LIFE OF CHRIST
A Harmony of the Gospels
(9) ... And that day was the Sabbath. (10)
The Jews therefore said to him who was cured, "It is the Sabbath; it
is not lawful for you to carry your bed."
(11) He answered them, "He who made me well said
to me, 'Take up your bed and walk.'"
(12) Then they asked him, "Who is the Man who
said to you, 'Take up your bed and walk'?" (13) But the
one who was healed did not know who it was, for Jesus had withdrawn,
a multitude being in that place. (14) Afterward Jesus
found him in the temple, and said to him, "See, you have been made
well. Sin no more, lest a worse thing come upon you."
(15) The man departed and told the Jews that it
was Jesus who had made him well.
(16) Honor the Father and the Son
For this reason the Jews persecuted Jesus, and sought to kill Him,
because He had done these things on the Sabbath. (17)
But Jesus answered them, "My Father has been working until now, and
I have been working."
The man at the pool of Bethesda healed -
The story of creation (Genesis
1:1-2:3), closes with an account of God’s hallowing of the
seventh day, because on it He rested from His creative labors.
There is no express mention of the Sabbath before
16:21-30. In the wilderness of Sin, before the Israelites reached
Mount Sinai, God gave them manna, a double supply being given
on the sixth day of the week, in order that the seventh day might be
kept as a day of rest from labor.
Shortly afterward the Ten Commandments were given by Jehovah at Sinai
(Exodus 20:17; 34:1-5):
||The fourth commandment enjoined Israel to observe
the seventh day as a holy day on which man or beast should do no
work. Everyone, including even the stranger within the
gates, was to desist from all work and to keep the day holy.
||The reason given is that Jehovah rested on the
seventh day and blessed and hallowed it.
||It is clear that God intended the day to be a
blessing to man, both physically and spiritually.
||It was to be kept a holy convocation for the
worship of the Lord (Leviticus 23:3), and was to remind the
Israelites that God had sanctified them (Exodus 31:13).
|| Forty years later, Moses reminded the
Israelites of God’s command to observe the Sabbath and told them
that they were under special obligation to keep it because God had
delivered them from bondage in Egypt (Deuteronomy 5:15).
The sanctity of the Sabbath is shown by:
||The offering upon it of two lambs, while only
one was sacrificed on the other days of the week
||The 12 loaves of showbread were also presented on
that day (Lev. 24:5-9).
||A willful Sabbath-breaker was put to death (Num. 15:32-36).
||The Israelite could not even light a fire in his
home on the Sabbath.
With the development of the synagogue during the Exile (Babylon took
Israel captive), the Sabbath became a day for worship and the study of the
Law, as well as a day of rest.
During the period between Ezra and the Christian era the scribes
formulated innumerable legal restrictions for the conduct of life under
||Two whole treatises in the Talmud are devoted to
the details of Sabbath observance.
||One of these, the “Shabbath,”
enumerates the following 39 principal classes of prohibited actions:
||salting a deer
||preparing its hide
||scraping off its hair
||cutting it up
||making a wrap
||sewing two stitches
||tearing two stitches
|making a knot
||catching a deer
||lighting a fire
|untying a knot
||killing a deer
||beating with a hammer
||skinning a deer
||writing two letters
||blotting out for the purpose of writing
carrying from one property to another
||Each of these chief enactments was further
discussed and elaborated, so that actually there were several
hundred things a conscientious law-abiding Jew could not do on the
||The prohibition about tying a knot was
much too general, and so it became necessary to state what
kinds of knots were prohibited and what kind of knot was ok.
It was accordingly laid down that allowable knots were those
that could be untied with one hand.
|A woman could tie up her undergarment,
and the strings of her cap.
|Those of her girdle, the straps of her
shoes and sandals, of skins of wine and oil, of a pot
|She could tie a pail over the well with
a girdle, but not with a rope.
||The prohibition regarding writing on
the Sabbath was further defined as follows:
|“He who writes two letters with his
right or his left hand, whether of one kind or of two
kinds, as also if they are written with different ink or
are of different languages, is guilty.
He even who should from forgetfulness write two letters
is guilty, whether he has written them with ink or with
paint, red chalk, India rubber, vitriol, or anything
that makes permanent marks.
Also he who writes on two walls which form an angle, or
on the two tablets of his account-book, so that they can
be read together is guilty.
He who writes upon his body is guilty. If any one writes
with dark fluid, with fruit juice, or in the dust on the
road, in sand, or in anything in which writing does not
remain, he is free."
Jesus had things like this in mind when He said, “Woe unto you also, ye
lawyers! For ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye
yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers” (Luke 11:46).
Jesus came into conflict with the religious leaders of the Jews especially
on two points:
||His claim to be the Messiah
||On the matter of Sabbath observance
The Rabbis regarded the Sabbath as an end in itself,
12:1-14; Mark 2:23-3:6; Luke 6:1-11; John 5:1-18).
|whereas Jesus taught that the Sabbath was made for
man’s benefit, and that man’s needs must take precedence over the
law of the Sabbath
Who said...take up your bed and walk?
When the man referred them to “Him that had made him whole” as his
authority, the argument was resistless.
Yet they ingeniously parried the
thrust, asking him, not who had “made him whole” – that would have
condemned themselves and defeated their purpose – but who had bidden “take
up his bed and walk,” in other words, who had dared to order a breach of
Jesus had withdrawn
Some think the words indicate that Jesus withdrew on seeing a multitude
in the place, i.e. raising a tumult, because of the man’s carrying his
bed. Jesus had not yet finished His work in dealing with this man, as
evidenced in the next verse.
Sin no more
||no longer continue in sin
Jesus gave him two
proofs of the perfection of His knowledge:
|He showed him that He knew the
||SECRET OF THE PAST
||“sin no more:”
|thereby intimating that his former sins were the cause of his long
|He showed him that He knew the
||SECRET OF THE FUTURE
||“lest a worse thing come unto thee:”
|showing him that if his iniquity be repeated or
continued, his punishment would be increased.
The man departed and told the Jews
It is difficult to understand the motive of the man in conveying this
information to the Jews, since he knew the hostile spirit in which they
regarded the cure.
He certainly is not ungrateful, for he still speaks of Jesus as having cured him, thus pointing to the power of the miracle, not
to the “sin” of breaking the Sabbath. However, opinion is split as to the
motive of the man:
||Some think that the man did indeed continue in his
sin, and reported Jesus to the Jews out of malice.
||Others say that he may have wished to leave the
responsibility of his illegal act on the Sabbath with One who had
power to answer for it.
||And still others suppose that he acted in obedience
to the instructions of those whom, as a Jew, he felt
bound to obey.
My Father ... and I have been working
That is to say, the rest of God after the creation, which the Sabbath
represents outwardly, and which I am come to realize, is not a state
of inaction, but of activity,
Thus the merely
negative, traditional, observance of the Sabbath is placed in sharp
contrast with the positive, final, fulfillment of spiritual service, for
which it was a preparation.
|and man’s true rest is not a rest
FROM human earthly labor,
|but a rest FOR
divine heavenly labor.
The works of Christ did not violate the Law, while they brought out the
truth to which that tended. By the “work” of the Father we must understand
at once the maintenance of the material creation and the redemption and
restoration of all things.
The question of the action of God upon the Sabbath was much debated in the
The question was:
|“Why does not God,” said a caviler, “keep the
The answer was:
(Ref. Talmud ‘Shem. R.’ 30). Compare Philo, (Ref. ‘Leg. Alleg.’ I.
Page 46 M).
|““May not a man wander through his own house on the
Sabbath? The house of God is the whole realm above and the
whole realm below”
The Nature and Prerogatives of the Son
(18) Therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill Him, because He
not only broke the Sabbath, but also said that God was His Father,
making Himself equal with God. (19) Then Jesus answered and said to
them, "Most assuredly, I say to you, the Son can do nothing of
Himself, but what He sees the Father do; for whatever He does, the
Son also does in like manner. (20) For the Father loves the Son, and
shows Him all things that He Himself does; and He will show Him
greater works than these, that you may marvel. (21) For as the Father
raises the dead and gives life to them, even so the Son gives life
to whom He will. (22) For the Father judges no one, but has committed
all judgment to the Son, (23) that all should honor the Son just as
they honor the Father. He who does not honor the Son does not honor
the Father who sent Him.
This section, the first part of the comprehensive answer of the Lord to
the Jews, deals with His nature and prerogatives in a two-fold division:
||In relation to the Father
||In relation to men
His Nature in relation to the Father
The action and honor of the Son are coincident with the
action and honor of the Father.
It is through the action of the Son that
we see the action of the Father,
and it is by honoring the Son that we
honor the Father.
The exposition of these thoughts is made in a series of statements bound
together by “for” 4 times -
|The Son does nothing self-determined of Himself, which would be impossible
||His action is absolutely coincident in
range with that of the Father
||His Father shows Him His widening counsels, that extend to the
exhibition of greater works than healing
||It is the prerogative of the Son to
give life to whomsoever He will .
|As is shown to
be the case
||All judgment is given to Him, and men
can see that He exerts this power
Hence it follows that men should honor the Son even as they honor the
Father (v. 23).
Whatever He (the Father) does, so does the Son
In other words, “If I have broken the Sabbath, so has God also; for I can
do nothing but what I see Him doing.
He is ever GOVERNING and PRESERVING; I am ever employed in
The Father loves the Son and God loves us because we are His
||Pateer filei ton Huion
||Father loves the Son
To love is expressed by two words in the New Testament: “phileo” and “agapao.”
||Indicates reasoning, discriminating attachment,
founded in the conviction that its object is
Worthy of esteem, or entitled to it on account of benefits bestowed.
||Represents a warmer, more instinctive sentiment,
more closely allied to feeling, and implying
Hence “agapao” is represented by the Latin “diligo,” the fundamental idea
of which is “selection,” the deliberate choice of one out of a number, on
sufficient grounds, as an object of regard.
"Agapao" is the verb, "agape" is the noun.
AFFECTIONATE element of love
||(which is here used in the relation
between the Father and the Son)
INTELLIGENT element of love
To whom He will
Here Jesus points out His sovereign power and independence;
He gives life
according to His own will – not being obliged to supplicate for the power
by which it was done, as the prophets did; His own will being
sufficient in every case. See John 5:24
That all should honor the Son
If then the Son is to be honored, EVEN as the Father is honored,
Son must be God,
as receiving that worship that belongs to God alone.
To worship any creature is idolatry: Christ is to be honored even
as the Father is honored;
|therefore Christ is not a
consequently He must be the CREATOR.
His Nature in relation to men
(24) "Most assuredly, I say to you, he who hears My
word and believes in Him who sent Me has everlasting life, and shall
not come into judgment, but has passed from death into life.
(25) Most assuredly, I say to you, the hour is coming, and now
is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God; and those
who hear will live. (26) For as the Father has life in
Himself, so He has granted the Son to have life in Himself,
(27) and has given Him authority to execute judgment also,
because He is the Son of Man. (28) Do not marvel at
this; for the hour is coming in which all who are in the graves will
hear His voice (29) and come forth -- those who have
done good, to the resurrection of life, and those who have done
evil, to the resurrection of condemnation. (30) I can of
Myself do nothing. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is righteous,
because I do not seek My own will but the will of the Father who
In these verses we pass from the consideration of the
relation of the Son to the Father
to that of the RELATION OF CHRIST TO
The conception of the “greater works” of the Son, the quickening and
the judgment of men is defined more exactly in connection with the Son as
revealed by the Incarnation.
At the same time, though the oblique form is
generally preserved, the work and the mission of Christ are referred to
directly (MY word, Him that sent ME – v. 24).
|In verse 24
||The general ideas of all life and all
judgment in connection with the Son are restated
(as first mentioned in vv. 21,22)
|In verses 25,26
||They are applied to the Present Order
|In verses 28,29
||They are applied to the Future Order
The dead will hear the Voice
Three kinds of death are mentioned in the Scriptures:
||The separation of the body from the soul
||The separation the soul of man from God
||The separation of the body and soul of man from God
Answerable to these three kinds of death, there is a Threefold Life:
||The union of body and soul
||The union of the soul of man with God
||The union of the body and soul of man with God forever
Of the DEAD, Jesus says
“the hour is coming, and now is, when they shall
hear the voice of the Son of God, and LIVE.”
The hour is COMING
when all that sleep in the dust shall awake at
the voice of the Son of man, and come to Judgment.
Again, the hours is COMING
when some of those who have died a
Natural death shall hear the voice of the Son of God and live again here.
It is likely that He had not yet raised any from the dead; and He refers
to those whom He intended to raise.
Lastly, the hour NOW IS
when many, who are dead in trespasses and
sins, shall hear the voice (Word) of the Son of God, believe, and receive
spiritual life through Him.
So not marvel at this
The Father had given Him:
||LIFE IN HIMSELF
||AUTHORITY TO EXECUTE JUDGMENT
In this verse (v. 28) He anticipates an objection, as if they had said: “This cannot be: thou art a man – thou wast born among us.”
“Don’t marvel at this, because I am a man – for greater things than these
shall be done by me:
He who now addresses you, though disguised under the
FORM of a man, shall appear in the great day to be the Judge of the quick
and dead: by His almighty power, He shall raise all the dead; and, by His
unerring wisdom and justice, shall adjudge the wicked to hell, and the
righteous to heaven.”
I can of Myself do nothing
This verse forms a transition from the first section of the discourse (vv.
19-29) to the second section (vv. 31-47).
At the same time it marks the passage from:
||revelation of Christ
||“The Son can do nothing of Himself”
- To -
||revelation of Christ
||( I )
||“I can of mine own self do nothing”
I seek ... the will of the Father
The two conditions of absolute justice, as pointed out in this verse are:
||Absence of all respect of self
(“not mine own will”)
||Devotion to the will of the Father
The Witness to the Son
(31) "If I bear witness of Myself, My witness is
not true. (32) There is another who bears witness of Me,
and I know that the witness which He witnesses of Me is true.
(33) You have sent to John, and he has borne witness to the
truth. (34) Yet I do not receive testimony from man, but
I say these things that you may be saved. (35) He was
the burning and shining lamp, and you were willing for a time to
rejoice in his light. (36) But I have a greater witness
than John's; for the works which the Father has given Me to finish
-- the very works that I do -- bear witness of Me, that the Father
has sent Me. (37) And the Father Himself, who sent Me,
has testified of Me. You have neither heard His voice at any time,
nor seen His form. (38) But you do not have His word
abiding in you, because whom He sent, Him you do not believe.
(39) You search the Scriptures, for in them you think you have
eternal life; and these are they which testify of Me. (40)
But you are not willing to come to Me that you may have life.
(41) "I do not receive honor from men. (42)
But I know you, that you do not have the love of God in you.
(43) I have come in My Father's name, and you do not receive
Me; if another comes in his own name, him you will receive.
(44) How can you believe, who receive honor from one another,
and do not seek the honor that comes from the only God? (45)
Do not think that I shall accuse you to the Father; there is one who
accuses you -- Moses, in whom you trust. (46) For if you
believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me.
(47) But if you do not believe his writings, how will you
believe My words?"
This second main division of the discourse consists, like the first, of
||The witness to the Son is first laid open
||The rejection of the witness
The witness to the Son is first laid open (vv 31-40).
Christ appeals to a witness separate from His own, and yet such that He
Knowledge of its truth. Such witness is partly:
||John the Baptist is the type
||His works lead up to the witness of the
If I bear witness of Myself, My witness is not true
The words anticipate an objection, and define the amount of truth that it
According to legal usage the testimony of a witness was not
received in his own case.
This principle the Jews might urge against
Christ; and He acknowledges the deeper meaning that lay beneath it:
He had just stated twice that He could do nothing of Himself.
You have sent to John
He was not without human testimony of the most respectable kind: “Ye sent
unto John, and he bare witness….”
There are several circumstances in
John’s character that render his testimony unexceptionable:
||The very enemies of Christ, as a
very holy and extraordinary man, consult John.
||John is perfectly free from all
self-interest, having declined making the least advantage by
his own reputation.
||John is sincere, undaunted,
and so averse from all kinds of flattery that he reproves
Herod at the hazard of his liberty and life.
||John was so far from being solicited by
Christ to give his testimony that he had not even seen him when he
first gave it.
I do not receive testimony from man
This connects with verse 36 “…the works which the Father
me….bear witness of me….”
That you may be saved
They believed John to be a prophet – a prophet cannot lie:
testimony that Jesus was the Lamb of God, that takes away the sin of the
therefore, that they might be saved by believing in Him
through the testimony of John, Jesus appealed to John.
You search the Scriptures
“You search” is from the Greek word “ereunate” which is in the indicative
mood, and should be translated
“you do search” or “you are searching.”
Perhaps the Scriptures were never more diligently searched by the Jews than
at that very time:
||Because they were in expectation of the immediate
appearing of the Messiah.
||Because they wished to find out allegories in them
(Ref. See Philo).
||Because they found these Scriptures to contain the
promise of an eternal life.
The Greek verb “ereunao” is a compound verb, “and is,” says Chrysostom, “a
metaphor taken from those who dig deep, and search for metals in the
bowels of the earth. They look for the bed where the metal lies, and break
every clod, and sift and examine the whole, in order to discover the ore.”
|It was in this way that the Jews were in the habit of searching and
“sifting through” the Scriptures, looking for the precious “ore” of
information concerning the coming Messiah.
|It is these very Scriptures
that Jesus said testify of Him,
and there follows the condemnation: YE
WILL NOT COME TO ME!
The rejection of the witness (vv. 41-47)
In this section Jesus, starting from the fact of His hearers'
lack of will to believe, unfolds:
||of their rejection of Himself
||of their rejection of Himself
How can you believe
The grand obstacle to the salvation of the scribes and Pharisees was their
Pride, Vanity, and Self-love.
They lived on each other’s praise.
had acknowledged Jesus as the only teacher, they must have given up the
good opinion of the multitude;
and they chose rather to lose their souls
than to forfeit their reputation among men!
Do not think that I shall accuse you
They had accused Him with a breach of the Sabbath, that accusation He had
proved to be false:
He could, in return, accuse them, and substitute the
accusation, with the breach of the whole law;
but this He did not need to
do, for “Moses, in whom ye trust” is the accuser.
They read his law,
acknowledged they should obey it, and yet break it both in the letter and
in the spirit.
That law, therefore, accused and condemned them.
There was a maxim among the Jews that none could accuse them but Moses.
He wrote about Me
Moses pointed out the Messiah in a multitude of
All these were well-defined, though shadowy, representations of the birth,
life, sufferings, death, and resurrection of the Savior of the world.
Added to this is the fact that Moses had given certain marks to
distinguish the FALSE from the TRUE prophet (Deuteronomy 13:1-3; 18:22)
which, if applied to Jesus, prove that He was not a false, but a true
prophet of the Most High God.
||vv 19, 30
||Can do nothing of Himself
||Does what He sees the Father do
||vv 22, 27
||Has all Judgment
||Has Life in Himself
||His Judgment is Righteous
||Does not bear witness of Himself
4 Witnesses of Jesus
||John the Baptist
At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the Sabbath.
And His disciples were hungry, and began to pluck heads of grain
and to eat. (2 ) And when the Pharisees saw it, they said to
Him, "Look, Your disciples are doing what is not lawful to do on
But He said to them, "Have you not read what David did when he was
hungry, he and those who were with him: (4) how he
entered the house of God and ate the showbread which was not
lawful for him to eat, nor for those who were with him, but only
for the priests? (5) Or have you not read in the law
that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath,
and are blameless?
Yet I say to you that in this place there is one greater than the
temple. (7) But if you had known what this means, 'I
desire mercy and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the
guiltless. (8) For the Son of Man is Lord even of the
it happened that He went through the grainfields on the Sabbath;
and as they went His disciples began to pluck the heads of grain.
(24) And the Pharisees said to Him, "Look, why do they do
what is not lawful on the Sabbath?"
But He said to them, "Have you never read what David did when he
was in need and hungry, he and those with him: (26)
how he went into the house of God in the days of Abiathar the high
priest, and ate the showbread, which is not lawful to eat except
for the priests, and also gave some to those who were with him?"
And He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, and not man
for the Sabbath. (28) Therefore the Son of Man is also
Lord of the Sabbath."
it happened on the second Sabbath after the first that He went
through the grainfields. And His disciples plucked the heads of
grain and ate them, rubbing them in their hands. (2)
And some of the Pharisees said to them, "Why are you doing what is
not lawful to do on the Sabbath?"
But Jesus answering them said, "Have you not even read this, what
David did when he was hungry, he and those who were with him:
(4 ) how he went into the house of God, took and ate the
showbread, and also gave some to those with him, which is not
lawful for any but the priests to eat?"
And He said to them, "The Son of Man is also Lord of the Sabbath."
The Second Sabbath after the
Feast of Unleavened Bread
||7th day of regular week
||7th day of the Feast
Your disciples are doing what is not lawful
On any ordinary day this would have been lawful; but on the
Sabbath it involved, according to the rabbinic statures, at leas two sins.
2 Unlawful acts
||PICKING CORN - identified as "reaping"
by the Pharisees
|It was perfectly lawful for persons when hungry to help themselves to as
much of their neighbor’s growing grain as they wished for food. They were
not allowed to cut any, but must simply gather what was needed with the
The Pharisees did
not complain that the corn was plucked, but that it was gathered on the
When you come into your neighbor's standing grain, you
may pluck the heads with your hand, but you shall not
use a sickle on your neighbor's standing grain.
This ancient freedom of a handful of grain for a hungry traveler was still
in existence in Palestine in 1800AD.
This “corn” was actually wheat. The heads roasted over fire constituted
the “parched corn” of the Old Testament.
||RUBBING THEM IN
THEIR HANDS - identified as "sifting,
grinding, or fanning" by the Pharisees
The Talmud says:
“In case a woman rolls wheat to remove the husks, it is
considered as sifting; if she rubs the heads of wheat, it is regarded as
threshing; if she cleans off the side-adherences, it is sifting out fruit;
if she bruises the ears, it is grinding; if she throws them up in her
hand, it is winnowing.”
Have you not read what David did
No example could be more appropriate than this. The man after God’s own
heart, of whom the Jews ever boasted, when suffering in God’s cause and
straitened for provisions, asked and obtained from the high priest what,
according to the law, it was illegal for any one save the priests to
The Priests profane the Sabbath and are blameless
Referring to doing servile work.
|The double offerings required on the
Sabbath day (Num. 28:9) could not be presented,
and the new-baked
showbread* (Lev. 24:5; 1 Chron. 9:32) could not be prepared and presented
every Sabbath morning, without a good deal of servile work on the
part of the priests;
not to speak of circumcision, which, when the
child’s 8th day happened to fall on a Sabbath, had to be performed
by the priests on that day.
* The showbread was the loaves that were set forth before the
The Jews called them the “loaves of the face,” i.e., “of
the presence of God.”
The bread was made of the finest wheaten flour that had been passed
through eleven sieves.
There were 12 loaves, or cakes, according to the number of tribes,
arranged in two piles of six each.
Each cake was made of about five pints of wheat.
They were anointed in the middle with oil, in the form of a cross.
The renewal of the showbread was the first of the priestly functions on
the commencement of the Sabbath.
The bread that was taken off was deposited on the golden table in
the porch of the sanctuary, and distributed among the outgoing and
incoming courses of priests.
It was eaten during the Sabbath, and in the temple itself, but
only by such priests as were Levitically pure.
When David came running from Saul, this was the bread that David ate.
There are four ways in which positive laws may cease to oblige:
||By the natural law of NECESSITY
||By a particular law that is SUPERIOR
||By the law of CHARITY and MERCY
||By the DISPENSATION and AUTHORITY of
God ordained the Sabbath not only to be a type of that “rest which
remains” for the people of God, but to be also a means of promoting the
welfare of men in general. God prohibited work on the Sabbath day, lest
their masters should oppress servants, that the laboring beasts might have
necessary rest, and that men might have a proper opportunity to attend
upon His ordinances.
Lord of the Sabbath
||supreme in authority
This is the same word used by Jesus in His temptation:
||"It is written again, 'You shall
not tempt the LORD
(Kurios) your God.'
||"Away with you, Satan! For it is
written, 'You shall worship the LORD (Kurios) your God, and
Him only you shall serve.'"
It is the same word used in the
LXX for Yahweh
Our English versions distinguish the 3 main uses of the term thus:
(from International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, Electronic Database
Copyright (c)1996 by Biblesoft)
||represents the Hebrew Yahweh,
Septuagint Kurios, except where 'Adhonay
or 'Adhon is combined with Yahweh ( = "Lord God")
||corresponds to 'Adhonay, 'Adhon,
also Greek Kurios, and Despotes, for which
the American Standard Revised Version has always "Master"
in either the text or the margin.
||("lord") translates all the remaining 8
Hebrew words and the Greek words except Despotes. It is thus seen that
corresponds to all three forms of writing the English term
From Strong's OT:3068
||(the) self-Existent or Eternal; Jehovah, Jewish
national name of God:
Exhaustive Strong's Numbers and Concordance with Expanded Greek-Hebrew
Dictionary. Copyright (c) 1994, Biblesoft and International Bible
Jehovah, the proper name
of the God of the Hebrews, which should always have been retained in that
form, but has almost invariably been translated in the English Bible by
LORD (and printed thus in small capitals), after the example of the
(from McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia, Electronic Database. Copyright
(c) 2000 by Biblesoft)
I desire mercy and not sacrifice
This is quoted from Hosea 6:6.
For I desire mercy and not sacrifice,
And the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings. (NKJV)
Ceremonial duties must give way to moral, and the natural,
royal law of love and self-preservation must take place of ritual
observances. It was used before, Matthew 9:13, in vindication
of mercy to the souls of men; here, of mercy to their bodies
(from Matthew Henry's Commentary on the Whole Bible: New Modern Edition,
Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1991 by
Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)
|(9) Now when He had departed from
there, He went into their synagogue. (10) And behold,
there was a man who had a withered hand.
And they asked Him, saying, "Is it lawful to
heal on the Sabbath?" -- that they might accuse Him.
(11) Then He said to them, "What man is there among you who
has one sheep, and if it falls into a pit on the Sabbath, will not
lay hold of it and lift it out? (12) Of how much more
value then is a man than a sheep? Therefore it is lawful to do
good on the Sabbath."
(13) Then He said to the man,
"Stretch out your hand." And he stretched it out, and it was
restored as whole as the other.
(14) Then the Pharisees went out and plotted
against Him, how they might destroy Him.
He entered the synagogue again, and a man was there who had a
So they watched Him closely, whether He would heal him on the
Sabbath, so that they might accuse Him.
And He said to the man who had the withered hand, "Step
Then He said to them, "Is it lawful
on the Sabbath to do good or to do evil, to save life or to kill?"
But they kept silent.
And when He had looked around at them with anger, being grieved by
the hardness of their hearts, He said to the man, "Stretch
out your hand." And he stretched it out, and his hand was
restored as whole as the other.
the Pharisees went out and immediately plotted with the Herodians
against Him, how they might destroy Him.
it happened on another Sabbath, also, that He entered the
synagogue and taught. And a man was there whose right hand was
So the scribes and Pharisees watched Him closely, whether He would
heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against
But He knew their thoughts, and said to the man who had the
withered hand, "Arise and stand here."
And he arose and stood.
Then Jesus said to them, "I will ask
you one thing: Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do
evil, to save life or to destroy?"
And when He had looked around at them all, He said to the man,
"Stretch out your hand." And he did
so, and his hand was restored as whole as the other.
But they were filled with rage, and discussed with one another
what they might do to Jesus.
The Scribes and Pharisees watched Him closely
There were now come to the length of dogging His steps,
to collect materials for a charge of impiety against Him.
Is it lawful
to heal on the Sabbath?
It was a cannon among the Jews: “We must take a tender care of the goods
of an Israelite.” Hence:
To these rules Jesus seems here very properly to appeal.
||“If a beast fall into a ditch, or
into a pool of water, let (the owner) bring him food in that
place if he can; but, if he cannot, let him bring
clothes and litter, and bear up the beast; whence, ire
he can come up, l et him come up”
||“If a beast or its foal fall into a
ditch on a holy day,” R. Lazar said, “Let him lift up the former to
kill him, and let him not kill him; but let him kill the beast; but
give fodder to the other (foal), lest he die in that place.”
||R. Joshua said, “Let him lift up the former with the intention of
killing him, although he kill him not; let him lift up the other also, although it be not in his mind to kill him.”
(from Adam Clarke's Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by
The miracle only enraged the Pharisees, who immediately
plotted (along with the Herodians, Mark 3:6) to destroy him.
Thus in Galilee, as recently in Jerusalem (John 5:18),
murderous hatred was taking definite form. Men who called healing a
Sabbath violation felt no qualms about plotting murder.
(from The Wycliffe Bible Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright (c)
1962 by Moody Press)
Herodian rulers served as the agents of Rome in various sections of the
Palestinian regions from 37 B.C. to A.D. 92/93. This family dynasty, which
spans more than a century and a quarter, begins with
Herod the Great
and includes members of the larger family down to Herod Agrippa II.
(from Holman Bible Handbook. (c) Copyright 1992 by Holman Bible
Publishers. All rights reserved.)
Jews of influence and standing who
were favorable toward Greek customs and Roman law in New Testament times.
(from Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Copyright (c)1986,
|Although the Herodians should not be equated with
the SADDUCEES, they sided with the Sadducees
in their pro-Roman sympathies
|They opposed the PHARISEES,
who were anti-Roman.
|The Herodians joined forces with the Pharisees,
however, in their opposition to Jesus.
|In Galilee, the Herodians and the Pharisees
plotted against Jesus' life (Mark 3:6).
|At Jerusalem, the Herodians and the Pharisees again
joined forces, seeking to trap Jesus on the issue of paying tribute
to Caesar (Matt 22:16; Mark 12:13).
|Jesus warned his disciples, "Take heed, beware of
the leaven [evil influence] of the Pharisees and...of Herod" (Mark
when He had called His twelve disciples to Him, He gave them power
over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all kinds of
sickness and all kinds of disease.
Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: first, Simon, who
is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee,
and John his brother; (3 ) Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas
and Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus, and
Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; (4) Simon the
Cananite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him.
He went up on the mountain
called to Him those He Himself wanted. And they came to Him.
Then He appointed twelve, that they might be with Him and that He
might send them out to preach, (15) and to have power
to heal sicknesses and to cast out demons:
Simon, to whom He gave the name Peter; (17) James the
son of Zebedee and John the brother of James, to whom He gave the
name Boanerges, that is, "Sons of Thunder"; (18)
Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of
Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Cananite; (19) and
Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him. And they went into a house.
it came to pass in those days that He went out to the mountain to
pray, and continued all night in prayer to God.
And when it was day, He called His disciples to Himself;
them He chose twelve whom He also named apostles:
Simon, whom He also named Peter, and Andrew his brother; James and
John; Philip and Bartholomew; (15) Matthew and Thomas;
James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon called the Zealot; (16)
Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot who also became a
EXCERPTS FROM FARRAR
(Life of Christ by Dr. Frederic W. Farrar Copyright: 1949)
|After one of His days of loving and ceaseless toil, Jesus, as was His
wont, found rest and peace in prayer. “He went out into a mountain” – or, as it should rather be rendered, into
THE mountain – “to pray, and
continued all night in prayer to God.” The scene of this lonely vigil, and
of the Sermon on the Mount, was in all probability the singular elevation
known at this day as the Kurn Hattin, or “Horns of Hattin.” It is a hill
with a summit that closely resembles an oriental saddle with its two high
peaks. On the west it rises very little above the level of a broad and
undulating plain; on the east it sinks precipitately towards a plateau, on
which lies, immediately beneath the cliffs, the village of Hattin; and
from this plateau the traveler descends through a wild and tropic gorge to
the shining levels of the Lake of Galilee. It is the only conspicuous hill
on the western side of the lake, and it is singularly adapted by its
It was at dawn of day, and before the crowd had assembled, that Jesus
summoned into His presence the disciples who had gradually gathered around
Him. Now the hour was come, and out of the wider band of general followers
He made the final and special choice of His twelve Apostles.
|Simon and Andrew
||the sons of Jonas
|James and John
||the sons of Zebedee (or Zabdia)
||son of Alphaeus*
From Cana or Capernaum
|James the Less and Jude
(Lebbaeus, or Thaddaeus)
|sons of Alphaeus*
| * They were probably
(Probably disowned because Matthew Was a
From Kerioth in Judah
If there were any ground for believing the tradition that says that Mary,
the wife of Alphaeus, was a younger sister of the Virgin, then these
brothers would be first cousins of Jesus.
A Comparison of the Four Listings of the Twelve
||James of Alphaeus
||James of Alphaeus
||James of Alphaeus
||James of Alphaeus
||Simon the Zealot
||Simon the Zealot
||Simon the Canaanite
||Simon the Canaanite
||Jude of James
||Jude of James
The Four-Fold Calling
||Wanted the disciples to be with Him
||Called them to Preach
||Called them to Heal
||Called them to cast out devils