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ACTS
The continued Life of Jesus through the Apostles

CHAPTER TWO

"Divine Wine"
Key Verse = Acts 2:15 & 16

  1. Introduction to Chapter 2 3. Peter's Sermon
  2. The Day of Pentecost 4. The Church Grew Daily
  3. The Crowd's Response    

 

INTRODUCTION  TO  CHAPTER  2

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The Eight “Es” Of Pentecost
1. ENTRANCE
 
AND” (verse 1) is a conjunction which means an extension of what as already occurred
CROSS = ATONEMENT = GRACE
2. ELECTS
 
(A) “One place” (verse 1) In Unity
(B) “One accord” (verse 1) In Unction
(C) “Have followed You” (Mk. 10:28) Chose Christ
(D) “Come in, they went up” (Acts 1:13) In and then Up
3. ESSENCE
 
(A) “Rushing Mighty Wind” (verse 2) Sound, Speed, Strength
(B) “Filled all the house” (verse 2) The Scope
(C) “Tongues of fire” (verse 3) The Sight
(D) “The Holy Ghost” (verse 4) The Spirit is Speaking
(E) "Others mocking" (verse 13) Skeptics
4. EVIDENCE
 
(A) “Sound was heard” (verse 6) Sound Rocked the City
(B) “From heaven” (verse 2) Rushing Wind
(C) “Speak with other tongues” (verse 4) Tongues (Physical)
(D) “Works of God” (verse 11) Love (Spiritual)
NOTE:
Tongues without love = NOISE
Gifts without love = NOTHING    (ref 1 Corinthians 13)
5. EVIDENCE AFTER
 
(A) Continued steadfastly in apostles’ doctrine (verse 42)
(B) Fellowship (verse 42)
(C) Breaking of bread (Lord’s Supper) (verse 42)
(D) Prayers (verse 42)
(E) Fear on every soul (verse 43)
(F) Wonders (verse 43)
(G) Signs (verse 43)
(H) All believers together (verse 44)
(I) All things common (verse 44)
(J) Sold possessions and goods (verse 44)
(K) Parted them to meet needs (verse 45)
(L) Continued daily in temple (verse 46)
(M) Ate with gladness, singleness of heart (verse 46)
(N) Praising God (verse 47)
(O) Having favor with all people (verse 47)
(P) New converts daily (verse 47)
6. EFFECT
 
(A) On the Religious Amazed, Doubt (verse 12)
(B) Redeemed Power of God (Acts 1:4, 5)
(C) Rebellious Mocked, Unbelief (verse 13)
7. EXTENSION
 
(A) Steadfastness (verse 42)
(B) Signs (verse 43)
(C) Sharing (verse 45)
(D) Souls saved (verse 47)
8. ESSENTIALS
 
There is a COST to Pentecost
  C = Converted (changes)
  O = Obedience
  S = Surrender
  T = Trust



THE  DAY  OF  PENTECOST

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Acts 2:1
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(1)  When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.

And when the day of Pentecost was fulfilled, while they were assembled together,


Day of Pentecost
When Israel left Egypt:
At the Feast of the Passover the lamb was slain –
At the Feast of Pentecost the Law was given –
Coincident with the slaying of the lamb was the death of Christ –
Coincident with the giving of the Law was the descent of the Holy Spirit –
On the first Pentecost the Law was written on tables of stone –
On the last came the Spirit to write the Law on the living tables of the heart.

Jeremiah 31:31-33
(31)  Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, [Luke 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25.]
(32)  Not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was their Husband, says the Lord.
(33)  But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel: After those days, says the Lord, I will put My law within them, and on their hearts will I write it; and I will be their God, and they will be My people.   (AMP)

pentekoste (NT:4005)  fiftieth

The word  "Pentecost"  is a Greek word signifying the 50th part of a thing,  or the 50th in order.
Among the Jews it was an applied to one of their three great feasts which began on the 50th day after the Passover.
The feast was reckoned from the 16th day of the month ABIB,  or April,  or the second day of the Passover.
The paschal lamb was slain on the 14th of the month at evening, Lev 23:5
On the 15th day of the month was a holy convocation - the proper beginning of the feast
On the 16th day was the offering of the first fruits of harvest,
From that day they were to reckon seven weeks, that is, 49 days, to the feast called the Feast of Pentecost
So Pentecost occurred 50 days after the first day of the Feast of the Passover

This feast was also called
the Feast of Weeks from the circumstance that it followed a succession of weeks,  (Ex 34:22; Num 28:26; Deut 16:10)
the Feast of Harvest and it was for this reason that two loaves made of new meal were offered on this occasion as first-fruits  (Lev 23:17, 20; Num 28:27-31)

With one accord
All the 120 of Acts 1:15 were of one mind.
None were uninterested,  unconcerned,  or lukewarm,  but all were in earnest and united in faith and prayer.

This was an answer to the prayer Jesus prayed:
"That all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you. May they also be in us so that the world may believe that you have sent me."  John 17:21   (NIV)

Romans 12:16
Live in harmony with one another; do not be haughty (snobbish, high-minded, exclusive), but readily adjust yourself to [people, things] and give yourselves to humble tasks. Never overestimate yourself or be wise in your own conceits. [Proverbs 3:7.]      (AMP)

1 Corinthians 1:10
But I urge and entreat you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you be in perfect harmony and full agreement in what you say, and that there be no dissensions or factions or divisions among you, but that you be perfectly united in your common understanding and in your opinions and judgments.      (AMP)

From the Amplified Bible
(1)  And when the day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all assembled together in one place,

Acts 2:2 & 3
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(2)  And suddenly there came a sound from heaven, as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting.

Suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind and it filled all the house where they were sitting.

(3)  Then there appeared to them divided tongues, as of fire, and one sat upon each of them.

And there appeared to them tongues which were divided like flames of fire; and they rested upon each of them.


Wind
Denotes Divine Life – held to symbolize the Spirit of God. – Ezekiel 37:9-14; John 3:8; John 20:22.
The rushing mighty wind,  a sound sweeping down through the still sky from the upper heaven,  a sound,  heard in its downward course by many in the immediate vicinity,  taking the direction and entering into the very chamber where the disciples were sitting,  and waiting on God.

This was an expressive intimation to those who understood the symbolic use of the term wind,  or breath,  or spirit,  as applied to the Divine Spirit;  it was an advance sign from heaven of His coming.

Adam God BREATHED into him the breath of life Genesis 2:7 Creation of mankind
Disciples Jesus BREATHED on them John 20:22 Symbolic Creation of the church
The 120 Rushing mighty wind Acts 2:2 Literal Creation of the church

Fire
Denotes Divine Presence – held to symbolize the Spirit of God – Ex. 3:2;  Mt. 3:11;  Lk. 3:16

These appearances to the apostles were emblematic, doubtless:
(1) Of the promised Holy Spirit
As a Spirit of purity and of power.
The prediction of John the Immerser, "He shall baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire" would probably be recalled at once to their memory.    (Matt 3:11; Luke 3:16)
(2) Of the diversity of languages which they were about to be able to utter
Any form of fire would have denoted the presence and power of God;  but a form was adopted expressive of  "what was to occur."
Thus,  "any divine appearance"  or  "manifestation"  at the baptism of Jesus might have denoted the presence and approbation of God;
but the form chosen was that of a dove descending-expressive of the mild and gentle virtues with which he was to be imbued.
So in Ezek 1:4, any form of flame might have denoted the presence of God;
but the appearance actually chosen was one that was strikingly emblematical of his providence.
In the same way,  the appearance here symbolized their special endowments for entering on their great work -
the ability to speak with new tongues.

From the Amplified Bible
(2)  When suddenly there came a sound from heaven like the rushing of a violent tempest blast, and it filled the whole house in which they were sitting.
(3)  And there appeared to them tongues resembling fire, which were separated and distributed and which settled on each one of them.

Acts 2:4
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(4)  And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and they began to speak in various languages, according to whatever the Spirit gave them to speak.


All filled
They were entirely under his sacred influence and power. To be filled with anything is a phrase denoting that all the faculties are pervaded by it, engaged in it, or under its influence.

Notice the totality:
All Every one of the 120 - not one was left out
Filled Completely satiated - no room for anything else

Other tongues
glossa (NT:1100) the tongue; by implication, a language (specially, one naturally unacquired)

The word  "tongue"  occurs often in the Scriptures to denote the member which is the instrument of taste and speech,  and also to denote  "language"  or  "speech"  itself.

Excerpts from The Bible Exposition Commentary
The filling of the Spirit has to do with power for witness and service (Acts 1:8).  We are not exhorted to be baptized by the Spirit,  for this is something God does once and for all when we trust His Son.  But we are commanded to be filled with the Spirit (Ephesians 5:18),  for we need His power constantly if we are to serve God effectively.  At Pentecost the Christians were filled with the Spirit and experienced the baptism of the Spirit;  but after that they experienced many fillings (Acts 4:8,31; 9:17; 13:9) but no more baptisms.

The Baptism of the Spirit means that I belong to His body
The Fullness of the Spirit means that my body belongs to Him
The Baptism is final
The Fullness is repeated as we trust God for new power to witness
The Baptism involves all other believers, for it makes us one in the body of Christ (Ephesians 4:4-6)
The Fullness is personal and individual

Pentecost was a reversal of the judgment at the Tower of Babel when God confused man's language
(Genesis 11:1-9).
Babel God's judgment at Babel scattered the people
Pentecost God's blessing at Pentecost united the believers in the Spirit
Babel The Tower of Babel was a scheme designed to praise men and make a name for men
Pentecost At Pentecost,  men heard God's praises and understood what was said
Babel At Babel, the people were unable to understand each other
Pentecost Pentecost brought praise to God
Babel The building of Babel was an act of rebellion
Pentecost Pentecost was a ministry of humble submission to God
What a contrast!
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.) (from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)

As the Spirit gave them utterance
This language implies plainly that they were now endued with a faculty of speaking languages which they had not before learned.  Their native tongue was that of Galilee,  a somewhat barbarous dialect of the common language used in Judea - the Syro-Chaldaic.  It is possible that some of them might have been partially acquainted with the Greek and Latin,  as each of those languages was spoken among the Jews to some extent;  but there is not the slightest evidence that they were acquainted with the languages of the different nations afterward specified.

Various attempts have been made to account for this remarkable phenomenon without supposing it to be a miracle.  But the natural and obvious meaning of the passage is that they were endowed by the supernatural power of the Holy Spirit with ability to speak foreign languages,  and languages to them before unknown.  It does not appear that each one had the power of speaking all the languages which are specified,  but that this ability was among them,  and that together they could speak these languages,  probably some one and some another.  The following remarks may perhaps throw some light on this remarkable occurrence:
(1) It was predicted in the Old Testament that what is here stated would occur in the times of the Messiah. Thus, in Isa 28:11, "With ... another tongue will he speak unto this people." Compare 1 Cor 14:21 where this passage is expressly applied to the power of speaking foreign languages under the gospel.
1 Corinthians 14:21-25
In the law it is written:
"With men of other tongues and other lips
I will speak to this people;
And yet, for all that, they will not hear Me,"
says the Lord.
Therefore tongues are for a sign,  not to those who believe but to unbelievers;  but prophesying is not for unbelievers but for those who believe. 
Therefore if the whole church comes together in one place,  and all speak with tongues,  and there come in those who are uninformed or unbelievers,  will they not say that you are out of your mind?
But if all prophesy,  and an unbeliever or an uninformed person comes in,  he is convinced by all,  he is convicted by all.
And thus the secrets of his heart are revealed;  and so,  falling down on his face,  he will worship God and report that God is truly among you.       (NKJV)
(2) It was promised by the Lord Jesus that they should have this power,  Mark 16:17, "These signs shall follow them that believe ... they shall speak with new tongues."
(3) The ability to do it existed extensively and long in the church
1 Corinthians 12:10-11
To another diver’s kinds of tongues;  to another the interpretation of tongues:  all these worketh that one and the self-same Spirit.
I Corinthians 12:28
God hath set in the church ... diversities of tongues.
From this it appears that the power was well known in the church,  and was not confined to the apostles.  This also may show that in the case in the Acts,  the ability to do this was conferred on other members of the church as well as the apostles.
(4) One design was to establish the gospel by means of miracles.  Yet no miracle could be more impressive than the power of conveying their sentiments at once in all the languages of the earth.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Isaiah 28:11-12
(11)  No, but [the Lord will teach the rebels in a more humiliating way] by men with stammering lips and another tongue will He speak to this people [says Isaiah, and teach them His lessons].
(12)  To these [complaining Jews the Lord] had said, This is the true rest [the way to true comfort and happiness] that you shall give to the weary, and, This is the [true] refreshing--yet they would not listen [to His teaching].
(AMP)

Mark 16:17
And these attesting signs will accompany those who believe:  in My name they will drive out demons;  they will speak in new languages;      (AMP)

From the Amplified Bible
(4)  And they were all filled (diffused throughout their souls) with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other (different, foreign) languages (tongues), as the Spirit kept giving them clear and loud expression [in each tongue in appropriate words].

Feast of Pentecost - Originally called “Feast of Weeks”  “Day of First Fruits”  (wheat harvest).
Later Anniversary of Sinai.

SADDUCEES

Lev. 23:15, 16

PHARISEES 

Interpreted the Sabbath as
the weekly Sabbath. This
was accepted among Judaism after 70 A.D.

And you shall count for yourselves from the day after the Sabbath, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering: seven Sabbaths shall be completed.   Count fifty days to the day after the seventh Sabbath; then you shall offer a new grain offering to the LORD.

Interpreted the Sabbath as the festival day of unleavened bread –
It would always fall on the same day of the month, but not the week.
Exodus 34:35 Tabernacle  
2 Chron. 7:1, 2 Temple Spirit of the Lord filled the house
1. Genesis 2:7 God breathed Man became a living soul  
  Genesis 3:6, 7
Man died Dead in trespasses and sins  (Eph. 2:1)
  Acts 2:2 God breathed once again Man became a living soul (John 20:22)
2. Genesis 11:5-8 Confounded language To separate the people  
  Acts 2:4 Gave them utterance To unite the people  
3. Lev. 9:24 Fire from the Lord Consumed the sacrifice Fire changes the object burned
  Luke 22:32 When thou art converted Be converted Acts 3:19



THE  CROWD'S  RESPONSE

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Acts 2:5 & 6
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(5)  And there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under heaven.

Now there dwelt at Jerusalem devout men and Jews from every nation under heaven.

(6)  And when this sound occurred, the multitude came together, and were confused, because everyone heard them speak in his own language.

And as the sound took place, all the people gathered together, and they were confused because every man heard them speak in is own language.


Dwelling
katoikeo (NT:2730) To house permanently – to reside

These were Jews of the  “dispersion,”  those from all over the world who had come to Jerusalem to await the coming of the Messiah.  They were not only visiting during the Feast,  but had taken up their residence in Jerusalem.

The disciples had now moved from the upper room to the Temple area.

Every nation
Jews of the dispersion who had returned to take up permanent residence in Jerusalem,  perhaps because of the expectation of the Messiah at that time.

Language scarcely hyperbolical;  because Josephus (Jewish Wars ii. 16, 4) testifies to the almost universal dispersion of the Jews long before this.

Confused
Sunechuthee (NT: 4797) - Literally, "was poured together;"  so that confound  (Latin: confundere)  is the most literal rendering possible.
(from Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

His own language
Dialektoo (NT: 1258) - His own dialect
His own idiom,  whether it was a foreign language,  or whether it was a modification of the Hebrew.  The word may mean either;  but it is probable that the foreign Jews would greatly modify the Hebrew,  or conform almost entirely to the language spoken in the country where they lived.

From the Amplified Bible
(5)  Now there were then residing in Jerusalem Jews, devout and God-fearing men from every country under heaven.
(6)  And when this sound was heard, the multitude came together and they were astonished and bewildered, because each one heard them [the apostles] speaking in his own [particular] dialect.

Acts 2:7
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(7)  Then they were all amazed and marveled, saying to one another, "Look, are not all these who speak Galileans?

And they were all amazed and marveled, saying one to another, are not all these who speak Galileans?


Galileans
Inhabitants of Galilee.
It was remarkable that they should speak in this manner, because:
(1) They were ignorant, rude, and uncivilized.
Hence,  the term Galilean was used as an expression of the deepest reproach and contempt,
Mark 14:70;  John 7:52.
(2) Their dialect was proverbially barbarous and corrupt.
They were regarded as an outlandish people,  unacquainted with other nations and languages,  and hence, the amazement that they could address them in the refined language of other people.  Their native ignorance was the occasion of making the miracle more striking.

2 Corinthians 4:7
"But we have this treasure in earthen vessels, that the excellence of the power may be of God and not of us."
The success which God often grants to those who are of slender endowments and of little learning,  though blessed with a humble and pious heart,  is often amazing to the people of the world.

1 Corinthians 1:27
"But God has chosen the foolish things of the world to put to shame the wise, and God has chosen the weak things of the world to put to shame the things which are mighty."
This should teach us that no talent or attainment is too humble to be employed for mighty purposes,  in its proper sphere,  in the kingdom of Christ.

From the Amplified Bible
(7)  And they were beside themselves with amazement, saying, Are not all these who are talking Galileans?

Acts 2:8-11
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(8)  And how is it that we hear, each in our own language in which we were born?

How is it that we hear every man in our own native language?

(9)  Parthians and Medes and Elamites, those dwelling in Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia,

Parthians and Medes and Elamites and those who dwell in Mesopotamia, Jews and Cappadocians and those from Pontus and Asia Minor.

(10)  Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya adjoining Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes,

And those from the region of Phrygia and of Pamphylia and of Egypt, and of the regions of Lybia near Cyrene, and those who have come from Rome, both Jews and proselytes.

(11)  Cretans and Arabs — we hear them speaking in our own tongues the wonderful works of God.

And those from Crete, and Arabians, behold we hear them speak in our own tongues of the wonderful works of God.


In which we were born
That is,  as we say,  in our native language;  what is spoken where we were born.  These being the next generation of the dispersion that was born in the distant lands.

Both Jews and Proselytes (Gentiles)
To show the surprising extent and power of this miracle, Luke enumerates the different nations that were represented then at Jerusalem. In this way the number of languages which the apostles spoke, and the extent of the miracle, can be ascertained.
 
PERSIAN EMPIRE ASIA MINOR ASIA AFRICA ISLANDS ARABIANS EUROPE
Parthians
Medes
Elamites
Mesopotamia
Judea
Cappadocia
Pontus
Phrygia
Pamphylia
Egypt
Libya
Crete Arabia Rome

Parthians
Parthians mean those Jews or proselytes who dwelt in Parthia.
This country was a part of Persia,  and was situated between the Persian Gulf and the Tigris on the west,  and the Indus River on the east.  The term  "Parthia"  originally referred to a small mountainous district lying to the northeast of Media.
Afterward it came to be applied to the great Parthian kingdom into which this province expanded.  Parthia proper,  or Ancient Parthia,  lying between Asia and Hyrcania,  the residence of a rude and poor tribe,  and traversed by bare mountains,  woods,  and sandy steppes,  formed a part of the great Persian monarchy.
Its inhabitants were of Scythian origin.  About 256 years before Christ,  Arsaces rose against the Syro-Macedonian power,  and commenced a new dynasty in her own person,  designated by the title of Arsacidae.  This was the beginning of the great Parthian empire,  which extended itself in the early days of Christianity over all the provinces of what had been the Persian kingdom,  having the Euphrates for its western boundary,  by which it was separated from the dominions of Rome (Kitto's Encyclop.).
Their empire lasted about 400 years.  The Parthians were much distinguished for their manner of fighting. They usually fought on horseback,  and when appearing to retreat,  discharged their arrows with great execution behind them.  They disputed the empire of the East with the Romans for a long time.
The language spoken there was that of Persia,  and in ancient writers Parthia and Persia often mean the same country.

Medes
Inhabitants of Media.
This country was situated westward and southward of the Caspian Sea,  between 35 degrees and 40 degrees of north latitude.  It had Persia on the south and Armenia on the west.  It was about the size of Spain,  and was one of the richest parts of Asia.  In the Scriptures it is called Madai, Gen 10:2.  The Medes are often mentioned,  frequently in connection with the Persians,  with whom they were often connected under the same government,  2 Kings 17:6; 18:11; Est 1:3,14,18-19; Jer 25:25; Dan 5:28; 6:8; 8:20; 9:1.
The language spoken here was also that of Persia.

Elamites
Elam is often mentioned in the Old Testament.
The nation was descended from Elam,  the son of Shem,  Gen 10:22.
It is mentioned as being in alliance with Amraphel,  the king of Shinar,  and Arioch,  king of Ellasar,  and Tidal,  king of nations, Gen 14:1.  Of these nations in alliance,  Chedorlaomer,  king of Elam,  was the chief,  Gen 14:4.  They are mentioned as a part of the Persian Empire,  and Daniel is said to have resided at Shushan,  which is in the province of Elam,  Dan 8:2.  The Greeks and Romans gave to this country the name of Elymais.  It is now called Kusistan.
It was bounded by Persia on the east,  by Media on the north,  by Babylonia on the west,  and by the Persian Gulf on the south.  The Elamites were a warlike people,  and celebrated for the use of the bow, Isa 22:6; Jer 49:35.  Its capital,  Shushan,  called by the Greeks Susa,  was much celebrated.  It is said to have been fifteen miles in circumference,  and was adorned with the celebrated palace of Ahasuerus.  The inhabitant’s still pretend to show there the tomb of the prophet Daniel.
The language of this people was of course the Persian.

Mesopotamia
This name,  which is Greek,  signifies between the rivers;  that is,  the region lying between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris.  In Hebrew it was called Aram-Naharaim;  that is,  Aram,  or Syria,  of the two rivers.  It was also called Padan Aram,  the plain of Syria.
In this region were situated some important places mentioned in the Bible:
Ur of the Chaldees,  the birthplace of Abraham (Gen 11:27-28);
Haran, where Terah stopped on his journey and died (Gen 11:31-32);
Charchemish (2 Chron 35:20); Hena (2 Kings 19:13);
Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:24)
This region,  known as Mesopotamia,  extended between the two rivers from their sources to Babylon on the south.  It had on the north Armenia,  on the west Syria,  on the east Persia,  and on the south Babylonia.  It was an extensive,  level,  and fertile country.
The language spoken here was probably the Syriac, with perhaps a mixture of the Chaldee.

Judea
This expression has greatly perplexed commentators.  But as  "Judea"  is the reading of all the manuscripts and versions,  conjecture must not be allowed to disturb it.  Bengel's and Meyer's idea,  that the Jewish dialect is here referred to as something foreign to these Galileans,  is evidently a poor explanation.  Olshausen's is at least better - that the historian writing from Rome,  had in view the position of his Roman readers,  to whom the omission of the tongue of Judea itself would have been unaccountable,  since it was his object to show how many different languages were spoken by these unlearned Galileans.
The language spoken locally was Aramaic.

Cappadocia
This was a region of Asia Minor,  and was bounded on the east by the Euphrates and Armenia,  on the north by Pontus,  west by Phrygia and Galatia,  and south by Mount Taurus,  beyond which are Cilicia and Syria.  This place was formerly celebrated for iniquity,  and is mentioned in Greek writers as one of the three eminently wicked places whose name began with C.  The others were Crete (compare Titus 1:12) and Cilicia.  After its conversion to the Christian religion,  however,  it produced many eminent men,  among who were Gregory Nyssen and Basil the Great.
It was one of the places to which Peter directed an epistle, 1 Peter 1:1.
The language which was spoken here is not certainly known.
It was probably,  however,  a mixed dialect,  made up of Greek and Syriac,  perhaps the same as that of their neighbors,  the Lycaonians, Acts 14:11.

Pontus
This was another province of Asia Minor,  and was situated north of Cappadocia,  and was bounded west by Paphlagonia.  Pontus and Cappadocia under the Romans constituted one province.  This was one of the places to which the apostle Peter directed his epistle, 1 Peter 1:1.  This was the birthplace of Aquila,  one of the companions of Paul, Acts 18:2,18,26; Rom 16:3; 1 Cor 16:19; 2 Tim 4:19.

Asia
Pontus and Cappadocia,  etc.,  were parts of Asia.  But the word Asia is doubtless used here to denote the regions or provinces west of these,  which are not particularly enumerated.  Thus, it is used Acts 6:9; 16:6; 20:16.  It probably embraced Mysia,  Aeolis,  Ionia,  Caria, and Lydia.
"The term probably denoted not so much a definite region as a jurisdiction,  the limits of which varied from time to time, according to the plan of government which the Romans adopted for their Asiatic provinces" (Prof. Hackett, in loco).
The capital of this region was Ephesus. See also 1 Peter 1:1.  This region was frequently called Ionia, and was afterward the seat of the seven churches in Asia, Rev 1:4.

Phrygia and Pamphylia
These were also two provinces of Asia Minor.
Phrygia was surrounded by Galatia,  Cappadocia,  and Pisidia.  Pamphylia was on the Mediterranean,  and was bounded north by Pisidia.
The language of all these places was doubtless the Greek, more or less pure.

Egypt
This was that extensive country,  well known,  on the south of the Mediterranean,  watered by the Nile.
It extends 600 miles from north to south and from 100 to 120 miles east and west.  Vast numbers of Jews dwelt in Egypt,  and many from that country would be present at the great feasts at Jerusalem.  In this country the first translation of the Old Testament was made,  which is now called the Septuagint.
The language used there was the Coptic tongue at that time.

Libya
Libya is a general name for Africa.  It properly denoted the region which was near to Egypt;  but the Greeks gave the name to all Africa.

Cyrene
This was a region about 500 miles west of Alexandria in Egypt.
It was also called Pentapolis,  because there were in it five celebrated cities.  This country later belonged to Tripoli.  Great numbers of Jews resided here.  A Jew of this place,  Simon by name,  was compelled to bear our Savior’s cross after him to the place of crucifixion,  Matt 27:32; Luke 23:26.  Some of the Cyrenians are mentioned among the earliest Christians, Acts 11:20; 13:1.
The language which they spoke is not certainly known.

Rome
This literally means  "Romans dwelling or tarrying,"  that is,  at Jerusalem.  It may mean either that they were permanently fixed,  or only tarrying at Jerusalem.  They were doubtless Jews who had taken up their residence in Italy,  and had come to Jerusalem to attend the great feasts.  Great numbers of Jews were at that time dwelling at Rome.  Josephus says that there were eight synagogues there.
The Jews are often mentioned by the Roman writers.  There was a Jewish colony across the Tiber from Rome.  When Judea was conquered,  about 60 years before Christ,  vast numbers of Jews were taken captive and carried to Rome.  But they had much difficulty in managing them as slaves.  They obstinately adhered to their religion,  observed the Sabbath,  and refused to join in the idolatrous rites of the Romans.  Hence,  they were freed,  and lived by themselves across the Tiber.
The language which they spoke was the Latin.

Jews
Native-born Jews or descendants of Jewish families.

Proselytes
Those who had been converted to the Jewish religion from among the Gentiles.
The great zeal of the Jews to make proselytes is mentioned by our Savior as one of the special characteristics of the Pharisees, Matt 23:15.  Some have supposed that the expression  "Jews and proselytes"  refers to the Romans only.  But it is more probable that reference is made to all those that are mentioned.  It has the appearance of a hurried enumeration;  and the writer evidently mentioned them as they occurred to his mind,  just as we would in giving a rapid account of so many different nations.

Crete
Later called Caudia,  it is an island in the Mediterranean,  about 200 miles in length and 50 in breadth, about 500 miles southwest of Constantinople,  and about the same distance west of Syria or Palestine.  The climate is mild and delightful,  the sky unclouded and serene.  By some this island is supposed to be the Caphtor of the Hebrews,  Gen 10:14.  It is mentioned in the Acts as the place touched at by Paul, Acts 27:7-8, 13.  This was the residence of Titus,  who was left there by Paul  "to set in order the things that were missing," etc., Titus 1:5.  The Cretans among the Greeks were famous for deceit and falsehood.
The language spoken there was probably the Greek.

Arabia
The great peninsula which is bounded north by part of Syria, east by the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf,  south by the Indian Ocean,  and west by the Red Sea.  It is often mentioned in the Scriptures;  and there were doubtless there many Jews.
The language spoken there was the Arabic.

In our own tongues
The languages spoken by the apostles could not have been less than seven or eight,  besides different dialects of the same languages.  It is not certain that the Jews present from foreign nations spoke those languages perfectly,  but they had doubtless so used them as to make them the common tongue in which they conversed.  No miracle could be more decided than this.  There was no way in which the apostles could impose on them,  and make them suppose they spoke foreign languages,  if they really did not;  for these foreigners were abundantly able to determine that.

It may be remarked that this miracle had most important effects besides that witnessed on the day of Pentecost.  The gospel would be carried by those who were converted to all these places,  and the way would be prepared for the labors of the apostles there.  Accordingly,  most of these places became afterward celebrated by the establishment of Christian churches and the conversion of great multitudes to the Christian faith.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)
and
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Why did God do this? ... to let the people know that the Gospel was for the whole world. God wants to speak to every person in his or her own language and give the saving message of salvation in Jesus Christ.  The emphasis in the Book of Acts is on worldwide evangelization, "unto the uttermost part of the earth" (Acts 1:8).
"The Spirit of Christ is the spirit of missions,"  said Henry Martyn,  "and the nearer we get to Him,  the more intensely missionary we must become."
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)

From the Amplified Bible
(8)  Then how is it that we hear, each of us, in our own (particular) dialect to which we were born?
(9)  Parthians and Medes and Elamites and inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and [the province of] Asia,
(10)  Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and the transient residents from Rome, both Jews and the proselytes [to Judaism from other religions],
(11)  Cretans and Arabians too — we all hear them speaking in our own native tongues [and telling of] the mighty works of God!

Acts 2:12 & 13
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(12)  So they were all amazed and perplexed, saying to one another, "Whatever could this mean?"

And they were all amazed and stunned, saying one to another, What does this mean?

(13)  Others mocking said, "They are full of new wine."

Others mocking said, These men are full of new wine.


Perplexed
dieepóroun (NT:2087) to be wholly at a loss

They were amazed and puzzled. They came from many distant lands and were  hearing the good news of the gospel of the Messiah in their own local dialects.  The speakers were clearly uneducated, and unable to speak in this manner.  They could not explain it logically!

They all asked one another repeatedly (or kept asking one another), "What does this mean?"

Others
héteroi (NT:1280) of a different kind

These were not the Jews of the dispersion who understood the various languages,  but the local Jews who spoke Aramaic,  and the 120 looked and sounded crazy or drunk to them.

Mocking - The 1st Attempt of Satan to Destroy the Church
The word rendered "mocking" means "to cavil, to deride."
It occurs in the New Testament in only one other place: Acts 17:32, "And when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked.

Satan will continue to use what has always worked as long as we do not grow beyond it.

This was an effect that was not confined to the day of Pentecost.  There has seldom been a revival of religion,  a remarkable manifestation of the power of the Holy Spirit,  that has not given occasion for profane mockery and merriment.

Hence,  the Savior himself was mocked;  and the efforts of Christians to save others have been the subject of derision.  Derision,  and mockery,  and a jeer,  have been far more effectual in deterring people from becoming Christians than any attempts at sober argument.  God will treat people as they treat him,  Ps 18:26.  And hence,  He says to the wicked,  "Because I have called and you refused ... because you disdained all my counsel; I also will laugh at your calamity, I will mock when your terror comes," Proverbs 1:24-26.

The word which he uses here signifies a kind of mocking which is reproachful and insolent: and by this reproachful mocking we see that no matter how great and excellent the miracle, the wickedness of man still dares to speak evil against it.
(from Geneva Notes, PC Study Bible formatted electronic database Copyright © 2003 Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

New wine
Rather,  'sweet wine;'  that is,  not  "new wine,"   but wine preserved in its original state (which was done by various processes),  and which was very intoxicating.
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

This word  -  gleukous  (NT: 1098)  -  properly means the juice of the grape which distils before a pressure is applied, and called must.  It was sweet wine,  and hence,  the word in Greek meaning "sweet" was given to it.  The ancients,  it is said,  had the art of preserving their new wine with the special flavor before fermentation for a considerable time,  and were in the habit of drinking it in the morning.  See Horace, Sat., b. 2: IV.

One of the methods in use among the Greeks and Romans of doing this was the following:
An amphora or jar was taken and coated with pitch within and without,  and was then filled with the juice which flowed from the grapes before they had been fully trodden,  and was then corked so as to be air-tight.  It was then immersed in a tank of cold water or buried in the sand,  and allowed to remain six weeks or two months.  The contents after this process were found to remain unchanged for a year,  and hence,  the name aei (NT: 104) gleukos (NT: 1098) - always sweet.

It is interesting that the mockers should accuse the believers of being drunk,  for wine is associated with the Holy Spirit  (Ephesians 5:18).  Paul relates the two in contrast,  for
when a man is filled with strong drink,  he loses control of himself
but when a person is filled with the Spirit he has self-control and glorifies God
strong drink can bring a temporary exhilaration
but the Spirit gives a deep satisfaction and a lasting joy
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)

From the Amplified Bible
(12)  And all were beside themselves with amazement and were puzzled and bewildered, saying one to another, What can this mean?
(13)  But others made a joke of it and derisively said, They are simply drunk and full of sweet [intoxicating] wine.



PETER'S  SERMON

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Acts 2:14-36  FIRST SERMON PREACHED
By the Apostles under the INSPIRATION of the HOLY GHOST
Part 1 (14-21) Men of Judea What happened This is the Promise Fulfilled
Part 2 (22-28) Men of Israel How it happened Jesus is the Messiah and He is Alive
Part 3 (29-39) Men & Brethren Why it happened Jesus is both Lord & Messiah & came to Save

Acts 2:14
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(14)  But Peter, standing up with the eleven, raised his voice and said to them, "Men of Judea and all who dwell in Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and heed my words."

And afterwards Simon Peter stood up together with the eleven disciples, and lifted up his voice and said to them, Men of Jewish race, and all that dwell at Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and hearken to my words;


But Peter
This was in accordance with the natural temperament of Peter.  He was bold,  forward,  and ardent;  and he rose now to defend the apostles of Jesus Christ,  and Christ himself,  from an injurious charge.  Not daunted by ridicule or opposition,  he felt that now was the time for preaching the gospel to the crowd that had been assembled by curiosity.

Notice the immediate difference in Peter after he was filled with the spirit:
Before, in his own strength,
he denied every having known his Lord
Now, in the strength of the Holy Spirit,
he boldly steps up and addresses the crowd to provide evidence that Jesus is the Messiah.

With the eleven
Matthias was now one of the apostles,  and now appeared as one of the witnesses for the truth.

Ye men of Judea
People who are Jews; that is, Jews by birth. The original does not mean that they were permanent dwellers in Judea, but that they were Jews, of Jewish families. Literally, "men, Jews."

All who dwell in Jerusalem
All others besides native-born Jews,  whether proselytes or strangers,  who were abiding at Jerusalem.  This comprised,  of course,  the whole assembly,  and was a respectful and conciliatory introduction to his discourse.   Though they had mocked them,  yet he treated them with respect,  and did not render railing for railing (1 Peter 3:9),  but sought to convince them of their error.

His address was respectful,  yet firm.  When the enemies of religion deride us or the gospel,  we should answer them kindly and respectfully,  yet firmly.  We should reason with them coolly,  and convince them of their error, Proverbs 15:1. In this case Peter acted on the principle which he afterward enjoined on all, 1 Peter 3:15, "be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you.

Proverbs 15:1
A soft answer turns away wrath, But a harsh word stirs up anger.     (NKJV)

1 Peter 3:15-16
But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear;  having a good conscience, that when they defame you as evildoers, those who revile your good conduct in Christ may be ashamed.      (NKJV)

From the Amplified Bible
(14)  But Peter, standing with the eleven, raised his voice and addressed them: You Jews and all you residents of Jerusalem, let this be [explained] to you so that you will know and understand; listen closely to what I have to say.

Acts 2:15
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(15)  For these are not drunk, as you suppose, since it is only the third hour of the day.

For these men are not drunken as you suppose, for behold it is but the third hour of the day.


Part 1:  “Men of Judea”

The design of Peter was to
(1) Vindicate the conduct of the apostles from the reproach of intoxication
(2) Show that this could be no other than the work of God
(3) Make an application of the truth to his hearers
This he did:
(1) Acts 2:15 By showing that this could not be reasonably supposed to be the effect of new wine
(2) Acts 2:16-21 Show that this could be no other than the work of God
(3) Acts 2:22-35 Make an application of the truth to his hearers

As you suppose
Peter did not stop at the words "these are not drunk," but said "these are not drunk, as you suppose."  They were not drunk on natural wine, but were drunk on the spiritual new wine.
Whereas one loses self-control to the baser instincts of the flesh with over indulgence in natural alcoholic beverages,
one does not "over indulge" in the new wine of the Holy Spirit.
Rather, when we are full of the Holy Spirit, we don't "lose" self-control -
we submit to God-control.
We are not controlled by the baser instincts of the flesh,
but we are controlled by the righteous influence of the holy and almighty Spirit of God.

The third hour of the day
3rd hour = 9:00 A.M. – The Hour of Prayer

The Jews divided their day into twelve equal parts,  reckoning from sunrise to sunset.  Of course the hours were longer in summer than in winter.  The third hour would correspond to our nine o'clock in the morning.  The reasons why it was so improbable that they would be drunk at that time were the following:
(1) It was the hour of morning worship, or sacrifice.
It was highly improbable that, at an hour usually devoted to public worship, they would be intoxicated.
(2) It was not usual for even drunkards to become drunk in the daytime.
1 Thess 5:7, "They that be drunken are drunken in the night."
(3) The charge was,  that they had become drunk with wine.
Ardent spirits,  or alcohol,  was unknown.  It was very improbable that so much of the weak wine commonly used in Judea should have been taken at that early hour as to produce intoxication.
(4) It was a regular practice with the Jews not to eat or drink anything until after the third hour of the day,  especially on the Sabbath,  and on all festival occasions.
Sometimes this abstinence was maintained until noon.  So universal was this custom that the apostle could appeal to it with confidence,  as a full refutation of the charge of drunkenness at that hour.  Even the intemperate were not accustomed to drink before that hour.

The following testimonies on this subject from Jewish writers are from Lightfoot:
"This was the custom of pious people in ancient times that each one should offer his morning prayers with additions in the synagogue, and then return home and take refreshment" (Maimonides, Shabb. chapter 30).
"They remained in the synagogue until the sixth hour and a half, and then each one offered the prayer of the Minchah before he returned home, and then he ate."
"The fourth is the hour of repast, when all eat."
One of the Jewish writers says that the difference between thieves and honest men might be known by the fact that the former might be seen in the morning at the fourth hour eating and sleeping,  and holding a cup in his hand.  But for those who made pretensions to religion,  as the apostles did,  such a thing was altogether improbable.

From the Amplified Bible
(15) For these men are not drunk, as you imagine, for it is [only] the third hour (about 9:00 a.m.) of the day;

Acts 2:16 - 18
From the NKJV From Joel 2:28  (AMP) From the  Peshitta

(16)  But this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel:

 

But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel:

(17)  And it shall come to pass in the last days, says God, that I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh; your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your young men shall see visions, your old men shall dream dreams.

And afterward I will pour out My Spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions.

It shall come to pass in the last days, said God, I will pour my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy and your young men shall see visions and your old men shall dream dreams;

(18)  And on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days; and they shall prophesy.

And also on My menservants and on My maidservants I will pour out My Spirit in those days.

And upon my menservants and upon my maidservants will I pour out my  Spirit in those days; and they shall prophesy


This is what was spoken
Even the illumination of the Spirit can never render the written Word superfluous.  The apostle,  when filled with the Spirit,  seeks a firm foundation in the Word of God.  Throughout the teachings of the new covenant the Gospel was preached based on the existing scriptures which we know as the first covenant, or the "Old Testament.

By the prophet Joel
Joel 2:28-32. This is not quoted literally, either from the Hebrew or the Septuagint. The substance, however, is preserved.

Joel 2:28
And it shall come to pass afterward that I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions.


Last Days

The Jews understood this to mean the days of the Messiah.  This was another proof that The One they had crucified was the Messiah.

As the coming of the Messiah was to the eye of a Jew the most important event in the coming ages - the great,  glorious,  and crowning scene in all the vast futurity,  the phrase came to be regarded as properly expressive of that.  It stood in opposition to the usual denomination of earlier times.

It was a phrase in contrast with the days of the patriarchs,  the kings,  the prophets, etc.  The last days,  or the closing period of the world,  were the days of the Messiah.
This expression was understood by the writers of the New Testament as referring undoubtedly to the times of the gospel.
And hence they often used it as denoting that the time of the expected Messiah had come,  but not to imply that the world was drawing near to an end:
Hebrews 1:2 "has in these last days spoken to us by His Son"
1 Peter 1:20 "was manifest in these last times for you"
1 John 2:18 "Little children, it is the last hour"
The expression the last day is applied by our Savior to the resurrection and the Day of Judgment, John 6:39-40, 44-45; 11:24; 12:48.
Here the expression means simply "in those future times, when the Messiah shall have come."
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

In the Hebrew and the Septuagint the expression is more indefinite - `And it shall come to pass afterward,'  or  'in the futurity'  [wªhaayaah 'achªreey keen, kai estai meta tauta];  but the meaning is the same,  as is evident from Isaiah 2:2, and Micah 4:1 (in the latter days that the mountain of the LORD's house shall be established) , where "the last days" denote the time of the Messiah.  And they are so called as closing up the ancient economy,  terminating all preparatory arrangements,  and constituting the final dispensation of God's kingdom upon earth.
Compare Hebrews 9:26,  1 Corinthians 10:11.
Hebrews 9:26 "but now, once at the end of the ages, He has appeared"
1 Corinthians 10:11 "They were written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages have come"
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

I will pour out of my Spirit  -  2nd Old Testament Prophecy Fulfilled In Acts
Holy Spirit to everyone.  All flesh – as Moses said in Numbers 11:29.

Numbers 11:29
But Moses said to him,  Are you envious or jealous for my sake? Would that all the Lord's people were prophets and that the Lord would put His Spirit upon them!     (AMP)

This is the fulfillment of that,  or this is what was predicted.
This was the second part of Peter's argument,  to show that this was in accordance with the predictions in their own Scriptures.

Rabbi Tanchum says, "When Moses laid his hands upon Joshua, the holy blessed God said, In the time of the old text, each individual prophet prophesied; but, in the times of the Messiah, all the Israelites shall be prophets."
(from Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

And your sons and your daughters
Your children.  It would seem that females shared in the remarkable influences of the Holy Spirit.
Exodus 15:20 Miriam, the prophetess
Judges 4:4 Deborah, a prophetess
2 Kings 22:14 Huldah the prophetess
Luke 2:36 Anna, a prophetess
Now,  however,  it was not applied to just a few,  but to "your children"  ("Philip the Evangelist had four daughters which did prophesy,"  Acts 21:9).

Shall prophesy
The word  "prophesy"  is used in a great variety of senses:
(1) To predict or foretell future events
(2) To divine, to conjecture, to declare as a prophet might
(3) To celebrate the praises of God
(4) To teach
It denotes,  then,  in general,  "to speak under a divine influence,"  whether in foretelling future events,  in celebrating the praises of God,  in instructing others in the duties of religion, or  "in speaking foreign languages under that influence."

Visions
Waking visions - visions while awake

Dreams
Sleeping visions - visions while asleep

Menservants and Maidservants
The influences of the Spirit would be confined to no class; they would descend on old and young, and even on servants and handmaids.

The Gospel of Jesus Christ and the fullness of the Spirit are for everyone.

From the Amplified Bible
(16)  But [instead] this is [the beginning of] what was spoken through the prophet Joel:
(17)  And it shall come to pass in the last days, God declares, that I will pour out of My Spirit upon all mankind, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy [telling forth the divine counsels] and your young men shall see visions ( divinely granted appearances), and your old men shall dream [divinely suggested] dreams.
(18)  Yes, and on My menservants also and on My maidservants in those days I will pour out of My Spirit, and they shall prophesy [telling forth the divine counsels and predicting future events pertaining especially to God's kingdom].

Acts 2:19 & 20
From the NKJV From Joel 2:31  (AMP) From the  Peshitta

(19)  I will show wonders in heaven above and signs in the earth beneath: blood and fire and vapor of smoke.

And I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth: blood and fire and pillars of smoke.

And I will show wonders in heaven and signs on the earth: blood and fire and vapor of smoke:

(20)  The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.

The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.

The sun shall be changed into darkness and the moon into blood, before that great and fearful day of the Lord shall come.


Signs in the earth
A. Blood Sea & Waters Rev. 8:7, 8; 11:6; 16:3-6; Ezekiel 38:22
B. Fire Man Rev. 8:5-8; 9:17, 18; 11:5; 16:8; 18:8
C. Smoke Judgment Finished Rev. 9:2, 3; 9:17, 18; 18:9, 18; 19:3

Blood - is commonly used as an emblem of slaughter or of battle.
Fire - also an image of war or the conflagration of towns and dwellings in time of war.
Vapor of smoke - another image of the calamities of war the smoke rising from burning towns.

Wonders in heaven
A. Sun no light Rev. 8:12;  Mt. 24:29;  Mk. 13:24
B. Moon blood Rev. 6:12

The gift of tongues was a partial fulfillment of the general prophecy pertaining to those times.  And as the prophecy was thus partially fulfilled,  it was a pledge that it would be entirely;  and thus there was laid a foundation for the necessity of repentance and for calling on the Lord in order to be saved.

From the Amplified Bible
(19)  And I will show wonders in the sky above and signs on the earth beneath, blood and fire and smoking vapor;
(20)  The sun shall be turned into darkness and the moon into blood before the obvious day of the Lord comes — that great and notable and conspicuous and renowned [day].

Acts 2:21
From the NKJV From Joel 2:32  (AMP) From the  Peshitta

(21)  And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved.

And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved.

And it shall come to pass that whoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.


This verse teaches us:
1. That in prospect of the judgments of God which are to come, we should make preparation.
Humanity shall be called to pass through the closing scenes of this earth;  the time when the sun shall be turned into darkness,  and the moon into blood,  and when the great day of the Lord shall come.
2. It is easy to be saved.
All that God requires of us is to call upon him,  to pray to him,  and he will answer and save.  The terms of salvation could not be made plainer or easier.  The offer is wide,  free,  universal,  and there is no obstacle but what exists in the heart of the sinner.

John 3:15-16
That whoever believes in Him should not perish but have eternal life.  For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.     (NKJV)

Acts 2:21 (Joel 2:32)
And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved.     (NKJV)

Acts 10:43
To Him all the prophets witness that, through His name, whoever believes in Him will receive remission of sins.     (NKJV)

Romans 10:13
For whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved.     (NKJV)

Revelation 22:17
And the Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" And let him who hears say, "Come!" And let him who thirsts come. Whoever desires, let him take the water of life freely.     (NKJV)

From the Amplified Bible
(21)  And it shall be that whoever shall call upon the name of the Lord [invoking, adoring, and worshiping the Lord — Christ] shall be saved. [Joel 2:28-32.]

Acts 2:22
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(22)  Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves also know —

Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a man of God, who appeared among you by miracles and signs and wonders which God did by him among you, as you yourselves know,


Part 2:  “Men of Israel”

Descendants of Israel or Jacob.
Peter proceeds now to show that Jesus Christ had been raised up;  that the scene which had occurred
was in accordance with his promise
was proof of his resurrection
was proof of his exaltation to be the Messiah
and that,  therefore,  they should repent for their great sin in having put their own Messiah to death.

Jesus of Nazareth
A despised Man from a despised city was the MESSIAH!
The phrase “Jesus of Nazareth” is found 7 times in Acts.
1. (2:22) Jesus of Nazareth
2. (3:6) Jesus Christ of Nazareth
3. (4:10) Jesus Christ of Nazareth
4. (6:14) Jesus of Nazareth
5. (10:38) Jesus of Nazareth
6. (22:8) Jesus of Nazareth
7. (26:9) Jesus of Nazareth

A man attested by God
By miracles (NT:1411) dunamis force, miraculous power - displays of power
By wonders (NT:5059) teras prodigy or omen - unusual or remarkable events as suited to excite wonder or amazement
By signs (NT:4592) semeion a sign, mark, token - the sights or proofs that he was from God

Together,  they denote the array or series of remarkable works - raising the dead,  healing the sick,  etc.,  which showed that Jesus was sent from God.  The proof which they furnished that he was from God was this,  that He would not confer such power on an impostor,  and that therefore Jesus was what he pretended to be.

When John the Baptist asked if Jesus was the on they looked for (Matthew 11:1-6), Jesus replied:
Go and tell John the things which you hear and see:
the blind see
the lame walk
the lepers are cleansed
the deaf hear
the dead are raised up
the poor have the gospel preached to them.

As ye yourselves also know
They knew it either by having witnessed them

So decided and numerous were the miracles of Jesus,  that Peter here appeals to them as having been known by the Jews themselves to have been performed,  and with a confidence that even riley could not deny it.  On this he proceeds to rear his argument for the truth of his Messiahship.

One of their own, Nicodemus, a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, came to Jesus and said:
"Rabbi, WE KNOW that You are a teacher come from God; for no one can do these signs that You do unless God is with him."       (John 3:2 - NKJV)

From the Amplified Bible
(22)  You men of Israel, listen to what I have to say: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man accredited and pointed out and shown forth and commended and attested to you by God by the mighty works and [the power of performing] wonders and signs which God worked through Him [right] in your midst, as you yourselves know —

Acts 2:23
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(23)  Him, being delivered by the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by lawless hands, have crucified, and put to death;

The very one who was chosen for this purpose from the very beginning of knowledge and will of God, you have delivered into the hands of wicked men, and you have crucified and murdered him;


Determined purpose and foreknowledge
Determined (NT:3724) hoorisménee to appoint, decree, specify, ordain
Purpose (NT:1012) bouleé purpose, counsel, will
Foreknowledge (NT:4268) prognoósei forethought, foreknowledge
Omniscience;  the event is fixed and certain.

It was important,  then,  to assert the dignity of Jesus,  and to show that his death was in accordance with the fixed design of God,  and therefore that it did not interfere in the least with his claims to be the Messiah.  The same thing our Savior has himself expressly affirmed, John 19:10-11;  Matt 26:53.
John 19:10-11
Then Pilate said to Him, "Are You not speaking to me? Do You not know that I have power to crucify You, and power to release You?"
Jesus answered, "You could have no power at all against Me unless it had been given you from above."     (NKJV)
Matthew 26:53-54
"Do you think I cannot call on my Father, and he will at once put at my disposal more than twelve legions of angels?  But how then would the Scriptures be fulfilled that say it must happen in this way?"     (NIV)

You have taken
You have taken Him
You have crucified Him
You have put Him to death

It is possible that some were present on this occasion who had been personally concerned in taking Jesus,  and many who had joined in the cry, "Crucify him!"  Peter probably even made eye contact with them as he said it.
This was a striking instance of the fidelity of that preaching which says,  as Nathan did to David, "You are the man!"

Peter was telling it like it was.
God was not taken by surprise when His Son was put to death!
That was the plan all along!
The Cross was not an accident!
That was the design!
Peter was not condemning them because of their sin -
He was showing them the way out of their sin!

We must realize that although it was another people in another time that nailed Him to the cross  —
It was for the sin of all mankind that He died!
It was for MY sin that He died!

Romans 3:23-26
For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed, to demonstrate at the present time His righteousness, that He might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.       (NKJV)

Romans 5:12-16
Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned ... For if by the one man's offense many died, much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abounded to many. ... For if by the one man's offense death reigned through the one, much more those who receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.      (NKJV)

From the Amplified Bible
(23)  This Jesus, when delivered up according to the definite and fixed purpose and settled plan and foreknowledge of God, you crucified and put out of the way [killing Him] by the hands of lawless and wicked men.

Acts 2:24
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(24)  whom God raised up, having loosed the pains of death, because it was not possible that He should be held by it.

Whom God has raised up, having destroyed the pains of death, because it was not possible for Sheol to hold him.


Peter offered 4 proofs that Jesus was alive
1. 2:22-24 The man Jesus Himself
They knew that Jesus was a real Person from the town of Nazareth and that He had performed many signs and miracles.
They had even seen Him raise the dead,  yet they could find no fault in Him and these things were not  "done in a corner"!  (Acts 26:26)
2. 2:25-31 The prophecy of David
Being a prophet of God,  David wrote about the Messiah,  that His soul would not remain in hades (the realm of the dead) or His body in the grave where it would decay.
3. 2:33 The witness of the believers
Prior to Christ's resurrection,  the disciples did not even believe that He would be raised from the dead;  and they themselves had to be convinced (Mark 16:9-14; Acts 1:3).  They had nothing to gain by preaching a lie,  because their message aroused official opposition and even led to the imprisonment and death of some of the believers.
4. 2:33-35 The Presence of the Holy Spirit
This which they now both see and hear.  Just as He had promised!
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)

Keep in mind that Peter was not preaching the Gospel of the cross as we preach it today.  He was
2:23 accusing Israel of a great crime
2:36 warning them that they had rejected and crucified their own Messiah
Peter was giving Israel one more opportunity to receive Christ.
They had slain John the Baptist and Jesus,  but God was now giving them another chance.  The resurrection of Christ was the promised  "sign of Jonah"  that proved He was the Messiah (Matthew 12:38-40).
(from Wiersbe's Expository Outlines on the New Testament. Copyright © 1992 by Chariot Victor Publishing, an imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved.)

God raised up
Not only was Peter telling them Jesus was from God,  but this statement showed them to be in direct conflict with Jehovah Himself.

vs 23 YOU crucified Him
  YOU put Him to death
vs 24 GOD raised Him up

Pains
odin (NT:5604) a pang or throe, especially of childbirth - birth pangs

The word translated  "pains" denotes properly  "the extreme sufferings of giving birth to offspring,  and then any severe or excruciating pangs."  Hence,  it is applied also to death,  as being a state of extreme suffering.  A very frequent meaning of the Hebrew word of which this is the translation is cord or band.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Not possible
Christ was imprisoned for our debt,  was thrown into the bands of death;  but,  divine justice being satisfied,  it was not possible he should be detained there,  either by right or by force;  for he had life in himself,  and in his own power,  and had conquered the prince of death.
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

From the Amplified Bible
(24)  [But] God raised Him up, liberating Him from the pangs of death, seeing that it was not possible for Him to continue to be controlled or retained by it.

Acts 2:25-28
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(25)  For David says concerning Him:  'I foresaw the LORD always before my face, for He is at my right hand, that I may not be shaken.

For David said concerning him, I foresaw my Lord always, for he is on my right hand, so that I should not be shaken;

(26)  Therefore my heart rejoiced, and my tongue was glad; moreover my flesh also will rest in hope.

Therefore my heart is comforted and my glory is exalted; even my body shall rest in hope,

(27)  For You will not leave my soul in Hades, nor will You allow Your Holy One to see corruption.

Because you will not leave my soul in Sheol, neither will you suffer your Holy One to see corruption.

(28)  You have made known to me the ways of life; You will make me full of joy in Your presence.'

You have revealed to me the way of life; you will fill me with joy with your presence.


In Psalm 16,  death is contemplated,  first in relation to the body,  and secondly,  in relation to the soul:
1. The Body is represented as guarded against the last effect of death  (corruption)
2. The Soul is described as beholding the dark place of hell,
but speedily delivered from it and restored to the kingdom of light

This passage is taken from Ps 16:8-11 from the Greek version of the Septuagint.

Peter ascribes these expressions to the Messiah.
The reason why he would exult or rejoice was that he would be preserved amidst the sorrows that were coming on him,  and could look forward to the triumph that awaited him.  Thus,  Paul says (Hebrews 12:2) that
"Jesus ... for the joy that was set before him," endured the cross,
scorned the shame
Throughout the New Testament, the shame and sorrow of his sufferings were regarded as connected with his glory and his triumph,  Luke 24:26;  Phil 2:6-9;  Eph 1:20-21.  In this our Savior has left us an example that we should walk in his steps.  The prospect of future glory and triumph should sustain us amidst all afflictions,  and make us ready,  like him,  to lie down in even the corruptions of the grave.
(From Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

Luke 24:26
Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?     (NIV)

Philippians 2:6-11
Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness.   And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself and became obedient to death — even death on a cross!
Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.      (NIV)

Ephesians 1:19-23
That power is like the working of his mighty strength, which he exerted in Christ when he raised him from the dead and seated him at his right hand in the heavenly realms, far above all rule and authority, power and dominion, and every title that can be given, not only in the present age but also in the one to come.   And God placed all things under his feet and appointed him to be head over everything for the church, which is his body, the fullness of him who fills everything in every way.      (NIV)

Flesh
sarx (NT:4561) the body, or as the symbol of what is external, (by implication) human nature (with its frailties [physically or morally] and passions), or (specifically) a human being

Rest
kataskenoo (NT:2681) to camp down,  to remain

As the English Revised Version (1885):  "dwell."  Literally,  "dwell in a tent or tabernacle."
Rendered "lodge," Matthew 13:32; Mark 4:32; Luke 13:19.
(from Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Hope
elpis (NT:1680) to anticipate, usually with pleasure; expectation or confidence:

Jesus, as a man, rested (lived) in hope (confidence) because He both knew and believed the promise of the Father,  that His body would not see corruption, nor would His soul be left in Sheol.

Soul in Hades
haides (NT:86) unseen, or the place (state) of departed souls

The Greek word  "Hades"  means literally  "a place devoid of light; a dark, obscure abode";  and in Greek writers was applied to the dark and obscure regions where disembodied spirits were supposed to dwell.  It occurs only eleven times in the New Testament.  In this place it is the translation of the Hebrew [Shª'owl].

The word  "hell,"  in English, now commonly denotes  "the place of the future eternal punishment of the wicked." This sense it has acquired by long usage.  It is a Saxon word,  derived from helan, "to cover,"  and denotes literally "a covered or deep place" (Webster);  then  "the dark and dismal abode of departed spirits";  and then  "the place of torment."  As the word is used now by us,  it by no means expresses the force of the original;  and if with this idea we read a passage like the one before us,  it would convey an erroneous meaning altogether,  although formerly the English word perhaps expressed no more than the original.
In Rev 20:13-14 It is connected with death:  "And death and hell (Hades) delivered up the dead which were in them"; "And death and hell (Hades) were cast into the lake of fire."
In Rev 6:8; 1:18 "I have the keys of hell and death."
In 1 Cor 15:55 It means the grave:  "O grave (Hades), where is thy victory?"
In Matt 11:23 It means a deep,  profound place,  opposed to an exalted one;  a condition of calamity and degradation,  opposed to former great prosperity: "Thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shall be thrust down to hell" (Hades).
In Luke 16:23 It is applied to the place where the rich man was after death, in a state of punishment: "In hell (Hades) he lifted up his eyes, being in torments." In this place it is connected with the idea of suffering, and undoubtedly denotes a place of punishment.
The Septuagint has used this word commonly to translate the word [Shª'owl].
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)
 
1. The souls of all men are immortal and never go to the grave.
2. The body only goes to the grave for it is the only part of man that is made of dust
(Gen. 2:7; 3:19; James 2:26).
3. All souls went to “Sheol” or “Hades” once, being held in separate compartments (Luke 16:19-31).
4. Christ rescued righteous souls out of hell and took them to heaven with Him when He ascended on high (Heb. 2:14, 15; Eph. 4:8-10).
5. Now a saved soul goes to heaven at death (2 Cor. 5:8; Phil. 1:21-24; Heb. 12:23; Rev. 6:9-11).
6. The wicked souls continue to go to hell until the resurrection (Isa. 14:9; Rev. 20:11-15).

Corruption
diaphthora (NT:1312) decay

The Hebrews often expressed the idea of experiencing anything by the use of words pertaining to the senses,  as,  to taste of death, to see death, etc.
Corruption here means putrefaction in the grave.
The word which is used in the Psalm, shachath (OT: 7845),  is thus used in Job 17:14,  "I have said to corruption, thou art my father," etc.  The Greek word used here properly denotes this.

In view of this, we may remark:
(1) That the Messiah had full and confident expectation that he would rise from the dead.
The Lord Jesus always evinced,  and often declared it to his disciples.
(2) If the Savior rejoiced in view of the glories before him,  we should also.
Although our bodies will see corruption unless we are among those at the end "caught up", should anticipate with joy an everlasting dwelling in the presence of God,  and the high honor of sitting  "with him on his throne, as he overcame, and is set down with the Father on his throne."
(3) The prospect of this should sustain us,  as it did him,  in the midst of persecution,  calamity,  and trials.
Thy will soon be ended;  and if we are his friends,  we shall  "overcome,"  as he did,  and be admitted to  "the fullness of joy"  above,  and to the  "right hand"  of God,  "where are pleasures forevermore."

From the Amplified Bible
(25)  For David says in regard to Him, I saw the Lord constantly before me, for He is at my right hand that I may not be shaken or overthrown or cast down [from my secure and happy state].
(26)  Therefore my heart rejoiced and my tongue exulted exceedingly; moreover, my flesh also will dwell in hope [will encamp, pitch its tent, and dwell in hope in anticipation of the resurrection].
(27)  For You will not abandon my soul, leaving it helpless in Hades (the state of departed spirits), nor let Your Holy One know decay or see destruction [of the body after death].
(28)  You have made known to me the ways of life; You will enrapture me [diffusing my soul with joy] with and in Your presence. [Psalms 16:8-11.]

Acts 2:29-31
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(29)  Men and brethren, let me speak freely to you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.

Now men and brethren, permit me to speak to you openly concerning Patriarch David, who is dead and buried and whose sepulchre is with us to this day;

(30)  Therefore, being a prophet, and knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him that of the fruit of his body, according to the flesh, He would raise up the Christ to sit on his throne,

For he was a prophet, and he knew that God had sworn by an oath to him that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up one to sit on his throne.

(31)  he, foreseeing this, spoke concerning the resurrection of the Christ, that His soul was not left in Hades, nor did His flesh see corruption.

So he foresaw and spoke concerning the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in the grave, neither did his body see corruption.


Part 3:  “Men and Brethren”

This passage of the Psalms Peter now proves could not relate to David,  but must have reference to the Messiah.  He begins his argument in a respectful manner,  addressing them as his brethren,  though they had just charged him and the others with intoxication.  Christians should use the usual respectful forms of salutation, whatever contempt and reproaches they may meet with from oppressors.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Patriarch
The word  "patriarch"  properly means
the head or ruler of a family
the founder of a family
an illustrious ancestor
It was commonly applied to
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob by way of eminence, the illustrious founders of the Jewish nation,
Heb 7:4; Acts 7:8-9
The heads of the families, or the chief men of the tribes of Israel,  1 Chron 24:31; 2 Chron 19:8
an illustrious ancestor
It was thus a title of honor,  denoting  "high respect.

Applied to David,  it means that he was the illustrious head or founder of the royal family,  and the word is expressive of Peter's intention not to say anything disrespectful of such a king,  at the same time that he freely canvassed a passage of Scripture which had been supposed to refer to him.

Dead and buried
The record of that fact they had in the O1d Testament.  There had been no pretence that he had risen,  and therefore the Psalm could not apply to David.

The apostle made it clear that these verses could not refer to David,  since David in fact died and experienced corruption.  Indeed,  his grave could be seen south of the city of Jerusalem.  The psalmist,  therefore, must have referred to David's greater son, the Messiah.  Hence the psalmist spoke prophetically of one of his descendants (RSV),  the Christ, who would be seated on David's throne.  In these words of David,  Peter found a prophecy of the resurrection of Christ.
(from The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1962 by Moody Press. All rights reserved.)

His tomb
Is in the city of Jerusalem.  Sepulchers wore commonly situated without the walls of cities and the limits of villages. The custom of burying in towns was not commonly practiced.  This was true of other ancient nations as well as the Hebrews,  except in the case of kings and very distinguished men,  whose ashes were permitted to rest within the walls of a city.  David was buried in the city of David (1 Kings 2:10),  with his fathers;  that is,  on Mount Zion,  where he built a city called after his name,  2 Sam 5:7.  Of what form the tombs of the kings were is not certainly known.  It is almost certain,  however,  that they would be constructed in a magnificent manner.

The tombs were commonly excavations from rocks,  or natural caves;  and sepulchers cut out of the solid rock,  of
vast extent,  are known to have existed.  The following account of the tomb called  "the sepulchre of the kings"  is abridged from Maundrell:
"The approach is through an entrance cut out of a solid rock, which admits you into an open court about 40 paces square, cut down into the rock. On the south side is a portico nine paces long and four broad, hewn likewise out of the solid rock. At the end of the portico is the descent to the sepulchers. The descent is into a room about 7 or 8 yards square, cut out of the natural rock. From this room there are passages into six more, all of the same fabric with the first. In every one of these rooms, except the first, were coffins placed in niches in the sides of the chamber."
(Maundrell's Travels).  If the tombs of the kings were of this form, it is clear that they were works of great labor and expense.

These tombs are about a mile northwest of Jerusalem.  "The tombs which are commonly called the 'Tombs of the Kings' are in an olive grove about half a mile north of the Damascus Gate, and a few rods east of the great road to Nablus.  A court is sunk in the solid rock about 90 feet square and 20 deep.  On the west side of this court is a sort of portico, 39 feet long, 17 deep, and 15 high.  It was originally ornamented with grapes,  garlands,  and festoons,  beautifully done on the cornice;  and the columns in the center,  and the pilasters at the corners,  appear to have resembled the Corinthian order.

To this day
That the sepulchre of David was well known and honored is clear from Josephus
(Antiq., book 7, chapter 15, section 3):
"He (David) was buried by his son Solomon in Jerusalem with great magnificence, and with all the other funeral pomp’s with which kings used to be buried. Moreover, he had immense wealth buried with him: for one thousand and three hundred years afterward Hyrcanus the high priest, when he was besieged by Antiochus, and was desirous of giving him money to raise the siege, opened one room of David's sepulchre and took out three thousand talents.
Herod, many years afterward, opened another room, and took away a great deal of money,"
See also Antiq., book 13, chapter 8, section 4.
The tomb of a monarch like David would be well known and had in reverence.  Peter might,  then,  confidently appeal to their own belief and knowledge that David had not been raised from the dead.  No Jew believed or supposed it.  All,  by their care of his sepulchre,  and by the honor with which they regarded his grave,  believed that he had returned to corruption.  The Psalm,  therefore,  could not apply to him.
(From Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1997 by Biblesoft)

A prophet
That David was inspired is clear,  2 Sam 23:2  (The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me, and His word was on my tongue).   Many of the prophecies relating to the Messiah are found in the Psalms of David:
Psalm 22:1 My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?
Matthew 27:46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"
Psalm 22:18 They divide My garments among them, and for My clothing they cast lots.
Matthew 27:35 Then they crucified Him, and divided His garments, casting lots, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet.
Psalm 69:21 They also gave me gall for my food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.
Matthew 27:34 They gave Him sour wine mingled with gall to drink.
Matthew 27:48 Immediately one of them ran and took a sponge, filled it with sour wine and put it on a reed, and offered it to Him to drink.

Sworn with an oath
The places which speak of God as having sworn to David are found in Ps 89:3-4,
I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn to My servant David:  "Your seed I will establish forever, and build up your throne to all generations."
and Ps 132:11,
The LORD has sworn in truth to David;  He will not turn from it: "I will set upon your throne the fruit of your body."

According to the flesh
That is,  so far as the human lineage of the Messiah was concerned,  he would be descended from David.

From the Amplified Bible
(29)  Brethren, it is permitted me to tell you confidently and with freedom concerning the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day.
(30)  Being however a prophet, and knowing that God had sealed to him with an oath that He would set one of his descendants on his throne, [2 Samuel 7:12-16; Psalms 132:11.]
(31)  He, foreseeing this, spoke [by foreknowledge] of the resurrection of the Christ (the Messiah) that He was not deserted [in death] and left in Hades (the state of departed spirits), nor did His body know decay or see destruction. [Psalms 16:10.]

Acts 2:32
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(32)  This Jesus God has raised up, of which we are all witnesses.

This very Jesus, God has raised up, and we are all his witnesses.


This Jesus
Speaking of the Christ that would come from David.
There were many men named "Jesus".  Josephus alone lists 14 of the prominent ones:
1. Jesus Christ (of Nazareth)
2. Jesus, son of Phabet (a priest)
3. Jesus, son of Ananus  
4. Jesus, or Jason  
5. Jesus, son of Fapphias (governor of Tiberias)
6. Jesus, brother of Onias (a priest)
7. Jesus, son of Gamaliel (High Priest)
8. Jesus, eldest priest after Ananus  
9. Jesus, son of Damneus (High Priest)
10. Jesus, son of Gamala  
11. Jesus, or Joshua, son of Nun (Old Testament)
12. Jesus, son of Saphat (ringleader of the robbers)
13. Jesus, son of Thebuthus (a priest)
14. Jesus, son of Josedek  

Peter,  having shown that it was predicted that the Messiah would rise,  now affirms that such a resurrection occurred in the case of Jesus of Nazareth.  If it was a matter of prophecy,  all objections to the truth of the doctrine was taken away,  and the only question was whether there was evidence that this had been done.  The proof of this Peter now alleges,  and offers his own testimony,  and that of his brethren,  to the truth of this great and glorious fact.

We are all witnesses
It seems probable that Peter refers here to the whole 120 who were present,  and who were ready to attest it in any manner.  The matter which was to be proved was that Jesus was seen alive after he had been put to death.  The apostles were appointed to bear witness of this.  We are told by Paul (1 Cor 15:6) that he was seen by more than five hundred brethren,  that is,  Christians,  at one time.  The 120 assembled on this occasion were doubtless part of the number,  and were ready to attest this.  This was the proof that Peter alleged;  and the strength of this proof was,  and should have been,  perfectly irresistible:
1. They had seen him themselves.
They did not conjecture it or reason about it;  but they had the evidence on which people act every day,  and which must be regarded as satisfactory the evidence of their own senses.
2. The number was such they could not be imposed on.
If 120 persons could not prove a plain matter of fact,  nothing could be established by testimony;  there could be no way of arriving at any facts.
3. The thing to be established was a plain matter.
It was not that they "saw him rise.”  That they never pretended:  Impostors would have done this.  But it was that they saw him,  talked,  walked,  ate,  drank with him,  being alive,  AFTER,  he had been crucified.  The fact of his death was matter of Jewish record,  and no one called it in question.  The only fact for Christianity to make out was that he was seen alive afterward,  and this was attested by many witnesses.
4. They had no interest in deceiving the world in this thing.
There was no prospect of pleasure,  wealth,  or honor in doing it.
5. They offered themselves now as ready to endure any sufferings,  or to die,  in attestation of the truth of this event.

From the Amplified Bible
(32)  This Jesus God has raised up, of which we are all witnesses.

Acts 2:33-35
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(33)  Therefore being exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He poured out this which you now see and hear.

It is he who is exalted by the right hand of God and has received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, and has poured out gifts which you now see and hear.

(34)  "For David did not ascend into the heavens, but he says himself: 'The LORD said to my Lord, 'Sit at My right hand,

For David did not ascend into heaven, because he himself said, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,

(35)  Till I make Your enemies Your footstool."'

Until I make thy foes thy footstool.


Right hand
The right hand among the Hebrews was often used to denote  "power".

This which you now see and hear
This includes
the sound like the rushing wind
the tongues like fire on each of them
the different languages spoken by the 120
A culminating demonstration that Jesus was the Messiah.

In this way Peter accounts for the remarkable events before them.  What had occurred could not be produced by new wine.

The LORD said to my Lord
Quoted from Psalm 110:1
The LORD Yehovah (OT:3068) Jehovah self-Existent or Eternal
Said to my Lord 'adown (OT:113) Adon sovereign, i.e. controller (human or divine)
The small capitals used in translating the word  "LORD"  denote that the original word is Yahweh.  The Hebrews regarded this as the unique name of God,  a name incommunicable to any other being.  It is not applied to any being but God in the Scriptures.  The Jews had such a reverence for it that they never pronounced it;  but when it occurred in the Scriptures they pronounced another name,  'Adonaay  (OT: 136).

My Lord is a different word.  It properly is applied by a servant to his master,  or a subject to his sovereign,  or is used as a title of respect by an inferior to a superior.
It means here,
"Yahweh said to him whom I, David, acknowledge to be my superior and sovereign."
Thus,  though he regarded him as his descendant according to the flesh,  yet he regarded him also as his superior and Lord.  By reference to this passage our Savior confounded the Pharisees,  Matt 22:42-46.
Matthew 22:41-46
While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them,
"What do you think about the Christ? Whose Son is He?"
They said to Him,
"The Son of David"
He said to them,
"How then does David in the Spirit call Him 'Lord,' saying:
'The LORD said to my Lord,  "Sit at My right hand, till I make Your enemies Your footstool"'?
If David then calls Him 'Lord,' how is He his Son?"
And no one was able to answer Him a word, nor from that day on did anyone dare question Him anymore.
(NKJV)
That the passage in this Psalm refers to the Messiah is clear.
Jesus applied it this way - and the Jews understood it this way.

From the Amplified Bible
(33)  Being therefore lifted high by and to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promised [blessing which is the] Holy Spirit, He has made this outpouring which you yourselves both see and hear.
(34)  For David did not ascend into the heavens; yet he himself says, The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand and share My throne
(35)  Until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet. [Psalms 110:1.]

Acts 2:36
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(36)  "Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ."

Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly that God has made this very Jesus, whom you have crucified, both Lord and Christ.


Therefore
Convinced by the prophecies,  by our testimony,  and by the remarkable scenes exhibited on the day of Pentecost,  let all be convinced that the true Messiah has come and has been exalted to heaven
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Both LORD And Christ
Lord – supreme in authority, controller, God, Lord, master.
Christ – anointed, Messiah.

Not only the Messiah,  but the supreme Governor of all things and all persons,  Jews and Gentiles,  angels and men.  In the preceding discourse,  Peter assumes a fact which none would attempt to deny,  namely,  that Jesus had been lately crucified by them.  He then,
1. Proves His resurrection
2. Proves His ascension
3. Proves His exaltation to the right hand of God
4. Proves the effusion of the Holy Spirit,  which was the fruit of his glorification,  and which had not only been promised by himself,  but foretold by their own prophets: in consequence of which,
5. It was indisputably proved that this same Jesus,  whom they had crucified,  was the promised Messiah;  and if so,
6. The Governor of the universe,  from whose power and justice they had everything to dread,  as they refused to receive his proffered mercy and kindness.
(from Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

The heart of the Gospel is this:
that Jesus,  raised from the dead and exalted at the right hand of God,  has been made both Lord and Messiah.
His Messiahship means Lordship;  he reigns at the right hand of God as Lord and King.  The fulfillment of the Messianic office is realized in a new and unexpected way.  The Lordship of Christ was the cardinal doctrine of primitive Christianity.  Jesus entered into the exercise of his Lordship by virtue of his exaltation (Philippians 2:9-11), and salvation is to be found in confessing Jesus as Lord (Romans 10:9).
(from The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1962 by Moody Press. All rights reserved.)

From the Amplified Bible
(36)  Therefore let the whole house of Israel recognize beyond all doubt and acknowledge assuredly that God has made Him both Lord and Christ (the Messiah) — this Jesus Whom you crucified.

Acts 2:37
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(37)  Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, "Men and brethren, what shall we do?"

When they heard these things, their hearts were touched and they said to Simon and the rest of the apostles, Our brethren, what shall we do?


When they heard this
When they heard this declaration of Peter,  and this proof that Jesus was the Messiah.  There was no fanaticism in his discourse;  it was cool,  close,  pungent reasoning.  He proved to them the truth of what he was saying,  and thus prepared the way for this effect.

Cut to the heart
The word translated  "cut," is katenugeesan (NT: 2660).
It properly denotes  "to pierce or penetrate with a needle, or sharp instrument";
and then "to pierce with grief, or acute pain of any kind."
It implies also the idea of sudden as well as acute grief.

The causes of their grief may have been these:
(1) Their sorrow that the Messiah had been put to death by his own countrymen.
(2) Their deep sense of guilt in having done this.
here would be mingled here a remembrance of ingratitude,  and a consciousness that they had been guilty of murder of the most aggravated and horrid kind,  that of having killed their own Messiah.
(3) The fear of his wrath.
He was still alive;  exalted to be theft Lord;  and entrusted with all power.  They were afraid of his vengeance;  they were conscious that they deserved it;  and they supposed that they were exposed to it.
(4) What they had done could not be undone.
The guilt remained;  they could not wash it out.  They had imbrued theft hands in the blood of innocence,  and the guilt of that oppressed their souls.

What shall we do?
This question implies
an apprehension of danger
an admission of guilt
a readiness to "yield the will" to the claims of God.

This same question was asked 3 times in the book of Acts
  Asked By The Answer
2:37 by the Crowd Repent and be baptized
 
Since their sin of disbelief resulted in the public crucifixion of their Messiah -
They must both repent and publicly accept Jesus as their Messiah.
9:6 by Saul Go into the city and you will be told to do
 
Since his sin of disbelief included great knowledge of the Scriptures pointing to the Messiah -
He must both repent and submit obediently to the will of Jesus as his Messiah.
16:30 by the Jailor Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ
 
Since his sin included no previous knowledge of the Messiah -
He must believe and accept Jesus as his Savior.

From the Amplified Bible
(37)  Now when they heard this they were stung (cut) to the heart, and they said to Peter and the rest of the apostles (special messengers), Brethren, what shall we do?

Acts 2:38
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(38)  Then Peter said to them, "Repent, and let every one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Then Simon said to them, Repent and be baptized, every one of you in the name of the Lord Jesus for the remission of sins, so that you may receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.


Repent
metanoeo (NT:3340) to think differently, reconsider
"to change one's mind"
"to adopt another view"
"to change one's feelings"
"to come to a different opinion"
If the change of mind derives from recognition that the earlier view was foolish,  improper or evil,  there arises the sense  "to regret,"  "to feel remorse."
This expresses dissatisfaction with thoughts cherished, plans followed, acts performed etc.
(from Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Copyright © 1972-1989 By Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. All rights reserved.)

Though in English a focal component of repent is the sorrow or contrition that a person experiences because of sin, the emphasis seems to be more specifically the total change,  both in thought and behavior.
(from Greek-English Lexicon Based on Semantic Domain. Copyright © 1988 United Bible Societies, New York. Used by permission.)

The mere fact that sin is evil,  and that God hates it,  is a sufficient reason why those who are truly penitent hate it and forsake it.
False repentance dreads the consequences of sin
True repentance dreads sin itself
False conviction for sin would soon wear off,  unless their repentance became thorough and complete.  Hence,  he told them to repent, to turn from sin, to exercise sorrow for it as an evil and bitter thing,  and to express their sorrow in the proper manner.  We may learn here:
(1) That there is no safety in mere conviction for sin.
It may soon pass off,  and leave the soul as thoughtless as before.
(2) There is no goodness or holiness in mere alarm or conviction.
"Even the demons believe — and tremble!" (James 2:19)   A man may fear who yet has a firm purpose to do evil,  if he can do it with impunity.
(3) Many are greatly troubled and alarmed who never repent.
There is no situation where souls are as easily deceived as here.  Alarm is taken for repentance;  trembling for godly sorrow;  and the fear of wrath is taken to be the true fear of God.
(4) True repentance is the only thing in such a state of mind that can give any relief.
An ingenuous confession of sin,  a solemn purpose to forsake it,  and a true hatred of it,  is the only thing that can give the mind composure.  Such is the constitution of the mind that nothing else will furnish relief.  But the moment we are willing to make an open confession of guilt,  the mind is delivered of its burden,  and the convicted soul finds peace.  Until this is done,  and the hold on sin is broken,  there can be no peace.
(5) We see here what direction is to be given to a convicted sinner.
We are not to direct him to wait;  nor to lead him to suppose that he is in a good way;  nor to tell him to continue to seek;  nor to call him a mourner;  nor to take sides with him,  as if God were wrong and harsh;  nor to advise him to read,  and search,  and postpone the subject to a future time.  We are to direct him to repent;  to mourn over his sins,  and to forsake them.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Baptized
baptizo (NT:907) baptize Immerse – Dip – Plunge – Bathe

The term baptism translates the Greek noun baptisma;  the verb is baptizo.
Baptizo means to immerse or dip.  Besides the practice of baptism,  baptizo is used in the New Testament  for ceremonial washing (Mark 7:4; Luke 11:38).  It is also used metaphorically in a number of ways (Matt 20:22; 1 Cor 10:2; 1 Peter 3:19-21).

1. Background
 
Christianity was not the only religion to practice baptism.  In fact,  during the New Testament era several different groups used some form of baptism in their religious rites to attain the removal of guilt,  moral cleansing,  and a new birth or new start.
The eastern mystery religions of that day used some form of immersion,  at times in blood,  as an initiation rite into their communities.
The Jews began at about the time of Jesus to require a ritual bath,  or baptism,  of its Gentile converts seven days after circumcision.
Also the sectarian Jewish community of Qumran (famous for the Dead Sea Scrolls) had a highly developed practice of religious washings,  which included baptisms.
2. John the Baptist
 
Although the Gospels demonstrate a close connection between John's baptism and the early Christian practice,  it would be wrong to make John's baptism equivalent to Christian baptism.  John's baptism had a dual focus.
First His was a baptism of repentance,.
Calling the Jews back to faithfulness and commitment to the law of God (Matt 3:5-12; Luke 3:3).  John was undoubtedly influenced by his own Jewish context,  which saw the washings of water as an agent of moral or ethical purification (Mark 1:4; Matt 3:11).  However,  he did not envision the water of baptism acting to purify apart from repentance (Matt 3:7-8).
 "John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching a baptism of repentance for the remission of sins."
Second John's baptism was in anticipation of the coming of God's Messiah.
(Matt 3:2; Mark 1:7-8; Acts 10:37)  It served as a prophetic symbol of the Old Testament's pronouncement of the inauguration of God's messianic salvation (Isa 4:4; 40:3; Mal 3:1-6).  John consciously linked his baptism with the expected messianic baptism of Spirit and fire,  new life and judgment,  brought about in Jesus Christ (Matt 3:11; Mark 1:8; John 1:33).
"I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance,  but He who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry.  He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire."
3. Jesus and Baptism
 
The practice of baptism is,  for the most part,  noticeably absent from the ministry of Jesus.  Early in Jesus' ministry He may have baptized in a way similar to John (John 3:22-23),  but later He seemed to discontinue the practice (John 4:1-3).
Jesus' own baptism by John was extremely significant for His ministry.
It identified Him with the righteous concerns of John (Matt 3:15).
While it demonstrated His own solidarity with sinful humanity,  whom He came to serve  (2 Cor 5:21; Phil 2:7).
The descent of the Spirit and the voice from heaven showed this to be the beginning of God's work of salvation through His Son,  Jesus,  and the promise of the coming of God's kingdom on earth.
Jesus' command to baptize given in the Great Commission  (Matt 28:18-20)  is the foundation for the church's practice of baptism.  Christian baptism takes place in light of Christ's redemptive death,  resurrection from the dead,  and ascent to glory and authority at the right hand of God.
4. The Early Church
 
Baptism in the early church was performed  "in the name of Jesus"  or  "into Jesus"  (Acts 2:38; see Gal 3:27).  In Acts this involves the believers' calling on the name of Christ for salvation (Acts 22:16) in light of the forgiveness brought about by Christ (Acts 2:38).
Hence,  baptism identifies believers with the new messianic community called into worship and missionary effort by the risen Lord (Acts 2:41).
Baptism was an integral part of the earliest proclamation of the good news,  even though the early church had to struggle with its implications and to whom it was to be administered (see Acts 2:38; 8:14; 10:44; 19:1).
 
Paul's basic understanding of baptism was that the believer is baptized "into Christ."
Baptism serves to illustrate the union with Christ brought about through faith (Gal 3:26-27).
"For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.  For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ."
Paul employed this basic understanding of baptism in a number of ways.
The Christian's baptism is  "into his death"  and unites the believer with Christ's death and resurrection (Rom 6:3).  Because of this,  Christians share in Christ's victory over sin and death (Rom 6:4; Col 3:3).
Baptism is related to the baptism of the Spirit (1 Cor 12:13),  since the new life in Christ is inseparable from the presence of the Spirit (Rom 8:9-17).
Baptism further relates the believer to the body of Christ,  the church
(Gal 3:27-29; 1 Cor 12:12-13).
Therefore baptism in the New Testament has a rich symbolism and vital purpose.  It was the first public act for believers identifying them with Christ's saving death, saved people, and saving mission.
(From Holman Bible Handbook. (c) Copyright 1992 by Holman Bible Publishers. All rights reserved.)
 
Philippians 2:9
Therefore God also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name,
1 Corinthians 1:13
Is Christ divided? Was Paul crucified for you? Or were you baptized in the name of Paul?
Acts 2:38
Then Peter said to them, "Repent, and let every one of you be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
Acts 8:16
For as yet He had fallen upon none of them. They had only been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.
Acts 19:5
When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

There is no contradiction to what Jesus said in Matthew 28:19 and what the apostles did in obeying Jesus.
Matthew 28:19
Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
1. "Father" is not a name it is a title
2. "Son" is not a name it is a title
3. "Holy Ghost" is not a name it is a designation of the Holy Spirit of God
The Jews Acts 2:38 in the name of Jesus Christ
Jesus The Name
Christ The Title - "Messiah"
By being baptized in the name of Jesus, the Jews were publicly acknowledging Him as their Messiah.
The Samaritans Acts 8:16 in the name of the Lord Jesus
Lord The Title - Kurios (supreme in authority)
Jesus The Name
By being baptized in the name of Jesus, the Samaritans were publicly acknowledging Him as their one, true God.
The Gentiles Acts 19:5 in the name of the Lord Jesus
Lord The Title - Kurios (supreme in authority)
Jesus The Name
By being baptized in the name of Jesus, the Gentiles were publicly acknowledging Him as their one, true God.
Colossians 3:17
And whatever you do in word or deed, do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through Him.

We have here a revelation that came to Peter after that He received the Spirit Baptism that the name of the Father,  and the Son,  and the Holy Ghost is Jesus,  and by being baptized in that name,  it fulfilled the Scripture of Matthew 28:19 that Jesus gave to His disciples.  Here it means to be baptized by the authority of Jesus Christ,  but it means to be baptized for him and his service;  to be consecrated in this way,  and by this public profession,  to him and to his cause.
Paul the Learner

The expression is literally upon the name of Jesus Christ:  that is,  as the foundation of the baptism,  or as that on which its propriety rested or was based.  In other words,  it is with an acknowledgment of him in that act as being what his name imports the Sinner's only Hope, his Redeemer, Lord, Justifier, King.  The name of Jesus Christ means the same as Jesus Christ himself.  To be baptized to his name is to be devoted to him.  The profession which they were to make amounted to this:  a confession of sins;  a hearty purpose to turn from them;  a reception of Jesus as the Messiah and as a Savior;  and a determination to become his followers and to be devoted to his service.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Thus, (1 Cor 10:2   "Moreover, brethren, I do not want you to be unaware that all our fathers were under the cloud, all passed through the sea, all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea,"),   to be baptized unto Moses means to take him as a leader and guide.  The Bible says,  ‘out of the mouth of two or three witness let the matter be established.’   We find that not only in Acts 2:38, but also in Acts 8:16 it states “…only they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.”  Though,  as the special mark of a Christian is that he receives and honors Jesus Christ,  this name is used here as implying the whole.  The same thing occurs in Acts 19:5.  The early church only baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and so indeed fulfilled Matthew 28:19.
It was not until 300 A.D. that the mode of water baptism was changed from the original by the organized church of that day.
Thank God that we have gone back to the original thought of the Apostles.
Paul the Learner

Remission of sins
The remission  (freedom from, pardon, forgiveness)  of sin does not rest on water baptism.  It rests on accepting the blood of Jesus.  However,  without obedience,  there can be no true repentance,  and without true repentance,  there can be no remission.

It is unfortunate that the translation of Acts 2:38 in the King James Version suggests that people must be baptized in order to be saved,  because this is not what the Bible teaches.  The Greek word eis  (which is translated  "for"  in the phrase "for the remission of sins")  can mean  "on account of'" or "on the basis of."  In Matthew 3:11 John the Baptist baptized on the basis that people had repented.  Acts 2:38 should not be used to teach salvation by baptism.
If baptism is essential for salvation, it seems strange that Peter said nothing about baptism in his other sermons.  (Acts 3:12-26; 5:29-32; 10:34-43)
In fact,  the people in the home of Cornelius received the Holy Spirit before they were baptized!
(Acts 10:44-48)
Since believers are commanded to be baptized,  it is important that we have a dean conscience by obeying (1 Peter 3:21),  but we must not think that baptism is a part of salvation.  If so,  then nobody in Hebrews 11 was saved because none of them was ever baptized.
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)

Gift of the Holy Spirit
The reception of the Holy Spirit is not dependent upon baptism,  but it follows baptism, which is the outward and visible sign of a penitent spirit. In the early church, converts were baptized without delay. So being baptized and receiving the Spirit were practically simultaneous.
(from The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1962 by Moody Press. All rights reserved.)

If ye faithfully use the sign, ye shall get the substance.  Receive the baptism, in reference to the removal of sins,  and ye shall receive the Holy Spirit,  by whose agency alone the efficacy of the blood of the covenant is applied,  and by whose refining power the heart is purified.  It was by being baptized in the name of Christ that men took upon themselves the profession of Christianity;  and it was in consequence of this that the disciples of Christ were called CHRISTIANS.
(from Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

It has been said that:
It is the believer's responsibility to Repent
It is the minister's responsibility to Baptize the believer in water in the name of Jesus
It is God's responsibility to fill the believer with His Holy Spirit.

From the Amplified Bible
(38)  And Peter answered them, Repent (change your views and purpose to accept the will of God in your inner selves instead of rejecting it) and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of and release from your sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Acts 2:39
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(39)  For the promise is to you and to your children, and to all who are afar off, as many as the Lord our God will call.

For the promise was made to you and to your children, and for all of those who are far off, even as many as the very God shall call.


The promise
Foretold by Joel
The promise foretold by Joel was two-fold:
(1) Jehovah would pour out His Spirit on all flesh
(2) Whoever calls on His name shall be saved

Promised by Jesus
The promise Jesus gave was:
You shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit
which resulted in: You shall receive power
  You shall be witnesses
John 14:16-20
And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever  —  the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you.
I will not leave you orphans; I will come to you.  A little while longer and the world will see Me no more, but you will see Me. Because I live, you will live also.  At that day you will know that I am in My Father, and you in Me, and I in you.      (NKJV)

This new age of Messianic blessing,  Peter explained,  would bestow the Holy Spirit not only upon such leaders as prophets,  priests,  and kings,  but upon all who would repent,  upon their descendants,  and even upon those outside the family of Israel,  even all whom God should call to salvation.  The gift of the Holy Spirit.  The gift of the Spirit himself, not some gift which the Spirit bestows.
(from The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1962 by Moody Press. All rights reserved.)

To you
To you Jews,  even though you have crucified the Messiah.

Your children
Of the seed of Abraham.
Similar promises occur in
Isaiah 44:3
I will pour My Spirit on your descendants, and My blessing on your offspring;
Isaiah 59:21
"As for Me," says the LORD, "this is My covenant with them: My Spirit who is upon you, and My words which I have put in your mouth, shall not depart from your mouth, nor from the mouth of your descendants, nor from the mouth of your descendants' descendants," says the LORD, "from this time and forevermore."

In these and similar places their descendants or posterity are denoted. It does not refer merely to children as children, and should not be adduced as applicable exclusively to infants. It is a promise I to parents that the blessings of salvation shall not be confined to parents, but shall be extended also to their posterity. Under this promise parents may be encouraged to train up their children for God; they are authorized to devote them to him in the ordinance of Christian baptism, and they may trust in his gracious purpose thus to perpetuate the blessings of salvation from age to age.

To all...afar off
To the whole race; not limited to Jews.

To the Jews wherever dispersed,  and to all the Gentile nations;  for,  though Peter had not as yet a formal knowledge of the calling of the Gentiles,  yet,  the Spirit of God,  by which he spoke,  had undoubtedly this in view.
(from Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

It is probable that Peter himself here referred to the Jews who were scattered in other nations;  for he does not seem yet to have understood that the gospel was to be preached to the Gentiles. (See Acts 10)   Yet the promise was equally applicable to the Gentiles as the Jews,  and the apostles were afterward brought so to understand it,  (Acts 10;  Rom 10:12,  14-20; 11).
The Gentiles are sometimes clearly indicated by the expression  "afar off " (Eph 2:13, 17);  and they are represented as having been brought nigh by the blood of Christ.
The phrase is equally applicable to those who have been far off from God by their sins and their evil affections.  To them also the promise is extended if they will return.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)
 
Ephesians 2:13
But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near by the blood of Christ.
Galatians 3:13-14
Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us (for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree"),  that the blessing of Abraham might come upon the Gentiles in Christ Jesus, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

As many ... as the Lord ... will call
The meaning is, that
The promise is ample,  full,  free;  that it is suited to all,  and may be applied to all.
There is no defect or lack in the provisions or promises,  but that God may extend it to whomsoever he pleases.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

And who does God call?
John 3:16-17
For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.
For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.
2 Peter 3:9
The Lord is not slack concerning His promise, as some count slackness, but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any should perish but that all should come to repentance.
Joel 2:32
And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved.
Romans 10:13
For "whoever calls on the name of the LORD shall be saved."

According to God's own word, everyone is called.  Only our unbelief and disobedience can deny us the promise.

From the Amplified Bible
(39)  For the promise [of the Holy Spirit] is to and for you and your children, and to and for all that are far away, [even] to and for as many as the Lord our God invites and bids to come to Himself.  [Isaiah 57:19; Joel 2:32.]



THE  CHURCH  GREW  DAILY

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Acts 2:40 & 41
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(40)  And with many other words he testified and exhorted them, saying, "Be saved from this perverse generation."

And he testified to them with many other words and besought them, saying, Save yourselves from this sinful generation.

(41)  Then those who gladly received his word were baptized; and that day about three thousand souls were added to them.

And those men among them who readily accepted his word and believed were baptized, and about three thousand souls were added in that day.


Acts 2:40 indicates that the Apostles continued to share the Word and to urge the people to trust Jesus Christ.  They looked on the nation of Israel as a  "crooked generation"  that was under condemnation  (Matthew 16:4; 17:17; Philippians 2:15).
Actually,  the nation would have about forty years before Rome would come and destroy the city and the temple and scatter the people.  History was repeating itself.
During the forty years in the wilderness,  the new generation  "saved itself'"  from the older generation that rebelled against God.
Now,  God would give His people another forty years of grace.
And on that day, 3,000 people repented,  believed, and were saved.
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)

From the Amplified Bible
(40)  And [Peter] solemnly and earnestly witnessed (testified) and admonished (exhorted) with much more continuous speaking and warned (reproved, advised, encouraged) them, saying, Be saved from this crooked (perverse, wicked, unjust) generation.
(41)  Therefore those who accepted and welcomed his message were baptized, and there were added that day about 3,000 souls.

Acts 2:42 & 43
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(42)  And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, in the breaking of bread, and in prayers.

And they continued steadfastly in the teaching of the apostles and they took part of prayer and in the breaking of bread.

(43)  Then fear came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were done through the apostles.

And fear came upon every soul; and many miracles and wonders were done by the apostles in Jerusalem.


They - the 3,000 new believers

Continued Steadfastly
proskartereo (NT:4342) persevere,  adhere closely to

Participle and finite verb.  The verb is from karteros,  "strong, staunch,"  and means originally to  "persist obstinately in."   Hence,  to  "adhere firmly to."   The idea of steady persistence is supplied by the English Revised Version (1885): "steadfastly."
(from Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

They persevered in, persisted in, adhered closely to:
The apostles' doctrine
didachee = Teaching
They received it, retained it, and acted on its principles.
Fellowship
koinoonia = Partnership
It means "to share in" and is often rendered "communion."
It properly denotes "having things in common, or participation, society, friendship."  It may apply to anything which may be possessed in common,  or in which all may partake.

The word here may apply to their conversation,  their prayers, their dangers,  or their property;  and means that they were united to the apostles,  and participated with them in whatever befell them.
(from Barnes' Notes, Electronic Database Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)
Breaking of bread
tee klasei tou artou = used of breaking bread at the ordinary meal and also the Lord's Supper
It is generally supposed that the early disciples attached so much significance to the breaking of bread at the ordinary meals, more than our saying grace,  that they followed the meal with the Lord's Supper at first,  a combination called agapai,  "love-feasts."   It is possible that what is referred to here is the Lord's Supper following the ordinary meal.
(from Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament. Copyright © 1985 by Broadman Press.)
Prayers
proseuchais = Always of prayer to God
This may be translated as "they prayed to God together."
(from the UBS Handbook Series. Copyright (c) 1961-1997, by United Bible Societies)

Fear
Different MSS,  and versions read this clause thus,  And GREAT fear and TREMBLING came upon every soul in JERUSALEM.
For several weeks past they had a series of the most astonishing miracles performed before their eyes;  they were puzzled and confounded at the manner in which the apostles preached, who charged them with the deliberate murder of Jesus Christ,  and who attested,  in the most positive manner,  that he was risen from the dead,  and that God had sent down that mighty effusion of the Spirit which they now witnessed as a proof of his resurrection and ascension,  and that this very person whom they had crucified was appointed by God to be the Judge of quick and dead.  They were in consequence stung with remorse,  and were apprehensive of the judgments of God;  and the wonders and signs continually done by the apostles were at once proofs of the celestial origin of their doctrine and mission,  and of their own baseness,  perfidy,  and wickedness.
(from Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1996, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

Wonders and signs
The word "wonders" [terata] represents the miracles in the light of their supernatural character,
The word "signs" [seemeia] expresses the visible evidence which this gave of a divine presence with the workers.
(from Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1997, 2003 by Biblesoft, Inc. All rights reserved.)

John 14:12
Most assuredly,  I say to you, he who believes in Me,  the works that I do he will do also;  and greater works than these he will do,  because I go to My Father.

From the Amplified Bible
(42)  And they steadfastly persevered, devoting themselves constantly to the instruction and fellowship of the apostles, to the breaking of bread [including the Lord's Supper] and prayers.
(43)  And a sense of awe (reverential fear) came upon every soul, and many wonders and signs were performed through the apostles (the special messengers).

Acts 2:44-47
From the NKJV From the  Peshitta

(44)  Now all who believed were together, and had all things in common,

And all believers were together and had all things in common;

(45)  and sold their possessions and goods, and divided them among all, as anyone had need.

And those who had possessions sold them and divided to each man according to his need.

(46)  So continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, they ate their food with gladness and simplicity of heart,

And they went to the temple every day with one accord; and at home they broke bread and received food with joy and with a pure heart,

(47)  praising God and having favor with all the people. And the Lord added to the church daily those who were being saved.

Praising God and finding favor with all the people.  And our Lord daily increased the congregation of the church.


Had all things common
Perhaps they had common tables (as the Spartans of old),  for familiarity,  temperance and freedom of conversation.
That those who had much might have the less,  and so be kept from the temptations of abundance.
They who had little might have the more,  and so be kept from the temptations of want and poverty.
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright © 1991 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)

And sold their possessions
That is,  they sold as much as was necessary in order to procure the means of providing for the needs of each other.
Property,  particularly real estate.  This word, kteemata  (NT: 2933),  refers properly to their fixed property, as lands,  houses,  vineyards, etc. 

They distributed them to supply the needs of their poorer brethren, according to their necessities.

As anyone had need
Three causes of need in the new assembly:
(1) Poverty
There were poor among them that heard the word and believed.
And since there is no distinction of political or social standing in the body of Christ,  the new believers that were blessed with more possessions gladly shared with those who had less.
(2) Immigration
Among them were those who were there for the feast that heard the word and believed.  Those who chose to remain with their new spiritual family would have no permanent possessions or home.
And since there is no racism or prejudice in the body of Christ, the new believers that were local and established in and around Jerusalem gladly shared with those who had to start over with nothing.
(3) Persecution
Some of those who heard the word and believed were members of wealthy families or owned their own businesses.  They would lose everything because of the unbelief of their natural family members, and many with businesses would lose everything because the unbelievers in the community would refuse to do business with them.
And since there is no fear or human pride in the body of Christ, the new believers that had possessions that were their own gladly shared with those who lost everything, even if it meant persecution to themselves.

The new church:
Began to understand the Word of God   (14-28)
  Prophecy   (14-28)
  the Purpose of the Cross   (29-33)
  who Jesus is   (36, 38)
  the scope of the Promise   (39)
Continued steadfastly in Doctrine Right Teaching (42)
  in Fellowship Right Relationship with Man (42)
  in Prayer Right Relationship with God (42)
Before there was Selfishness Now they share all (44)
  Division Now there is Unity (46)
  Fear & Sorrow Now there is Gladness (46)
  Wavering Now there is Singleness of heart (46)

The full Plan (pattern) of Salvation:
1. (Vs. 14-36) Preaching God and man
2. (Vs. 37) Conviction God
3. (Vs. 38) Repentance Man
4. (Vs. 38) Baptism in water Man
5. (Vs. 38) Baptism in Spirit God (active)   Man (inactive)
6. (Vs. 41-47) Growth Man

The Church was:
Unified (Acts 2:44)
Magnified (Acts 2:47 a)
Multiplied (Acts 2:47 b)

The Christians you meet in the Book of Acts were not content to meet once a week for "services as usual."
They -
(Acts 2:46) Met daily
(Acts 6:1) Cared daily
(Acts 2:47) Won souls daily
(Acts 17:11) Searched the Scriptures daily
(Acts 16:5) Increased in number daily
Their Christian faith was a day-to-day reality,  not a once-a-week routine.
Why?  Because the risen Christ was a living reality to them,  and His resurrection power was at work in their lives through the Spirit.
(from The Bible Exposition Commentary. Copyright © 1989 by Chariot Victor Publishing, and imprint of Cook Communication Ministries. All rights reserved. Used by permission.)

From the Amplified Bible
(44)  And all who believed (who adhered to and trusted in and relied on Jesus Christ) were united and [together] they had everything in common;
(45)  And they sold their possessions (both their landed property and their movable goods) and distributed the price among all, according as any had need.
(46)  And day after day they regularly assembled in the temple with united purpose, and in their homes they broke bread [including the Lord's Supper]. They partook of their food with gladness and simplicity and generous hearts,
(47)  Constantly praising God and being in favor and goodwill with all the people; and the Lord kept adding [to their number] daily those who were being saved [from spiritual death].



 

(End of Chapter Two)

 

Bibliography

 


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