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        2:1-3          =     Past  Condition  By  Nature
                2:4-10        =     Present Condition By Grace
        2:11, 12      =     Past Condition By Birth
                2:13-22     =     Present Condition by Super Abounding Grace

Eph 2:1-3
(1) And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins;
(2) Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:
(3) Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

2:1                   As for you, you were dead in your transgressions and sins    (NIV)

DEAD (nekros)   
“A corpse  (literally or figuratively) dead”  [Strong’s #3498]  

        A Living Corpse
Without the gracious presence of God’s spirit in the soul, and so unable to think, will, or do ought that is holy.   (Jamieson, Fausset & Brown)

Death is often used … to express a state of extreme misery.  The Ephesians, by trespassing and sinning, had brought themselves into a state of deplorable wretchedness … and having thus sinned against God, they were condemned by Him … incapable of performing any legal act, and always liable to the punishment of death, which they had deserved, and which was ready to be inflicted upon them             (Clarke)

TRESPASSES (paraptomasin)  
“A side-slip (lapse or deviation), (unintentional) error or (willful) transgression”  [Strong’s #3900]  

To fall beside a person or thing, to slip aside, hence, to deviate from the right path, to turn aside, to wander.  Sin is looked upon as a lapse or deviation from truth or uprightness, a trespass, a misdeed.    (Wuest)

May signify the slightest deviation from the line and rule of moral equity, as well as any flagrant offense; for these are equally transgressions, as long as the Sacred Line that separates between vice and virtue is passed over.    (Clarke)

SINS (hamartiais) 
To miss the mark

It was used in the Greek classics of a spearman missing the target at which he aimed the spear.  It was used in the ethical terminology of the Greeks to mean “to fail of one’s purpose, to go wrong.”  In the New Testament it speaks of sin as the act of a person failing to obey the Word of God, failing to measure up in his life to the will of God.  Its use is excellently illustrated in Romans 3:28, “All have sinned (missed the mark), and at present come short of the glory of God.”  The mark or target is the glory of God.  Man was created to glorify God.  His attempt, where the attempt is made, to live a life pleasing to God, falls short of the target, like a spear thrown by an athlete, falls short of the target at which it is thrown.            (Wuest).

“… may probably mean here habitual transgression; sinning knowingly and daringly.”  (Clarke) 


In the first verse he speaks of their internal state, in this of their outward conversation: Wherein, in which trespasses and sins, in time past you walked, you lived and behaved yourselves in such a manner as the men of the world are used to do.                   (Matthew Henry)

WALKED (periepatesate)       To walk about  

The Circle of Sin
It came to mean “to make one’s way, to make progress, to regulate one’s life, to conduct one’s self, order one’s behavior.”  We have here the locative of sphere.  The unsaved order their behavior, regulate their lives within the sphere of trespasses and sins.  All their thoughts, words, and deeds are enshpered by sin.             (Wuest)
COURSE (aiona)  aion
An age; by extension, perpetuity;  by implication, perpetuity;  by implication, the world.   [Strong’s #165]
WORLD (kosmou)   kosmou

Orderly arrangement, by implication, the world (in a wide or narrow sense, including its inhabitants, literally or  figuratively  [morally]    [Strong’s#2889]

His act of ordering his behavior in the sphere of trespasses and sins is dominated or controlled by “the course of this world.”  Trench defines as “All that floating mass of thoughts, opinions, maxims, speculations, hopes, impulses, aims, aspirations, at any time current in the world, which it may be impossible to seize and accurately define, but which constitutes a most real and effective power, being the moral, or immoral atmosphere which at every moment of our lives we inhale, again inevitable to exhale.”   All this is included in the “aion”, which is, as Bengel has expressed it, “the subtle informing spirit of the ‘kosmos’, or world of men who are living alienated and apart from God.”    (Wuest)

To distinguish the words, one could say that ‘kosmos’ gives the over-all picture of mankind alienated from God during all history, and  ‘aion’ represents any distinct age or period of human history as marked out from another by particular characteristics.              (Wuest)

There is much force in these expressions; the Ephesians had not sinned casually, or now and then, but continually;  it was their continual employment;  they walked in trespasses and sins:  and this was not a solitary case, all the nations of the earth acted in the same way;  it was the “course of this world”,  according to the life, mode of living, or successive ages of this world.  The word ‘aion’, the literal meaning of which is constant duration, is often applied to things which have a complete course, as the Jewish dispensation, a particular government, and the term of human life; so, here, the whole of life is a tissue of sin, from the cradle to the grave; every human soul, unsaved by Jesus Christ, continues to transgress.  And the “nominally” Christian world is in the same state to the present day.  Age after age passes on in this way and the living lay it not to heart!                              (Clarke)


        The Kingdom of Satan
We are by nature bond-slaves to sin and Satan. Those who walk in trespasses and sins, and according to the course of this world, walk according to the prince of the power of the air. The devil, or the prince of devils, is thus described. See (Mt. 12:24,26). The legions of apostate angels are as one power united under one chief; and therefore what is called the powers of darkness elsewhere is here spoken of in the singular number. The air is represented as the seat of his kingdom: and it was the opinion of both Jews and heathens that the air is full of spirits, and that there they exercise and exert themselves. Wicked men are slaves to Satan, for they walk according to him; they conform their lives and actions to the will and pleasure of this great usurper. The course and tenor of their lives are according to his suggestions, and in compliance with his temptations; they are subject to him, and are led captive by him at his will, whereupon he is called the god of this world, and the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience. The children of disobedience are such as choose to disobey God, and to serve the devil; in these he works very powerfully and effectually.             (Matthew Henry)


The Operations of the prince of the aerial powers are not confined to that region;  he has another sphere of action, the wicked heart of man, and in this he works with energy.             (Clarke)

2:3   Among whom also we all had our conversation in times … and were by nature the children of wrath      (KJV) 

We Jews, as well as you Gentiles, have lived in transgressions and sins;  this was the course of our life;  we lived in sin, walked in sin, it was woven through our whole constitution, it tinged every temper, polluted every faculty, and perverted every transaction of life.            (Clarke)


Growth (by germination or expansion)  figuratively, native disposition    [Strong’s #5449]        


Connection by birth, offspring - not just children by age


Violent passion, by implication punishment            [Strong’s #3709]

By nature accords with children, implying what is innate.  The term “nature”, though it may occasionally be applied to what is habitual or to character as developed, means properly what is innate, implanted in one by nature, and this with different shades of meaning (compare Rom. 2:14;  Gal. 2:15;  Gal. 4:8).  The clause means, therefore, that in their pre-Christian life “we all” were in the condition of subjection to the divine wrath; and that they were so not by deed merely, nor by circumstance, nor by passing into it, but by nature.  Their universal sin has already been affirmed.  This universal sin is now described as sin by nature.             (Wuest)

We are by nature the children of wrath. The Jews were so, as well as the Gentiles; and one man is as much so as another by nature, not only by custom and imitation, but from the time when we began to exist, and by reason of our natural inclinations and appetites. All men, being naturally children of disobedience, are also by nature children of wrath. Our state and course are such as deserve wrath, and would end in eternal wrath, if divine grace did not interpose. (Matthew Henry)  

Eph 2:4-7
(4) But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us,
(5) Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)
(6) And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:
(7) That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.

2:4-6      BUT GOD …

        Exhaustless Wealth
God who is wroth with sin, is a God of grace.  His disposition towards those who are dead by trespasses and sins is one of mercy, and this is no stinted mercy, but a mercy that is rich, exhaustless.   The word “rich” is the translation of ‘plousios’, “wealthy, abounding in material resources, abounding, abundantly supplied.”                                 (Wuest)

        Complete Resurrection - Spiritual & Physical
God has given us as complete a resurrection from the death of sin to a life of righteousness, as the body of Christ has had from the grave.  And as this quickening, or making alive, was most gratuitous on God’s part, the apostle, with great propriety, says:  By grace ye are saved.” (Clarke)

        Persistent Grace
The participle here is in the perfect tense, which tense speaks of an action that took place in past time and was completed in past time, having results existent in present time.  The translation reads, “By grace have you been completely saved, with the present result that you are in a saved state of being.  The perfect tense speaks of the existence of finished results in present time.  But Paul is not satisfied with showing the existence of finished results in present time.  He wants to show the persistence of results through present time.  So he uses the verb “to be  in the present tense which gives durative force to the finished results.  Thus, the full translation is, “By grace you have been saved in past time completely, with the result that you are in a state of salvation which persists through present time.”

His initial act of faith brought him salvation in its three aspects, JUSTIFICATION, the removal of the guilt and penalty of sin and the importation of a positive righteousness, Jesus Christ Himself, an act which occurs at the moment of believing, and a position that remains static for time and eternity;

SANCTIFICATION,  (positional)  the act of the Holy Spirit taking the believing sinner out of the first Adam with his  (Adam’s)  sin and death, and placing him in the Last Adam  (Jesus Christ)  with His righteousness and life, an act that occurs at the moment of believing;  (progressive)  the process by which the Holy Spirit eliminates sin from the experience of the believer and produces His fruit, gradually conforming him into the image of the Lord Jesus, a process that goes on all through the life of a Christian; and  (GLORIFICATION)   the act of the Holy Spirit transforming the mortal bodies of believers into glorified, perfect bodies at the Rapture of the Church.   The believer has had his Justification, he is having his sanctification.  And he is yet to have his Glorification.   The earnest of the Spirit guarantees to him his glorification.            (Wuest)

·        For further discussion on the subject of Sanctification, refer to the Appendix of this study.


        The qualifier = In Christ
Our union with Him is the ground of our present spiritual, and future bodily, resurrection and ascension.  Christ Jesus  is the phrase mostly used in this Epistle, in which the Office of the Christ, the Anointed prophet, priest and king, is the prominent thought;  when the Person is prominent,  Jesus Christ is the phrase used**.

**   For further discussion on this subject, refer to the Appendix of this study.


       Saved to the Uttermost
God has produced us an Example, and one which shall be on record through all generations, that he quickens dead souls; that he forgives the sins of the most sinful, when they repent and believe in Christ Jesus.  So that what God has done for the sinners at Ephesus will serve as an encouragement to all ages of the world;  and on this evidence every preacher of the Gospel may boldly proclaim that Christ saves unto the uttermost all that come unto God through him.  And thus the exceeding riches of his grace will appear in the provision he has made for the salvation of both Jews and Gentiles.

This observation of the apostle is of great use and importance; because we are authorized to state, in all the successive ages of the world, that he who saved the sinners at Ephesus is ever ready to save all who, like them, repent of their sins, and believe in Christ Jesus.               (Clarke)


Eph 2:8-10
(8) For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:
(9) Not of works, lest any man should boast.
(10) For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

       "OF" God  -  the Source of our Faith
The words,  through faith  speak of the instrument or means whereby the sinner avails himself of this salvation which God offers him in pure grace.  Expositors says:  Paul never says  ‘through the faith,’  as if the faith were the ground or procuring cause of the salvation.”  Alford says:  It  (the salvation)  has been effected by grace and apprehended by faith.”   The word  that” is ‘touto’, this word is a demonstrative pronoun in the neuter gender. The Greek word “faith” is feminine in gender and therefore  touto’ could not refer to “faith.”  It refers to the general idea of salvation in the immediate context.  The translation reads,  and this not out from you as a source, of God  (it is)  the gift.”  That is, salvation is a gift of God.  It does not find its source in man.  Furthermore, this salvation is not  out of a source of works.”  This explains salvation by grace.  It is not produced by man nor earned by him. 

If it is earned, it ceases to be a gift.  It is a gift from God with no strings tied to it.

      A Sphere of Moral Action  -  The "Atmosphere" in which we live
God prearranged a sphere of moral action for us to walk in.  Not only are works the necessary outcome of faith, but the character and direction of the works are made ready by God.  These good works were prepared beforehand “ that we should walk in them.”  The word  walk  is ‘peripateo’,  “to regulate one’s life, to conduct one’s self, to order one’s behavior.”  

Expositors comments:  God’s purpose in the place which He gave to good works in His decree was that they should actually and habitually be done by us.  His final object was to make good works the very element of our life, the domain in which our action should move.  That this should be the nature of our walk is implied in our being His handiwork, made anew by Him in Christ; that the good works which are the divine aim of our life shall be realized, is implied in their being designed and made ready for us in God’s decree; and that they are of God’s originating, and not our action and merit, is implied in the fact that we had ourselves to be made a new creation in Christ with a view to them.”                         (Wuest)

For being saved from sin we are made partakers of the Spirit of holiness; and it is natural to that Spirit to lead to the Practice of Holiness; and he who is not holy in his life is not saved by the grace of Christ.  The  before ordaining”,  or rather  preparing”,  must refer to the time when God began the new creation in their hearts; for from the first inspiration of God upon the soul it begins to love holiness; and obedience to the will of God is the very element in which a holy or regenerated soul lives.                                              (Clarke)

Good works  cannot be performed until we are new  created unto  them.  We are not saved by, but created unto good works.  Works do not justify, but the justified man works.             (Jamieson, Fausset & Brown)


“For we are God’s own handiwork  (His workmanship) ,  recreated in Christ Jesus, born anew that we may do those good works which God predestined  (planned beforehand)  for us,  (taking paths which He prepared ahead of time)  that we should walk in them  -  living the good life which He prearranged and made ready for us to live.”                             (Amplified)

Eph 2:11-13
(11) Wherefore remember, that ye being in time past Gentiles in the flesh, who are called Uncircumcision by that which is called the Circumcision in the flesh made by hands;
(12) That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:
(13) But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ.


That ye may ever see and feel your obligations to live a pure and holy life, and be unfeignedly thankful to God for your salvation, remember that ye were once heathens in the flesh - without the pure doctrine, and under the influence of your corrupt nature; such as by the Jews (who gloried, in consequence of their circumcision, to be in covenant with God)  were called uncircumcision; i.e. persons out of the Divine Covenant, and having no right or title to any blessing of God.                (Clarke)


Now Paul enumerates five things that were true of these uncircumcised Gentiles.

First They were  without Christ.”  No Promise of the Messiah
Expositors says:  “It describes their former condition as one in which they had no connection with Christ; in which respect they were in a position sadly inferior to that of the Jews whose attitude was one of hoping and waiting for Christ, the Messiah.  Their apartness from Christ, their lack of all relation to Him - this is the first stroke in the dark picture of their former heathen life, and the four to which the eye is directed in the subsequent clauses all follow from that.”  To understand the above most clearly, we should know that the word  Christ  is the English spelling of the Greek word ‘christos’, which in turn is the translation of the Hebrew word for Messiah.  The word  Christ  here is not to be taken in its Christian sense, but in its Jewish one.  The point is not that the Ephesians were without Christ as Savior, but as Gentiles, they had no covenant connection with Him as the Jews had with Him as Messiah.
Second They were “aliens from the commonwealth of Israel.” Aliens
We have a participle in the Greek,  alienated from the commonwealth of Israel.”  Expositors says:  “It does not necessarily imply a lapse from a former condition of attachment or fellowship, but expresses generally the idea of being a Stranger as contrasted with one who is At Home with a person or an object.  The term  politeia  (commonwealth)  has two main senses - a State or Commonwealth,  and citizenship or the rights of a citizen.  The first of these is most in harmony with the theocratic term  the Israel,’ and so it is understood by most.  These Ephesians, therefore, had no part in the theocracy, the OT constitution under which God made Himself known to the Jew and entered into relation with him.”
Third They were “strangers from the covenants of promise.” Strangers
The definite article is in the Greek text.  It is, “strangers from the covenants of the promise.”  Expositors comments:  “The word  xenos  (strangers), which has the particular meaning of one who is not a member of a state or city, is used here in a general sense of Foreign to a thing, having no share in it.  The ‘diathekai’ (covenants) are the covenants with Abraham and the patriarchs.  It is obviously the covenants of Messianic significance that are in view.  That the Mosaic Law or the Sinaitic Covenant is not in view seems to follow from the mention of the promises; for that covenant was not distinctively of the promise, but is described by Paul as coming in after it and provisionally (Gal. 3:17-19).  The ‘promise’ is the one distinctively so-called, the great Messianic promise given the Hebrew people.”
Fourth They had “no hope.”  Hopeless
Expositors says:  It is not only that they had not the hope, the Messianic hope which was one of the distinctions of the Israelite, but that they were utterly without hope.  Ignorant of the divine salvation and of Christ in whom it was found, they had nothing to hope for beyond this world.”
Fifth They were  without God in the world.” Without God
Again, Expositors has a helpful comment:  “As they were without Christ, and without hope, so were they without God - without the knowledge of the one true and living God and thus destitute of any God.  So in Gal. 4:8, Paul speaks of Gentiles like these as knowing not God and doing service unto them which by nature are no gods.”  As to the phrase: “in the world,”  the same authority says:  “The domain of their life was this present evil world, and in it, alienated as it was from God, they had no God.”  (Wuest)

COVENANTS OF PROMISE  -  rather,  “…..of THE promise,”  viz., “to thee and thy seed will I give this land  (Rom. 9:4; Gal. 3:16).  The plural implies the several renewals of the covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and with the whole people at Sinai.  The promise  is singular, to signify that the covenant, in reality, and substantially, is one and the same at all times, but only different in its accidents and external circumstances  (cf.  Hebrews 1:1, “at sundry times and in divers manners”).                               (Jamieson, Fausset & Brown)


To be  far off”, and to be  near,”  are sayings much in use among the Jews; and among them, to be near signifies,

(1) To be in the Approbation or Favor of God; and to be far off signifies to be under his Displeasure.  So a Wicked Jew might be said to be “far off  from God when he was exposed to His displeasure; and a holy man, or a genuine penitent, might be said to be “nigh to God,” because such persons are in His favor.
(2) Every person who offered a sacrifice to God was considered as having Access to Him by the Blood of the sacrifice: hence the priests, who’s office it was to offer sacrifices, were considered as being “nigh to God”; and all who brought gifts to the altar were considered as approaching the Almighty.
(3) Being “far off””  signified the state of the Gentiles as contrary from the Jews, who were  nigh..”  And these expressions were used in reference to the tabernacle, God’s dwelling-place among the Israelites, and the sacrifices there offered.  All those who had access to this tabernacle, or were night to it or encamped about it, were said to be nigh to God; Those who had no access to it were said to be far off.  Hence the latter phrase is used to distinguish the Gentiles from the Jewish people; and this appears to be the meaning of the prophet, Isa. 57:19: I create the fruit of the lips; Peace, peace to him that is far off, and to him that is near, saith the Lord; that  is I give cause of praise and rejoicing to the Gentile as well as to the Jew.  And to this scripture, and to this thing, the apostle seems here to allude.  You Gentiles, who were unacquainted with God, and were even without God in the world, are brought to a acquaintance with Him; and are now, through Christ Jesus, brought into the favor approach Him by the blood of Christ.                    (Clarke)
Eph 2:14-18
(14) For he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;
(15) Having abolished in his flesh the enmity, even the law of commandments contained in ordinances; for to make in himself of twain one new man, so making peace;
(16) And that he might reconcile both unto God in one body by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby:
(17) And came and preached peace to you which were afar off, and to them that were nigh.
(18) For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.

2:14   The Wall

To make peace means  to join together that which is separated.”  Jew and Gentile, By God’s act of selecting the Jewish nation to be the channel through which He will bring salvation to the lost, had been separated.  Now, in the blood of Christ they in the Church have been joined.  This is the peace spoken of here.  Expositors comments:  “As most commentators notice, the emphasis is on the ‘autos  (intensive pronoun) - ‘He and no other.’  But there is probably more in it than that.  The selection of the abstract  eirenen  (peace maker), suggests that not only ‘He alone’ but  ‘He in His own Person’ made peace.  It is not only that the peace was made By Christ  and ranks as His achievement, but that it is so identified with Him that were He away it would also fail, - so dependent on Him that apart from Him we cannot have it.”  The word  our  refers to Jew and Gentile.  In making peace, our Lord made the both (Jew and Gentile) one.  The words  the both” are abstract neuter, showing that two parties or classes are in the apostolic mind.   (Wuest)

        To Make Peace with Each Other
This expression, the  middle wall,”  can refer only to that most marked distinction which the Jewish laws  and customs made between them and all other nations whatsoever.  Some think it refers to their ancient manner of living among the Gentiles, as they always endeavored to live in some place by themselves, and to have a river or a wall between them and their heathen neighbors.  Indeed, wherever they went, their own rites, ordinances, and customs were a sufficient separation between them and others; and as Jesus Christ abolished those customs, admitting all into his Church, both Jews and Gentiles, by repentance and faith, he may be said to have broken down the middle wall of partition.  When, at the death of Christ, the veil of the temple was rent from the top to the bottom, it was an emblem that the way to the holiest was laid open, and that the people at large, both Jews and Gentiles, were to have access to the holiest by the Blood of Jesus.  Some think there is an allusion here to the wall called  chel’,  which separated the court of Israel from the court of the Gentiles.              (Clarke)

       To Make Peace with God
Greek  “……..of the partition  or  fence;”  The middle wall which parted Jew and Gentile.  There was a balustrade of stone which separated the court of the Gentiles from the holy place, which it was death for a Gentile to pass.  But this, though incidentally alluded to, was but a symbol of the partition itself,  viz.,  the enmity  between  both  and God (v. 15), the real cause of separation from God, and so the mediate cause of their separation from one another.  Hence there was a twofold wall of partition, one the inner wall, severing Jewish people from entrance to the Holy part of the temple where the priests officiated, the other the outer wall, separating the Gentile proselytes from access to the court of the Jews  (cf. Ezek. 44:7; Acts 21:28).  Thus this twofold wall represented the Sinaitic law, which both severed all men, even the Jews, from access to God (through sin, which is the violation of the law), and also separated the Gentiles from the Jews.  As the term  wall  implies the strength  of the partition;  so  fence  implies that it was easily removed by God when the due time came.   (Jamieson,  Fausset  &  Brown)

2:15        One New Man

As to the meaning of the words,  to made in Himself of twain, one new man,”  Expositors says:  “The new creation and the new union have their ground and principle In Christ.  What was contemplated, too, was not simply the making of One Man were formerly there were two, but the making of One New Man.  The result was not that, though, the separation between them was removed, the Jew still remained Jew and the Gentile, still Gentile.  It was something new, the old distinctions between Jew and Gentile being lost in a third order of  man  - the Christian man.”  The word “make  is not  poieo’,  to make,”  but  ktizo,’  to create.”  The word  new  is  kainon’,  not  new  in time but new in quality.  The word  man  is not  aner,’  a male individual,”  but  anthropos,’  the generic, racial term, speaking of an individual, here of the new creation made up of male and female, the mystical body of Christ.                      (Wuest)

2:16      Enmity (the Law) Slain

His object was to being the two long-sundered and antagonistic parties as one whole, one great body, into right relation to God by His Cross.  As to the words  having slain the enmity thereby.”  Alford says that the enmity here refers to that between the sinner and God.  The “enmity  of verse 15 is defined in its context as that between Jew and Gentile, for the purpose of God was  to reconcile these two.  The  enmity”  of verse 16 is that between the sinner and God, for His purpose was to reconcile both Jew and Gentile in one body to Himself.      (Wuest)

2:17,18      Access Gained

The word  access  is the translation of ‘prosago,’  to open a way of access.”  It was used of those who secure for one the privilege of an interview with a sovereign.  The French word ‘entree’  exactly translates it.  It is by means of the ministry of the Holy Spirit that the saints have ‘entree’  into the presence of God the Father.

TRANSLATION:  “And having come, He proclaimed glad tidings of peace to you who were far off, and to you who were near, because through Him we have our entree, the both of us, by one Spirit into the presence of the Father.”                        (Wuest)

Eph 2:19-22
(19) Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God;
(20) And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;
(21) In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord:
(22) In whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit.

2:19      The City

YE ARE NO MORE STRANGERS:  In this chapter the Church of God is compared to a City, which has a variety of privileges, rights, &c., founded on regular charters and grants.  The Gentiles, having believed in Christ, are all incorporated with the believing Jews in this holy city.  Formerly, when any of them came to Jerusalem, being  strangers,”  they had no kind of rights whatever; nor could they, as mere heathens, settle among them.  Again, if any of them, convinced of the errors of the Gentiles, acknowledged the God of Israel, but did not receive circumcision, he might dwell in the land, but he had no right to the blessings of the covenant; such might be called  sojourners  - persons who have no property in the land, and may only rent a house for the time being.                                            (Clarke)


“Therefore you are no longer outsiders - exiles, migrants and aliens, excluded from the rights of citizens; but you now share citizenship with the saints - God’s own people, consecrated and set apart for Himself; and you belong to God’s own household.”  (Amplified)

2:20        Christ the Qualifier

AND ARE BUILT UPON THE FOUNDATION:  Following the same metaphor, comparing the Church of Christ to a city, and to the temple, the believing Ephesians are represented as parts of that building; the living stones out of which it is principally formed,  I Pet. 2:4,5,  having for foundation the ground plan, specification, and principle on which it was built, the doctrine taught by the prophets in the Old Testament, and the apostles in the New.  Jesus Christ being that corner stone, or  akrogoniaios,’  the chief angle or foundation corner stone, the connecting medium by which both Jews and Gentiles were united in the same building.  Elsewhere Jesus Christ is termed the Foundation Stone; “Behold I lay in Zion a foundation stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone,”  Isaiah. 28:16; but the meaning is the same in all the places where these terms, foundation and corner stone, occur; for in laying the foundation of a building, a large stone is generally placed at one of the angles or corners, which serves to form a part of the two walls which meet in that angle.  When, therefore, the apostle says that Jesus Christ is the Chief Corner Stone, it means such a foundation stone as that above mentioned.                    (Clarke)

The costly foundation stones of the temple (I Kings 5:17) typified the same truth (c.f. Jer. 51:26).  The same stone is at once the corner stone and the foundation, and in part rising up at the extremities, so as to admit of the side walls meeting in it, and being united in it as the corner stone.  As the corner stone, it is conspicuous, as was Christ (I Pet. 2:6), and coming in men’s way may be stumbled over, as the Jews did at Christ (Mat. 21:42; I Peter 2:7)                  (Jamieson,  Fausset  &  Brown)  


End of Chapter 2


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