and also from the expression used;  for châshâh (OT: 2418) (hold my peace) is the word commonly employed in such utterances of Jehovah concerning Himself,  to denote His leaving things in their existing state without interposing.

Jehovah,  having now begun to speak and move on behalf of Zion,  will  "for Jerusalem's sake,"  i.e.,  just because it is Zion,  His own church,  neither be silent nor give Himself rest,  till He has gloriously executed His work of grace.  Zion is now in the shade,  but the time will come when her righteousness will go forth as noogah,  the light which bursts through the night;  or till her salvation is like a torch which blazes.

The verb baa`ar (OT: 1197) (burns),  which is generally applied to wrath,  is here used in connection with salvation,  which has wrath towards the enemies of Zion as its obverse side:  Zion's tsedeq (righteousness) shall become like the morning sunlight,  before which even the last twilight has vanished;  and Zion's yeshuu'âh [salvation] is like a nightly torch,  which sets fire to its own material,  and everything that comes near it.

The force of the conjunction `ad (OT: 5704) (until) does not extend beyond verse 1.  From verse 2 onwards,  the condition of things in the object indicated by `d [and, as] (OT: 5704) is more fully described.

The eyes of the nations will be directed to the righteousness of Zion,  the impress of which is now their common property
The the eyes of all kings will be directed to her glory,  with which the glory of none of them , nor even of all together,  can possibly compare.
And because this state of Zion is a new one, which has never existed before, her old name is not sufficient to indicate her nature.

She is called by a new name!
And who could determine this new name?
He who makes the church righteous and glorious,  He,  and He alone,  is able to utter a name answering to her new nature,  just as it was He who

Changed Abram (exalted father) to Abraham (father of a multitude)
Changed Sarai (dominative) to Sarah (princess)
Changed Jacob (supplanter) to Israel (prince with God)
The mouth of Jehovah will determine it (naaqab (OT: 5344) [shall name],  to pierce,  to mark,  to designate in a signal and distinguishing manner.
2 Corinthians 5:15-17
And He died for all, that those who live should live no longer for themselves, but for Him who died for them and rose again.   Therefore, from now on, we regard no one according to the flesh. Even though we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now we know Him thus no longer.   Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things have passed away ; behold, all things have become new.     (NKJV)
Philippians 2:8-11
And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross.  Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name,  that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth,  and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.     (NKJV)
Revelations 2:17
He who is able to hear let him listen to and heed what the Spirit says to the assemblies (churches).  To him who overcomes (conquers),  I will give to eat of the manna that is hidden,  and I will give him a white stone with a new name engraved on the stone, which no one knows or understands except he who receives it. [Ps 78:24; Isa 62:2.]    (AMP)
Revelations 3:12
He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God, and he shall go out no more. I will write on him the name of My God and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God. And I will write on him My new name.     (NKJV)

It is only in imagery that prophecy here sees what Zion will be in the future: she will be

A Crown of Glory
A Diadem Royal
in the hand of her God

Jehovah holds the crown in His hand.
Zion is not the ancient crown which the Eternal wears upon His head,  but the crown wrought out in time,  which He holds in His hand,  because He is seen in Zion by all creation.
The whole history of salvation is the history of the taking of the kingdom,  and the perfecting of the kingdom by Jehovah;  in other words,  the history of the working out of this crown.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  And I will not keep silent, and for Jerusalem’s sake I will not remain quiet, until her vindication shines oust like the dawn, and her salvation like a burning torch.   (2)    The nations will see your vindication, and all the kings your glory; and people will call you (you will be called 1Q1sa (b). MT) by a new name that the mouth of the Lord will bestow.   (3)   You will be a crown of splendor in the Lord’s hand, and a royal diadem in the hand of your God.
See Note in lesson 15 on the Dead Sea Scrolls Bible
Note: Chapter 62. 1Q1sa: contains all; 1Q1sa (b): contains 62:2-12.

Isaiah 62:4 & 5
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(4)  Nevermore shall you be called “Forsaken,” nor shall your land be called “Desolate;” but you shall be called “I delight in her,” and your land “Espoused.” For the Lord takes delight in you, and your land shall be espoused.

And thou shalt no more be called Forsaken; and thy land shall no more be called Desert: for thou shalt be called My Pleasure, and thy land Inhabited: for the Lord has taken pleasure in thee, and thy land shall be inhabited.

Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken; and thy land shall no more be termed Desolate: for thou shalt be called, ‘Abede re uthi bah (They that do my pleasure are in her), and thy land Yathe bah (Inhabited): for there shall be pleasure from before the Lord in thee, and thy land shall be inhabited.

(5)  As a youth espouses a maiden, your sons shall espouse you; and as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride, so will your God rejoice over you.

And as a young man lives with a virgin, so shall thy sons dwell in thee: and it shall come to pass that as a bridegroom will rejoice over a bride, so will the Lord rejoice over thee.

For as a young man dwells with a virgin, so shall thy children dwell in thy midst; and as a bridegroom rejoiceth with his bride, so shall thy God rejoice over thee.

From the NKJV
(4)  You shall no longer be termed Forsaken, nor shall your land any more be termed Desolate; but you shall be called Hephzibah, and your land Beulah;  for the LORD delights in you, and your land shall be married.    (5)    For as a young man marries a virgin, so shall your sons marry you; and as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so shall your God rejoice over you.

Zion will be once more the beloved of God, and her home the bride of her children.

The prophecy mentions new names,  which will now take the place of the old ones;  but these names indicate what Zion appears to be,  not her true nature which is brought to the light.
In the explanatory clause laakª [to bruise] (OT: 3807 a) stands at the head,  because the name of Zion is given first in distinction from the name of her land.
Zion has hitherto been called

'azuubhâh forsaken by Jehovah but now chephtsii-bhâh my delight is in her
shªmaamaah desolate but now bª`uwlaah thou art married
for she is now the object of true affection on the part of Jehovah.

Hephzibah -
The name of Hezekiah's wife, a type of Jerusalem, as Hezekiah was a type of Messiah (Isaiah 32:1)

With the rejoicing of a bridegroom in his bride (the accusative is used here in the same sense as in gªdolaah [Great] (OT:1419) ) will her God rejoice in her,  turning to her again with a love as strong and deep as the first love of a bridal pair.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

And the land of Zion's abode,  the fatherland of her children,  was hitherto called shemâmâh; it was turned into a desert by the heathen,  and the connection that existed between it and the children of the land was severed;  but now it shall be called be'uulâh, for it will be newly married.  A young man marries a virgin,  thy children will marry thee:  the figure and the fact are placed side by side in the form of an emblematical proverb,  the particle of comparison being omitted.

The church in its relation to Jehovah is a weak but beloved woman,  which has Him for its Lord and Husband (Isa 54:5);  but in relation to her home she is the totality of those who are lords or possessors of the land,  and who call the land their own as it were by right of marriage.

Out of the loving relation in which the church stands to its God,  there flows its relation of authority over every earthly thing of which it stands in need.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Revelation 21:2
Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.      (NKJV)

Figure of Speech
Your sons marry you. Note the Figure of Speech called Catachresis; or, Incongruity.

1. Of two words where the meanings are remotely akin (Lev. 26:30)
2. Of two words where the meanings are different (Ex. 5:21)
3. Of one word where the Greek receives its real meaning by permutation from another language (Gen. 1:5. Matt. 8:6)

God is implied as being "married" to her;  whereas her "sons" could hardly be said to marry their mother:  and in Isaiah 49:18,  they are said to be her bridal ornaments,  not her husband.

your sons" mean simply your citizens;
and 'shall marry you' means, shall dwell in you
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(4)  And you will no longer be called Deserted, and your land will no longer be called Desolate; but people will call you My Delight Is in Her, and your land Married; for the Lord takes delight in you, and your land will be married.   (5)   For just as a young man married a maiden, so will your sons marry you, and just as a bridegroom rejoices over his bride, so will your God rejoice over you.

Isaiah 62:6 & 7
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(6)  Upon your walls, O Jerusalem, I have set watchmen, who shall never be silent by day or by night. O you, the Lord’s remembrancers, take no rest

And on thy walls, O Jerusalem, have I set watchmen all day and all night, who shall never cease making mention of the Lord.

Behold, the righteous works of thy fathers, O city of Jerusalem, are set in order and preserved before me, day and night continually without ceasing; the memorial of thy good deeds is recounted before the Lord unceasingly.

(7)  and give no rest to Him, until He establish Jerusalem and make her renowned on earth.

For there is none like you, when he shall have established, and made Jerusalem a praise on the earth.

And their memorial shall not cease from before him, until he establish and until he make Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

From the NKJV
(6)  I have set watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem; they shall never hold their peace day or night. you who make mention of the LORD, do not keep silent,   (7)    and give Him no rest till He establishes and till He makes Jerusalem a praise in the earth.

Watchmen stationed upon the walls of Zion (says the third strophe) do not forsake Jehovah till He has fulfilled all His promise.

As the phrase hiphqiid 'al [I have set] signifies to make a person an overseer (president) over anything,  it seems as though we ought to render the sentence before us,  "I have set watchmen over thy walls."  But hiphqiid by itself may also mean "to appoint" (2 Kings 25:23),  and therefore `alch-owmotayikª  [on your walls] may indicate the place of appointment,  upon thy walls.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Those who are stationed upon the walls are no doubt keepers of the walls;

not, however, as persons whose exclusive duty it is to keep the walls,
but as those who have committed to them the guarding of the city both within and without.
The appointment of such watchmen presupposes the existence of the city,  which is thus to be watched from the walls.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The walls intended are those of the city,  which,  though once destroyed,  is actually imperishable (Isa 49:16) and has now been raised up again.  And who else could the watchmen stationed upon the walls really be,  but prophets who are called tsoophiim (e.g., Isa 52:8),  and whose calling,  according to Ezek 33,  is that of watchmen?

Ezekiel 33:1-7
Again the word of the LORD came to me, saying ... "So you, son of man: I have made you a watchman for the house of Israel; therefore you shall hear a word from My mouth and warn them for Me."      (NKJV)

And if prophets are meant,  who else can the person appointing them be but Jehovah Himself?  The idea that the author of these prophecies is speaking of himself,  as having appointed the shoomeriim,  must therefore be rejected.  Jehovah gives to the restored Jerusalem faithful prophets,  whom He stations upon the walls of the city that they may see far and wide,  and be heard afar off.

And from those walls does their warning cry on behalf of the holy city committed to their care ascent day and night to Jehovah,  and their testimony go round about to the world.  For after Jerusalem has been restored and re-peopled,  the further end to be attained is this,

that Jehovah should build up the newly founded city within,
and help it to attain the central post of honor in relation to those without,
which He has destined for it.

Such prophets of the times succeeding the captivity were Haggai,  Zechariah,  and Malachi.

Haggai stands upon the walls of Jerusalem, and proclaims the glory of the second temple as surpassing that of the first.
Zechariah points from Joshua and Zerubbabel onwards to the sprout of Jehovah, who is priest and prince in one person, and builds the true temple of God.
Malachi predicts the coming of the Lord to His temple, and the rising of the Sun of righteousness.

Under the eyes of these prophets the city of God rose up again,  and they stand upon its pinnacles,  and look thence into the glorious future that awaits it,  and hasten its approach through the word of their testimony.  Such prophets,  who carry the good of their people day and night upon their anxious praying hearts,  does Jehovah give to the Jerusalem after the captivity,  which is one in the prophet's view with the Jerusalem of the last days;  and in so lively a manner does the prophet here call them up before his own mind,  that he exclaims to them,  "Ye who remind Jehovah,  to finish gloriously the gracious work which He has begun,"  give yourselves to rest (domi from dâmâh = dâmam, to grow dumb,  i.e.,  to cease speaking or working,  in distinction from châshâh,  to be silent,  i.e.,  not to speak or work),  and allow Him no rest till He puts Jerusalem in the right state,  and so glorifies it,  that it shall be recognized and extolled as glorious over all the earth.

Prophecy here sees the final glory of the church as one that gradually unfolds itself and that not without human instrumentality.  The prophets of the last times,  with their zeal in prayer,  and in the exercise of their calling as witnesses,  form a striking contrast to the blind,  dumb,  indolent,  sleepy hirelings of the prophet's own time (Isa 56:10).
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(6)  Upon your walls, O Jerusalem, I have posted watchmen; all day and all night they will not  be silent.  You who acknowledge the Lord, take no rest.    (7)    and give him no rest until he prepares and establishes Jerusalem and makes it an object of praise throughout the earth.

Isaiah 62:8 & 9
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(8)  The Lord has sworn by His right hand, by His mighty arm: nevermore will I give your new grain to your enemies for food, nor shall foreigners drink the new wine for which you have labored.

For the Lord has sworn by his glory, and by the might of his arm, I will no more give thy corn and thy provisions to thine enemies; nor shall strangers any more drink thy wine, for which thou hast labored.

The Lord hath sworn by his right hand and by his mighty arm, I will no more give thy corn for food to thy enemies, neither shall aliens drink thy wine for which thou hast labored:

(9)  But those who harvest it shall eat it and give praise to the Lord; and those who gather it shall drink it in My sacred courts.

But they that have gathered them shall eat them, and they shall praise the Lord; and they that have gathered the grapes shall drink thereof in my holy courts.

but they that have gathered the corn shall eat it, and shall sing praises before the Lord; and they that have pressed out the wine shall drink it in my holy court.

From the NKJV
(8)  The LORD has sworn by His right hand and by the arm of His strength:  "Surely I will no longer give your grain as food for your enemies; and the sons of the foreigner shall not drink your new wine, for which you have labored.    (9)    But those who have gathered it shall eat it, and praise the LORD; those who have brought it together shall drink it in My holy courts."

The following strophe expresses one side of the divine promise,  on which the hope of that lofty and universally acknowledged glory of Jerusalem,  for whose completion the watchers upon its walls so ceaselessly exert themselves, is founded.

The church will no more succumb to the tyranny of a worldly power.
Peace undisturbed, and unrestricted freedom, reigns there.
With praise to Jehovah are the fruits of the land enjoyed by those who raised and reaped them.

The expression bechatsrooth qodshii [in the courts of my sanctuary],  cannot imply that the produce of the harvest will never be consumed anywhere else than there (which is inconceivable),

but that their enjoyment of the harvest-produce will be consecrated by festal meals of worship,
with an allusion to the legal regulation that two-tenths (ma'aseer sheenii) should be eaten in a holy place (liphnee Jehovah) by the original possessor and his family,  with the addition of the Levites and the poor (Deut 14:22-27).

Such thoughts,  as that all Israel will then be a priestly nation,  or that all Jerusalem will be holy,  are not implied in this promise.  All that it affirms is,  that
the enjoyment of the harvest-blessing will continue henceforth undisturbed,
and be accompanied with the grateful worship of the giver,
and therefore,  because sanctified by thanksgiving,  will become an act of worship in itself.

This is what Jehovah has sworn

"by His right hand,"  which He only lifts up with truth, and
"by His powerful arm,"  which carries out what it promises without the possibility of resistance.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)
 

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(8)  The Lord has sworn by his right hand and by his mighty arm: I will never again give your grain as food for your enemies, foreigners will not drink the wine for which you have toiled;   (9)   but surely those who harvest it will eat it and praise the name of Lord, and those who gather it will drink it in the courts of my sanctuary, says your God.

Isaiah 62:10-12
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(10)  Pass through, pass through the gates! Clear the road for the people; build up, build up the highway, remove the rocks! Raise an ensign over the peoples!

Go through my gates, and make a way for my people; and cast the stones out of the way; lift up a standard for the Gentiles.

Ye prophets, pass to and fro through the gates; turn the heart of the people to the right way; proclaim good tidings, and consolations to the righteous who have put away the thoughts of their imagination, which is like a stone of stumbling; lift up a sign over the peoples.

(11)  See, the Lord has proclaimed to the end of the earth: announce to fair Zion, your deliverer is coming! See, his reward is with Him, His recompense before Him.

For behold, the Lord has proclaimed to the end of the earth, say ye to the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy Savior has come to thee, having his reward and his work before his face.

Behold the Lord hath announced to the ends of the earth, Say to the congregation of Zion, Behold thy savior reveals himself; behold the reward of them that perform his word is with him, for all their works are revealed before him.

(12)  and they shall be called, “The Holy People, the Redeemed of the Lord,” and you shall be called, “Sought Out, a City not forsaken.”

And one shall call them the holy people, the redeemed of the Lord: and thou shalt be called a city sought out, and not forsaken.

And they shall call them the holy people, the redeemed of the Lord; and thou shalt be called Te bi’a thah (Sought out), a city which has not been rejected.

From the NKJV
(10)  Go through, go through the gates! Prepare the way for the people; build up, build up the highway!  Take out the stones, lift up a banner for the peoples!   (11)   Indeed the LORD has proclaimed to the end of the world:  "Say to the daughter of Zion,  'Surely your salvation is coming; behold, His reward is with Him, and His work before Him.'"    (12)  And they shall call them The Holy People, the Redeemed of the LORD; and you shall be called Sought Out, a City Not Forsaken.

62:10 the People. In Isaiah 40:3 the way is to be “prepared” for Messiah: here, for His People.

The concluding strophe goes back to the standpoint of the captivity.

For although bª `aabar [Go through] (OT:5674) may under certain circumstances be applied to entrance into a city,  yet it generally denotes either passing through a land,  or through a nation,  or through a certain place.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

The call to go out of Babylon forms the conclusion of the prophecy here,  just as it does in Isa 48:20-21; 52:11-12.

The connection of this with what goes before is not very apparent,  and there has been a great diversity of opinion in regard to it among interpreters.

Grotius thinks that it refers to the priests and Levites who are referred to also in the previous verses, and that it is a command for them to enter into the temple.
Calvin thinks that it refers to the Christian church, and that the idea is, that the gates of it should be continually open for the return of penitent sinners.
Rosenmuller thinks that it is an address to the cities lying between Babylon and Jerusalem, and that the idea is, that their gates would be thrown open for the return of the exiles, and that all obstacles would be taken out of the way.
Others think that it refers to the Jews, and that the command is to them to go through the gates of Babylon, and an immediate order is added to the people to prepare the way for them.
This last seems to me to be the sense of the passage.  It is a direction to the exiles in Babylon to go forth and return to their own land.
The gates so long closed against their return would be thrown open
They would now have liberty to depart for their own country
Thus explained,  the connection is apparent.
(Isaiah 62:7) The watchmen were commanded to pray until this was done
(Isaiah 62:1) The prophet had said that he would not rest until it was done
(Isaiah 62:8-9) Yahweh had promised this in a most solemn manner
And now those prayers are heard,  and that promise is about to be fulfilled,  and they are commanded to leave the city and enter upon their journey to their own land
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Keil & Delitzsch suggest:
Jehovah hath caused tidings to be heard to the end of the earth,  i.e.,  as we may see from what follows,  the tidings of their liberation;  in other words,  looking at the historical fulfillment,  the proclamation of Cyrus,  which he caused to be issued throughout his empire at the instigation of Jehovah (Ezra 1:1).

Men everywhere,  i.e.,  as far as the earth or the dispersion of Israel extends,  are to say to the daughter of Zion (to the church which has its home in Zion,  but is now in foreign lands)  that "its salvation cometh," - that Jehovah,  its Savior,  is coming to bestow a rich reward upon His church,  which has passed through sever punishment,  but has been so solitarily refined.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Lift up a banner
As when an army is about to march.
They were about to be collected from their dispersions and restored to their own land, and the command is given, that the banner might be reared that they might rally around it (Isaiah 59:19; 49:22).
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Thirteen Things Judah Will Be

1. Isaiah 62:1 Righteous
2. Isaiah 62:1 Saved
3. Isaiah 62:2 Full of glory
4. Isaiah 62:2 Called by a new name
5. Isaiah 62:2 A crown of glory in Jehovah's hand
6. Isaiah 62:2 A royal diadem in God's hand
7. Isaiah 62:4 Called Hephzibah
8. Isaiah 62:4 Called Beulah
9. Isaiah 62:7 A praise in the earth
10. Isaiah 62:12 Called The Holy people
11. Isaiah 62:12 Called The Redeemed of the Lord
12. Isaiah 62:12 Called Sought out
13. Isaiah 62:12 Called A city not forsaken
(Dake's Annotated Reverence Bible, Finis Jennings Dake, Dake Publishing, Lawrenceville, GA)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(10)  Pass through (Pass through, pass through 1Q1sa (b). and MT.) the gates, prepare the way for the people! Build up, build up the highway! Clear it of stumbling-stones speak among the peoples. (raise a banner over the peoples 1Q1sa (b). MT.)   (11)   Behold the Lord! Proclaim (See, the Lord has proclaimed 1Q1sa (b). MT) to the ends of the earth; say to daughter Zion, “See, your salvation is coming! See, his reward is with him, and his recompenses are before him.”   (12)   People will call them “The Holy People,” “The Redeemed of the Lord;” and they will call you  “Sought After,” “The City Not Deserted.”



YAHWEH  IN  JUDGMENT  &  SALVATION

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The following prophecy anticipates the question:  How Israel can possibly rejoice in the recovered possession of its inheritance,  if it is still to be surrounded by such malicious neighbors as the Edomite’s?

Isaiah 63:1-6
Sixth Prophecy
Judgment upon Edom, and upon the Whole World that Is Hostile to the Church

Isaiah 63:1-6     Messiah.   In Person.    Judgment.

Isa 63:1- Question
Isa 63:-1 Answer Character
Isa 63:2 Question
Isa 63:3-6 Answer Work

Isaiah 63:1-2
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(1)  Who is this coming from Edom, in crimsoned garments from Bozrah – who is this, majestic in attire, pressing forward in His great might?  “It is I, who contend victoriously, powerful to give triumph.”

Who is this that is come from Edom, with red garments from Bosor? Thus fair in his apparel, with mighty strength? I speak of righteousness and saving judgment.

He who hath said these things is about to bring a plague upon Edom, a mighty vengeance upon Bozrah, to execute the just vengeance of his people as he swore unto them by his Memra. He said, Behold, I reveal myself as I spake in righteousness; great before me is the power to save.

(2)  Why is your clothing so red, Your garments like his who treads grapes?

Wherefore are thy garments red, and thy raiment as if fresh from a trodden wine-press?

Why then are the mountains red with the blood of the slain, and why do the plains flow forth like wine in the press?

From the NKJV
(1)   Who is this who comes from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah, this One who is glorious in His apparel, traveling in the greatness of His strength? — "I who speak in righteousness, mighty to save."    (2)    Why is Your apparel red, and Your garments like one who treads in the winepress?  

A thought!
Rev 19:11-13
(11)  After that I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse [appeared]! The one Who was riding it is called Faithful (Trustworthy, Loyal, Incorruptible, Steady) and True, and He passes judgment and wages war in righteousness (holiness, justice, and uprightness). [Ezek 1:1.]
(12)  His eyes [blaze] like a flame of fire, and on His head are many kingly crowns (diadems); and He has a title (name) inscribed which He alone knows or can understand. [Dan 10:6.]
(13)  He is dressed in a robe dyed by dipping in blood, and the title by which He is called is The Word of God.     (AMP)
Paul the Learner

Edom - Bozrah
Edom = red.
Bozrah = vintage.
Bozrah was for a time the principal city of Idumea, though properly lying within the boundaries of Moab.

Just as the Ammonites had been characterized by a thirst for extending their territory as well as by cruelty, and the Moabites by boasting and a slanderous disposition,  so were the Edomite’s,  although the brother-nation to Israel,  characterized from time immemorial by fierce,  implacable,  bloodthirsty hatred towards Israel,  upon which they fell in the most ruthless and malicious manner,  whenever it was surrounded by danger or had suffered defeat.

The knavish way in which they acted in the time of Joram,  when Jerusalem was surprised and plundered by Philistines and Arabians (2 Chron 21:16-17),  has been depicted by Obadiah.
A large part of the inhabitants of Jerusalem were then taken prisoners,  and sold by the conquerors,  some to the Phoenicians and some to the Greeks (Obad. 20);  to the latter through the medium of the Edomite’s,  who were in possession of the port and commercial city of Elath on the Elanitic Gulf (Amos 1:6).

Under the rule of the very same Joram the Edomite’s had made themselves independent of the house of David (2 Kings 8:20; 2 Chron 21:10),   and a great massacre took place among the Judaeans settled in Idumaea;  an act of wickedness for which Joel threatens them with the judgment of God,  and which was regarded as not yet expiated even in the time of Uzziah,  notwithstanding the fact that Amaziah had chastised them (2 Kings 14:7),  and Uzziah had wrested Elath from them (2 Kings 14:22).

"Thus saith Jehovah," was the prophecy of Amos (Amos 1:11-12) in the first half of Uzziah's reign, "for three transgressions of Edom, and for four, I will not take it back, because he pursued his brother with the sword, and stifled his compassion, so that his anger tears in pieces for ever, and he keeps his fierce wrath eternally: And I let fire loose upon Teman, and it devours the palaces of Bozrah."

So also at the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans,  and the carrying away of the people,  Edom took the side of the Chaldeans,  rejoiced over Israel's defeat,  and flattered itself that it should eventually rule over the territory that had hitherto belonged to Israel.

They availed themselves of this opportunity to slake their thirst for revenge upon Israel,  placing themselves at the service of its enemies,  delivering up fugitive Judaeans or else massacring them,  and really obtaining possession of the southern portion of Judaea, viz., Hebron (1 Macc. 5:65; cf., Josephus, Wars of the Jews, iv. 9, 7).

Babylon and Edom are always to be taken literally, so far as the primary meaning of the prophecy is concerned; but they are also representative,

Babylon standing for the violent and tyrannical world-power
Edom standing for the world as cherishing hostility and manifesting hostility to Israel as Israel, i.e., as the people of God

But Edom,  which dwelt in Israel's immediate neighborhood,  and sprang from the same ancestral house,  hated Israel with hereditary mortal hatred,  although it knew the God of Israel better than Babylon ever did,  because it knew that Israel had deprived it of its birthright, and the chieftainship.  If Israel should have such a people as this,  and such neighboring nations generally round about it,  after it had been delivered from the tyranny of the mistress of the world,  its peace would still be incessantly threatened.

Not only must Babylon fall,  but Edom also must be trodden down,  before Israel could be redeemed,  or be regarded as perfectly redeemed.  The prophecy against Edom which follows here is therefore a well-chosen side-piece to the prophecy against Babel in ch. 47, at the point of time to which the prophet has been transported.

Note:
The kingdom of Edom has long since been destroyed by God.  So I think of other nations around Israel today that desire her destruction from the face of the earth.  All of these nations have in the past,  as well as now in the present,  and I am sure also in the future,  seek the destruction of the nation of Israel by any means possible.

Who is this?
The question, Who is this? perhaps means the same with that which Joshua put to the same person when he appeared to him with his sword drawn (Josh. 5:13): Art thou for us or for our adversaries?
Or,  rather,  the same with that which Israel put in a way of adoration (Exodus 15:11):  Who is a God like unto thee?
He tells who he is:  I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. He is the Savior.

God was Israel's Savior out of the hand of their oppressors
The Lord Jesus is ours; his name, Jesus, signifies a Savior, for he saves his people from their sins.
In the salvation wrought he will have us to take notice,
(1) Of the truth of his promise
He speaks in righteousness, and will therefore make good every word that he has spoken with which he will have us to compare what he does, that, setting the word and the work the one over against the other, what he does may ratify what he has said and what he has said may justify what he does.
(2) Of the efficacy of his power
He is mighty to save, able to bring about the promised redemption, whatever difficulties and oppositions may lie in the way of it.
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)
 

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(1)  Who is this coming from Edom, from Bozrah with his garments stained crimson? Who is this robed in such splendor, marching in his great strength? It is I, announcing vindication, mighty to save.   (2)   Why are your robes red, and your garments like theirs who tread the wine-press?
Note: Chapter 63. 1Q1sa: all; 1Q1sa (b): 63:1-19.

Isaiah 63:3-6
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(3)  I trod out a vintage alone; of the peoples no man was with Me. I trod them down in My anger, trampled them in My rage; their life-blood bespattered My garments, and all My clothing was stained.

I am full of trodden grape, and of the nations there is not a man with me; and I trampled them in my fury, and dashed them to pieces as earth, and brought down their blood to the earth.

Behold, as the treading wherewith grapes are trodden in the winepress, so shall the slaughter be great among the armies of the peoples, and they shall have no strength before me; and I will slay them in mine anger, and trample them in my wrath, and break the strength of their mighty ones before me, and all their wise ones will I destroy.

(4)  For I had planned a day of vengeance, and My year of redemption arrived.

For the day of recompense has come upon them, and the year of redemption is at hand.

For the day of vengeance is before me, and the year of the deliverance of my people is come.

(5)  Then I looked, but there was none to help; I stared, but there was none to aid – so My own arm wrought the triumph, and My own rage was My aid.

And I looked, and there was no helper; and I observed, and none upheld: therefore my arm delivered them, and mine anger drew nigh.

And it was revealed before me that there was no man with good works, and it was known before me that there was no man to arise, and make intercession for them: so I delivered them by my strong arm, and supported them with the Memra of my good pleasure.

(6)  I trampled peoples in My anger, I made them drunk with My rage, and I hurled their glory to the ground.

And I trampled them in mine anger, and brought down their blood to the earth.

And I will slay the peoples in mine anger, and trample them in my wrath, and cast to the lowest parts of the earth the slain of their mighty men.

From the NKJV
 (3)    I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the peoples no one was with Me.  For I have trodden them in My anger, and trampled them in My fury; their blood is sprinkled upon My garments, and I have stained all My robes.   (4)    For the day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed has come.    (5)    I looked, but there was no one to help, and I wondered that there was no one to uphold; therefore My own arm brought salvation for Me; and My own fury, it sustained Me.    (6)    I have trodden down the peoples in My anger, made them drunk in My fury, and brought down their strength to the earth.

Alone...no one was with me
No man has had any part in making the atonement; It is entirely the work of the Messiah alone.
No created being could have any part in a sacrifice that was to be of infinite merit.
(from Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

It was to the nations themselves that the knife was applied.  They were cut off like grapes and put into the wine-press (Joel 4:13   "the winepress is full, the vats overflow — for their wickedness is great");  and this heroic figure,  of which there was no longer any doubt that it was Jehovah Himself,  had trodden them down in the impulse and strength of His wrath.
The red upon the clothes was the life-blood of the nations,  which had spirted upon them,  and with which,  as He trod this wine-press,  He had soiled all His garments.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Neetsach, according to the more recently accepted derivation from nâtsach,  signifies,  according to the traditional idea,  vigor,  the vital strength and life-blood,  regarded as the sap of life.  This work of wrath had been executed by Jehovah,  because He had in His heart a day of vengeance,  which could not be delayed,  and because the year (see at Isa 61:2) of His promised redemption had arrived.

And He only had accomplished this work of wrath. Verse 5 is the expansion of, and almost a verbal repetition of Isa 59:16.  The meaning is that no one joined Him with conscious free-will,  to render help to the God of judgment and salvation in His purposes.  The church that was devoted to Him was itself the object of the redemption,  and the great mass of those who were estranged from Him the object of the judgment.

Thus He found Himself alone,  neither human co-operation nor the natural course of events helping the accomplishment of His purposes.  And consequently He renounced all human help,  and broke through the steady course of development by a marvelous act of His own.  He trod down nations in His wrath,  and intoxicated them in His fury, and caused their life-blood to flow down to the ground.

What the prophet's eye really saw was fulfilled

in the time of the Maccabaeans
when Judas inflicted a total defeat upon them,
John Hyrcanus compelled them to become Jews,
and Alexander Jannai completed their subjection
in the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans
when Simon of Gerasa avenged their cruel conduct in Jerusalem in combination with the Zealots, by ruthlessly turning their well-cultivated land into a horrible desert,  just as it would have been left by a swarm of locusts
(Jos. Wars of the Jews, iv. 9, 7)

The New Testament counterpart of this passage in Isaiah is the destruction of Antichrist and his army (Rev 19:11 ff.).  He who effects this destruction is called

the Faithful and True,
the Logos of God
and the seer beholds Him sitting upon a white horse, with eyes of flaming fire, and many diadems upon His head,  wearing a blood-stained garment,  like the person seen by the prophet here.  The vision of John is evidently formed upon the basis of that of Isaiah;  for when it is said of the Logos that He rules the nations with a staff of iron,  this points to Psalm 2;  and when it is still further said that He treads the wine-press of the wrath of Almighty God,  this points back to Isaiah 63.

The reference throughout is not to the first coming of the Lord,  when He laid the foundation of His kingdom by suffering and dying,  but to His final coming,  when He will bring His regal sway to a victorious issue.

Nevertheless Isa 63:1-6 has always been a favorite passage for reading in Passion week.  It is no doubt true that the Christian cannot read this prophecy without thinking of the Savior streaming with blood,  who trod the wine-press of wrath for us without the help of angels and men - who conquered wrath for us.  But the prophecy does not relate to this. 
The blood upon the garment of the divine Hero is not His own but that of His enemies
His treading of the wine-press is not the conquest of wrath but the manifestation of wrath
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

There follows now in Isa 63:7-64:11
a prayer commencing with the thanksgiving as it looks back to the past,
and closing with a prayer for help as it turns to the present.
The prayer which follows is chiefly an entreaty,  and an entreaty appended to Isa 63:1-6,  but without any retrospective allusion to it: it is rather a prayer in general for the realization of the redemption already promised

The three prophecies which follow are the finale of the whole.
The announcement of the prophet,  which has reached its highest point in the majestic vision in Isa 63:1-6,  is now drawing to an end.  It is standing close upon the threshold of all that has been promised,  and nothing remains but the fulfillment of the promise,  which he has held up like a jewel on every side.  And now,  just as in the finale of a poetical composition,  all the melodies and movements that have been struck before are gathered up into one effective close;  and first of all, as in Habakkuk 3,  into a prayer,  which forms,  as it were,  the lyrical echo of the preaching that has gone before.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(3)    I have trodden the winepress alone, and from my people (the peoples 1Q1sa (b)) no one was with me, and I have stained all my clothing.   (4)   For the day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year for my redeeming work had come.   (5)   I looked, but there was no helper, I was appalled that there was no one to take hold of me; (to support me 1Q1sa (b)) so my own arm brought me victory, and my wrath supported me.   (6)   I trampled down peoples in my anger; in my wrath I made them drunk, and I poured out their lifeblood on the ground.



GOD'S  MERCY  REMEMBERED

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Isaiah 63:7-64
Seventh Prophecy
Thanksgiving, Confession,  and Supplication of the Church of the Captivity

Isaiah 63:7 & 8
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(7)  I will recount the kind acts of the Lord, the praises of the Lord – for all that the Lord has wrought for us, the vast bounty to the House of Israel that He bestowed upon them according to His mercy and His great kindness.

I remembered the mercy of the Lord, the praises of the Lord in all things wherein he recompenses us. The Lord is a good judge to the house of Israel; he deals with us according to his mercy, and according to the abundance of his righteousness.

The prophet said, I will make mention of the goodness’s of the Lord, and the praises of the Lord according to all that the Lord hath bestowed on us, and great is his goodness towards the house of Israel which he hath bestowed on them according to his mercy and according to the greatness of his goodness.

(8)  He thought: Surely they are My people, children who will not play false. In His love and pity He Himself redeemed them, raised them, and exalted them all the days of old.

And he said, is it not my people? The children surely will not be rebellious: and he became to them deliverance.

And he said, surely, they are my people, children who will not deal falsely; and his Memra was their savior.

From the NKJV
(7)  I will mention the lovingkindnesses of the LORD and the praises of the LORD, according to all that the LORD has bestowed on us, and the great goodness toward the house of Israel, which He has bestowed on them according to His mercies, according to the multitude of His lovingkindnesses.    (8)    For He said, "Surely they are My people, children who will not lie."  So He became their Savior.

In this section (Isaiah 63:7-14) the Messiah is predicted to mention the many past mercies of God to Israel, the people He will come to deliver from their enemies in that day.  There is a brief history

Isa 63:8 of Jehovah's past estimate of the people when He called Abraham
(Genesis 18:19)
Isa 63:9 of Jehovah identifying Himself with them in their afflictions in Egypt
(Exodus 14:19; Exodus 23:20-21; Exodus 33:14)
Isa 63:10 of Israel's rebellion against Him and vexing the Holy Spirit to the extent that God had to turn against them, be their enemy, and fight them, as recorded in the books of Judges, Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles
Isa 63:11-14 of God remembering again His past mercies with Israel in the days of Moses when He made Himself a great name in the earth
(Dake's Annotated Reverence Bible, Finis Jennings Dake, Dake Publishing, Lawrenceville, GA)

 8  [His name is called Jesus who is called the Christ of God –Paul the Learner]. Targum
 (1 Peter 2:9)
Note: Deut. 4:37. (Lit. “with His face (or Presence);” cf. note on Exodus 33:14. Ex. 33:14. (Lit. “My face will go and I will.”

I put these notes in because they are only found in the Tanakh. Paul the Learner

The speaker is the prophet, in the name of the church, or, what is the same thing, the church in which the prophet includes himself. The prayer commences with thanksgiving, according to the fundamental rule in Psalm 50:23 (Whoever offers praise glorifies Me).  The church brings to its own remembrance,  as the subject of praise in the presence of God,  all the words and deeds by which Jehovah has displayed His mercy and secured glory to Himself.  The many thoughts of mercy and acts of mercy into which the grace of God,  i.e.,  His one purpose of grace and His one work of grace,  had been divided.

The prayer itself commences with a retrospective glance at the time of the giving of law,  when the relation of a child,  in which Israel stood to Jehovah,  was solemnly proclaimed and legally regulated.
When He made them His people,  His children,  He expected from them a grateful return of His covenant grace in covenant fidelity;  and whenever they needed help from above,  He became their Savior (mooshiia').  Mooshiia' is a favorite word in ch. 40-66.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(7)  I will recount the gracious deeds of the Lord, the praiseworthy acts of the Lord, in accordance with all the Lord has done for us and the great goodness to the house of Israel that he has shown them according to his mercy, according to the abundance of his steadfast love.   (8)   For he said, surely they are my people, children who will not act falsely, and so he became their savior.

Isaiah 63:9
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(9)  In all their troubles He was troubled, and the angel of His Presence delivered them.  In His love and pity He Himself redeemed them, raised them, and exalted them all the days of old.

Out of their entire affliction: not an ambassador, nor a messenger, but himself saved them, because he loved them and spared them: he himself redeemed them, and took them up, and lifted them up all the days of old.

Whensoever they transgressed before him, so as to bring affliction upon them, he did not afflict them, but an angel sent from before him delivered them; in his mercy and in his pity for them he rescued them, and bare them, and carried them all the days of old.

From the NKJV
(9)  In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the Angel of His Presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; and He bore them and carried them all the days of old.

This verse commemorates the way in which He proved Himself a Savior in heart and action.

There is nothing to surprise us in the fact that God should be said to feel the sufferings of His people as His own sufferings;  for the question whether God can feel pain is answered by the Scriptures in the affirmative.

Hebrews 4:15-16
For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin.  Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need.    (NKJV)

"The angel of His face,"  says Knobel,  "is the pillar of cloud and fire,  in which Jehovah was present with His people in the march through the desert,  with His protection,  instruction,  and guidance,  the helpful presence of God in the pillar of cloud and fire."

The prayer passes now quite into the tone of Psalm 78 and 106,  and begins to describe how,  in spite of Jehovah's grace,  Israel fell again and again away from Jehovah,  and yet was always rescued again by virtue of His grace.

The train of thought is rather this: From the proofs of grace which the Israel of the olden time had experienced,  the prophet passes

to that disobedience to Jehovah into which it fell,
to that punishment of Jehovah which it thereby brought upon itself,
and to that longing for the renewal of the old Mosaic period of redemption, which seized it in the midst of its state of punishment.
But instead of saying that Jehovah did not leave this longing unsatisfied,  and responded to the penitence of Israel with ever fresh help,  the prophet passes at once from the desire of the old Israel for redemption,  to the prayer of the existing Israel for redemption,  suppressing the intermediate thought,  that Israel was even now in such a state of punishment and longing.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(9)  In all their distress he was not distressed, but the angel of his presence that saved them; in his acts of love and in his pity he redeemed them; he carried them and lifted them up (lifted them up and carried them 1Q1sa (b)) all the days of old.

Isaiah 63:10
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(10)  But they rebelled, and grieved His holy spirit; then He became their enemy, and Himself made war against them.

But they disobeyed, and provoked his Holy Spirit: so he turned to be an enemy, he himself contended against them.

But they rebelled and provoked to anger against the word of his holy prophets, and his Memra was turned to be an enemy and he himself waged war against them.

From the NKJV
(10)  But they rebelled and grieved His Holy Spirit; so He turned Himself against them as an enemy, and He fought against them.

Israel's ingratitude.
Not only has wª`itsªbuw [grieved] (OT: 6087) (to cause cutting pain) qaadªshow 'et-ruwach [His Holy Spirit] as its object - the spirit of holiness,  which is distinguished from Him as a personal existence.

For just as the angel who is His face,  i.e.,  the representation of His nature,  is designated as a person both by His name and also by the redeeming activity ascribed to Him;  so also is the Spirit of holiness,  by the fact that He can be grieved,  and therefore can feel grief (compare Eph 4:30, "Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God").

Hence Jehovah [Father], and the angel of His face [Son], and the Spirit of His holiness [Holy Spirit],  are distinguished as,  One God manifested in three  [I don’t use the terminology of persons because I believe that God is a spirit and not man,  and that Jesus is the express image of that invisible God and that the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God that indwelt Jesus the Son],  like Jesus being baptized and the Father saying out of a cloud that this is my beloved son…, and the Holy Spirit like a dove coming on Jesus.  In Matthew 3:16,  because it stated that the Spirit of God descending like a dove.  So that the two latter [Angel, Spirit],  derive their existence from the first,  which is the absolute ground of the Deity,  and of everything.
Paul the Learner

Now,  if we consider that the angel of Jehovah was indeed an angel,  but that he was the angelic anticipation of the appearance of God the Mediator  "in the flesh,"  and served to foreshadow Him  "who, as the image of the invisible God" (Colossians 1:15),  as  "the reflection of His glory and the stamp of His nature" (Hebrews 1:3),  is not merely a temporary medium of self-manifestation,  but the perfect personal self-manifestation of the divine pâniim,  we have here an unmistakable indication of the mystery of the triune nature of God the One,  which was revealed in history in the New Testament work of redemption.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

He fought against them
He favored their enemies and gave them the victory.  He gave them up to a series of disasters which finally terminated in their long and painful captivity,  and in the destruction of their temple, city, and nation. The sentiment is,  that when we grieve the Spirit of God,  he abandons us to our chosen course, and leaves us to a series of spiritual and temporal disasters.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(10)  Yet they rebelled and grieved his holy spirit; so he changed and became their enemy, and he himself fought against them.

Isaiah 63:11-14
From the Tanakh From the  LXX From the Targum

(11)  Then they remembered the ancient days, Him, who pulled His people out [of the water]: “Where is He who brought them up from the Sea along with the shepherd of His flock? Where is He who put in their midst His holy spirit,

Then he remembered the ancient days, saying, Where is he that brought up from the sea the shepherd of the sheep? Where is he that put his Holy Spirit in them?

And he had pity for the glory of his name, because of the remembrance of his goodness’s of old, the mighty acts that he had wrought for his people by the hands of Moses, lest they should say, where is he that brought them up from the sea? Where is he that led them in the wilderness as a shepherd his flock? Where is he that caused the word of his holy prophets to dwell among them?

(12)  who made His glorious arm march at the right hand of Moses, Who divided the waters before them to make Himself a name for all time,

Who led Moses with his right hand, the arm of his glory? He forced the water to separate from before him, to make himself an everlasting name.

He caused his glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses; he clave the waters of the Red sea before them, to make him an everlasting name.

(13)  Who led them through the deeps so that they did not stumble – as a horse in a desert,

He led them through the deep, as a horse through the wilderness, and they fainted not,

He led them through the deeps; like a horse that stumbles not in the wilderness, so they also did not stumble.

(14)  like a beast descending to the plain?” It was the spirit of the Lord gave them rest;  thus did You shepherd Your people to win for Yourself a glorious name.

and as cattle through a plain: the Spirit came down from the Lord, and guided them: thus thou led thy people, to make thyself a glorious name.

As cattle that are led in the plain, the Memra of the Lord led them; so did thou lead thy people, to make thyself a glorious name.

From the NKJV
(11)  Then he remembered the days of old, Moses and his people, saying: "Where is He who brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of His flock? Where is He who put His Holy Spirit within them,    (12)    Who led them by the right hand of Moses, with His glorious arm, dividing the water before them to make for Himself an everlasting name,    (13)    Who led them through the deep, as a horse in the wilderness, that they might not stumble?"    (14)    As a beast goes down into the valley, and the Spirit of the LORD causes him to rest, so You lead Your people, to make Yourself a glorious name.

Israel being brought to a right mind in the midst of this state of punishment,  longed for the better past to return.

The shepherds of the flock of Jehovah are Moses and Aaron,  together with Miriam (Psalm 77:20; Micah 6:4).

Psalms 77:20
You led Your people like a flock by the hand of Moses and Aaron.    (NKJV)
Micah 6:4
For I brought you up from the land of Egypt, I redeemed you from the house of bondage; and I sent before you Moses, Aaron, and Miriam.    (NKJV)

With these Jehovah led His people up out of Egypt through the Red Sea.  Jehovah put the spirit of His holiness:  it was present in the midst of Israel,  inasmuch as Moses, Aaron, Miriam, the Seventy, and the prophets in the camp possessed it, and inasmuch as Joshua inherited it as the successor of Moses, and all the people might become possessed of it.

The majestic might of Jehovah,  which manifested itself majestically,  is called the "arm of His majesty;"  an anthropomorphism [what is not human] to which the expression  "who caused it to march at the right hand of Moses" compels us to give an interpretation worthy of God.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

Stier exclaims,  "What a marvelous figure of speech,  an arm walking at a person's right hand!"
But the arm which is visible in its deeds belongs to the God who is invisible in His own nature;  and the meaning is,  that the active power of Moses was not left to itself,  but the overwhelming omnipotence of God went by its side,  and endowed it with superhuman strength.
It was by virtue of this that the elevated staff and extended hand of Moses divided the Red Sea (Ex 14:16).

God is holy love, and while willing for Himself,  He wills at the same time the salvation of His creatures.  He makes to Himself an "everlasting name," by glorifying Himself in such memorable miracles of redemption,  as that performed in the deliverance of His people out of Egypt.

As a horse in the wilderness
This is a most beautiful image.  The reference is to vast level plains like those in Arabia,  where there are no stones, no trees, no gullies, no obstacles, and where a fleet courser bounds over the plain without any danger of stumbling.  So the Israelites were led on their way without falling. All obstacles were removed, and they were led along as if over a vast smooth plain.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

As a beast goes down into a valley
As a herd of cattle in the heat of the day descends into the shady glen in order to find rest.
In the vale, streams of water usually flow.  By those streams and fountains trees grow luxuriantly, and these furnish a cool and refreshing shade.  The cattle, therefore, in the heat of the day, naturally descend from the hills, where there are no fountains and streams, and where they are exposed to an intense sun, to seek refreshment in the shade of the valley.  The figure here is that of resting in safety after exposure; and there are few more poetic and beautiful images of comfort than that furnished by cattle lying quietly and safely in the cool shade of a well-watered vale.
Israel lay thus safely encamped in the wilderness;  that they, with their flocks and herds and riches,  were suffered to remain unattacked by the king of Egypt;  and that this was a state of grateful repose,  like that which a herd feels after having been closely pursued by an enemy,  when it finds a safe retreat in some quiet vale.
Such repose, such calm, gentle, undisturbed rest,  God gave his people.  Such he gives them now,  amidst sultry suns and storms,  as they pass through the world.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

The prayer dwells upon this chief miracle,  of which the other was only an after-play.  "As the horse gallops over the plain,"  so did they pass through the depths of the sea yikaasheeluw (OT: 3782) lo' (OT: 3808)  - without stumbling.
Then follows another beautiful figure:  "like the beast that goeth down into the valley," the Spirit of Jehovah brought it (Israel) to rest, viz., to the menuuchâh of the Canaan flowing with milk and honey,  where it rested and was refreshed after the long and wearisome march through the sandy desert,  like a flock that had descended from the bare mountains to the brooks and meadows of the valley.  The Spirit of God is represented as the leader here, viz., through the medium of those who stood,  enlightened and instigated by Him,  at the head of the wandering people.
(From Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From The Dead Sea Scrolls Bible

(11)  Then they remembered the days of old, of Moses his servant. Where is the one who brought up out of the sea the shepherds of his flock? Where is the one who set his holy spirit among them,   (12)   and who made his glorious arm march at Moses’ right hand, who divided the waters before them to win an everlasting name,   (13)   who led them through the depths? Like a horse in the open desert they did not stumble;   (14)   like cattle that go down into the plain, the spirit of the Lord gave them rest. For you led your people, to win for yourself a glorious name.



LESSON  32  FROM  THE  AMPLIFIED  VERSION

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Isaiah 62:1 - 63:14  -  from the Amplified Version

62:1       FOR ZION'S sake will I [Isaiah] not hold my peace, and for Jerusalem's sake I will not rest until her imputed righteousness and vindication go forth as brightness, and her salvation radiates as does a burning torch.
(2)    And the nations shall see your righteousness and vindication [your rightness and justice — not your own, but His ascribed to you], and all kings shall behold your salvation and glory; and you shall be called by a new name which the mouth of the Lord shall name. [Revelation 2:17.]
(3)    You shall also be [so beautiful and prosperous as to be thought of as] a crown of glory and honor in the hand of the Lord, and a royal diadem [exceedingly beautiful] in the hand of your God.
(4)    You [Judah] shall no more be termed Forsaken, nor shall your land be called Desolate any more. But you shall be called Hephzibah [My delight is in her], and your land be called Beulah [married]; for the Lord delights in you, and your land shall be married [owned and protected by the Lord].
(5)    For as a young man marries a virgin [O Jerusalem], so shall your sons marry you; and as the bridegroom rejoices over the bride, so shall your God rejoice over you.
(6)    I have set watchmen upon your walls, O Jerusalem, who will never hold their peace day or night; you who [are His servants and by your prayers] put the Lord in remembrance [of His promises], keep not silence,
(7)    And give Him no rest until He establishes Jerusalem and makes her a praise in the earth.
(8)    The Lord has sworn by His right hand and by His mighty arm: Surely I will not again give your grain as food for your enemies, and [the invading sons of] aliens shall not drink your new wine for which you have toiled;
(9)    But they who have gathered it shall eat it and praise the Lord, and they who have brought in the vintage shall drink it [at the feasts celebrated] in the courts of My sanctuary (the temple of My holiness).
(10)  Go through, go through the gates! Prepare the way for the people. Cast up, cast up the highway! Gather out the stones. Lift up a standard or ensign over and for the peoples.
(11)  Behold, the Lord has proclaimed to the end of the earth: Say to the Daughter of Zion, Behold, your salvation comes [in the person of the Lord]; behold, His reward is with Him, and His work and recompense before Him. [Isaiah 40:10.]
(12)  And they shall call them the Holy People, the Redeemed of the Lord; and you shall be called Sought Out, a City Not Forsaken.

63:1       WHO IS this Who comes from Edom, with crimson-stained garments from Bozrah [in Edom]? This One Who is glorious in His apparel, striding triumphantly in the greatness of His might? It is I, [the One] Who speaks in righteousness [proclaiming vindication], mighty to save!
(2)    Why is Your apparel splashed with red, and Your garments like the one who treads in the winepress?
(3)    I have trodden the winepress alone, and of the peoples there was no one with Me. I trod them in My anger and trampled them in My wrath; and their lifeblood is sprinkled upon My garments, and I stained all My raiment.
(4)    For the day of vengeance was in My heart, and My year of redemption [the year of My redeemed] has come.
(5)    And I looked, but there was no one to help; I was amazed and appalled that there was no one to uphold [truth and right]. So My own arm brought Me victory, and My wrath upheld Me.
(6)    I trod down the peoples in My anger and made them drink of the cup of My wrath until they were intoxicated, and I spilled their lifeblood upon the earth.
(7)    I will recount the loving-kindnesses of the Lord and the praiseworthy deeds of the Lord, according to all that the Lord has bestowed on us, and the great goodness to the house of Israel, which He has granted them according to His mercy and according to the multitude of His loving-kindnesses.
(8)    For He said, Surely they are My people, sons who will not lie [who will not deal falsely with Me]; and so He was to them a Savior [in all their distresses].
(9)    In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the Angel of His presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; and He lifted them up and carried them all the days of old. [Exodus 23:20-23; 33:14-15; Deuteronomy 1:31; 32:10-12.]
(10)  But they rebelled and grieved His Holy Spirit; therefore He turned to become their enemy and Himself fought against them.
(11)  Then His people [seriously] remembered the days of old, of Moses and his people [and they said], Where is He Who brought [our fathers] up out of the [Red] Sea, with [Moses and the other] shepherds of His flock? Where is He Who put His Holy Spirit within their midst,
(12)  Who caused His glorious arm to go at the right hand of Moses, dividing the waters before them, to make for Himself an everlasting name,
(13)  Who led them through the depths, like a horse in the wilderness, so that they did not stumble?
(14)  Like the cattle that go down into the valley [to find better pasturage, refuge, and rest], the Spirit of the Lord caused them to rest. So did You lead Your people [Lord] to make for Yourself a beautiful and glorious name [to prepare the way for the acknowledgment of Your name by all nations].


(End of  Lesson 32)


 

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