LIFE OF CHRIST
A Harmony of the Gospels
LESSON TWENTY ONE
THE PASSION WEEK
THE THIRD & FOURTH DAYS
While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them,
(42) saying, "What do you think
about the Christ? Whose Son is He?"
said to Him, "The Son of David."
(43) He said to them, "How then does
David in the Spirit call Him 'Lord,' saying:
(44) 'The LORD said to my Lord,
"Sit at My right hand,
Till I make Your enemies Your footstool"'?
(45) If David then calls Him 'Lord,' how is He his Son?"
And no one was able to answer Him a word, nor from that day on
did anyone dare question Him anymore.
Then Jesus answered and said, while He taught in the temple, "How
is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the Son of David?
(36) For David himself said by
the Holy Spirit:
'The LORD said to my Lord,
"Sit at My right hand,
Till I make Your enemies Your footstool."'
(37) Therefore David himself calls Him 'Lord'; how is He
then his Son?"
common people heard Him gladly.
And He said to them, "How can they say
that the Christ is the Son of David?
(42) Now David himself said
in the Book of Psalms: 'The LORD said to my Lord,
"Sit at My right hand, (43) Till I make Your
enemies Your footstool."'
(44) Therefore David calls Him 'Lord'; how is He then his
(45) Then, in the hearing of all the
people, He said to His disciples, (46) "Beware of
the scribes, who desire to go around in long robes, love
greetings in the marketplaces, the best seats in the synagogues,
and the best places at feasts, (47) who devour
widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayers. These will
receive greater condemnation."
What do you think about Christ?
Before considering the implication of the passage before us, we
need to define certain terms.
||The word "Christ" is
the transliteration of the Greek word "christos,"
"THE ANOINTED ONE," and this Greek
word is the translation of the Hebrew word Transliterated into the
English "Messiah." In other words:
||"The Anointed One"
||As used here, this is a Hebraism speaking of a
||The translation of the Greek
word "kurios" which in itself means, "Master,
one who has power over Another, owner," and is the
translation in the
LXX of the august title of God in the Hebrew Old
In this quotation from Psalm 110:1, we find that the two times the word
Lord is used, are from two different Hebrew words:
|The LORD said
Jehovah being God in His relation to
the earth -
as carrying out His purposes of blessing in the earth.
|Unto my Lord
Adonai means literally, "my prop, stay,
master, or support."
Both the Scribes and the people believed that the Jewish Messiah would
come from the royal line of David.
David was human, so would the Messiah
Thus, He would be David's son.
But here Jesus reminds His hearers that David calls the Messiah his Lord.
That is, he recognizes Him as Deity.
The God of the Old Testament.
The difficulty Jesus puts before His listeners and at the same time tosses
into the lap of the Pharisees, is as to how, since Messiah is deity, can
He also be human?
This at once brought before them the incarnation.
One of the charges
brought against Him was that He called God His (private, unique) Father,
making Himself equal with God, thus deity.
They chose to ignore the fact
that He was, in the flesh, the son of David; and when, as their Messiah, He had called Himself the Son of God, they had raised their hands in pious
horror, and had taken up stones to stone Him. And here, when the proof was
laid so plainly before them, they still chose not to believe it, and were
unable to answer Him a word.
Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to His disciples, (2)
saying: "The scribes and the Pharisees sit
in Moses' seat. (3) Therefore whatever they tell you
to observe, that observe and do, but do not do according to
their works; for they say, and do not do. (4) For
they bind heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on men's
shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of
their fingers. (5) But all their works they do to be
seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad and enlarge the
borders of their garments. (6) They love the best
places at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues, (7)
greetings in the marketplaces, and to be called by men, 'Rabbi,
Rabbi.' (8) But you, do not be called 'Rabbi'; for
one is your Teacher, the Christ, and you are all brethren.
(9) Do not call anyone on earth your father; for one is
your Father, He who is in heaven. (10) And do not be
called teachers; for one is your Teacher, the Christ. (11)
But he who is greatest among you shall be your servant.
(12) And whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and he
who humbles himself will be exalted.
(13) "But woe to you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut up the kingdom of heaven
against men; for you neither go in yourselves, nor do you allow
those who are entering to go in. (14) Woe to you,
scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows'
houses, and for a pretense make long prayers. Therefore you will
receive greater condemnation.
(15) "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For
you travel land and sea to win one proselyte, and when he is
won, you make him twice as much a son of hell as yourselves.
(16) "Woe to you, blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears
by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of
the temple, he is obliged to perform it.' (17) Fools
and blind! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that
sanctifies the gold? (18) And, 'Whoever swears by
the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is
on it, he is obliged to perform it.' (19) Fools and
blind! For which is greater, the gift or the altar that
sanctifies the gift? (20) Therefore he who swears by
the altar, swears by it and by all things on it. (21)
He who swears by the temple, swears by it and by Him who dwells
in it. (22) And he who swears by heaven, swears by
the throne of God and by Him who sits on it.
(23) "Woe to you, scribes and
Pharisees, hypocrites! For you pay tithe of mint and anise and
cummin, and have neglected the weightier matters of the law:
justice and mercy and faith. These you ought to have done,
without leaving the others undone. (24) Blind
guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow a camel!
(25) "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For
you cleanse the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are
full of extortion and self-indulgence. (26)
Blind Pharisee, first cleanse the inside of the cup and dish,
that the outside of them may be clean also.
(27) "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For
you are like whitewashed tombs which indeed appear beautiful
outwardly, but inside are full of dead men's bones and all
uncleanness. (28) Even so you also outwardly appear
righteous to men, but inside you are full of hypocrisy and
(29) "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites!
Because you build the tombs of the prophets and adorn the
monuments of the righteous, (30) and say, 'If we had
lived in the days of our fathers, we would not have been
partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.'
|(45) Then, in
the hearing of all the people, He said to His disciples,
(46) "Beware of the scribes, who
desire to go around in long robes, love greetings in the
marketplaces, the best seats in the synagogues, and the best
places at feasts, (47) who devour widows' houses,
and for a pretense make long prayers. These will receive greater
Sit in Moses' seat
|They sat there formerly
||by Divine APPOINTMENT
|They sit there now
||by Divine PERMISSION
The phrase "whatever they tell you" is actually in the past tense
"whatsoever they HAVE COMMANDED
Plus the specification of "the seat of MOSES."
Jesus is telling them
that they should obey that pure Law delivered by God to Moses, by Moses to
the Priests, and after generations, by the Scribes and Pharisees, to the
people of that day.
Phylacteries were small slips of parchment or vellum, on which certain portions
of the law were written.
The Jews tied these about their foreheads and
arms, for three different purposes:
||To put them in mind of those precepts which they
should constantly observe.
||To procure them reverence and respect in the sight
of the heathen.
||To act as amulets or charms to drive away evil
The Phylactery became an important appendage to a Pharisee's character,
insomuch that some of them wore them very broad, either that they might
have the more written on them, or that, the characters being larger, they
might be the more visible, and that they might hereby acquire greater
esteem among the common people, as being more than ordinarily religious.
The borders of their garments
For the same reason, they wore the fringes of their garments of an
Moses had commanded (Numbers 15:38,39) the Israelites to
put fringes to the borders of their garments, that, when they looked upon
these distinct threads, they might remember, not only the law in general, but also the very minutia, or smaller parts of all the precepts, rites and
ceremonies, belonging to it.
But the Pharisees went to the extreme of
making these fringes overly conspicuous so as to impress those around
As these hypocrites were destitute of all the life and power of religion
WITHIN, they endeavored to supply its place by phylacteries and fringes
In pointing out the corruptions of these men, Jesus gives the
distinguishing characteristics of all false teachers, whether Jew or
||"They say, and do not"
|They do not live according to the truths they
||"They bind heavy burdens"
|They are severs to others, point out
the narrowest road to heaven, and walk in the broad road
||"They make their phylacteries broad and
enlarge the borders of their garments"
|They affect to appear righteous, and
strict observers of certain rites, etc., while destitute
of the power of godliness
||"They love the best seats at feasts,
and best seats in the synagogues"
|They love worldly entertainments, go to
feasts wherever they are asked, and seek positions of
prominence in the Church.
||"And greetings in the marketplaces"
|They love and seek public respect and high
titles, salutations in the market place and to be called
of men "rabbi" - eminent teacher - though they have no
title to it, either from the excellence or fruit of the
Woe to you!
And then, solemnly and terribly, He uttered His eightfold "Woe unto you,
Scribes and Pharisees, Hypocrites!" Scathing them in utterance after
utterance with a flame which at once revealed and scorched:
||WOE TO YOU, SCRIBES AND
|For the ignorant erudition that closed the
gates of heaven, and the injurious jealousy that would
suffer no others to enter in!
||WOE TO YOU, SCRIBES AND
|For your oppressive hypocrisy and greed!
||WOE TO YOU, SCRIBES AND
|For the proselytizing fanaticisms that did but
produce a more perilous corruption!
||WOE TO YOU, BLIND GUIDES
|For the blind hair-splitting folly that so
confused the sanctity of oaths as to tempt your followers into
(The miserable quibbles by which, in consequence of such
pernicious teaching, the Jews evaded their oaths became
notorious even in the heathen world. Even in the Jew's own
Midrash it is said that there are ten portions of
hypocrisy in the world, of which nine are at Jerusalem.
For instance, in tithing anise (spices) they made it
a question whether it was enough to pay tithes of the
flower only, or also of the seed and stalk. ).
||WOE TO YOU, SCRIBES AND
|For the petty paltry sham - scrupulosity which
paid tithes of pot-herbs, and thought nothing of justice,
mercy, and faith - which strained out animalcule from the
goblet, and swallowed camels into the heart! (They
filtered their water through linen to avoid swallowing any
||WOE TO YOU, SCRIBES AND
|For the external cleanliness of cup and platter
contrasted with the gluttony and drunkenness to which they
||WOE TO YOU, SCRIBES AND
|To the tombs that simulated the sanctity of
temples - to the glistening outward plaster of hypocrisy which
did but render more ghostly by contrast the reeking pollutions
of the sepulcher within!
||WOE TO YOU, SCRIBES AND
|For the mock repentance that condemned their
fathers for the murder of the prophets, and yet reflected the
murderous spirit of those fathers -nay, filled up and exceeded
the measure of their guilt by a yet deadlier and more dreadful
Again, we can hear the Savior say: HE THAT
HATH EARS TO HEAR ... LET HIM HEAR!!!
Jesus sat opposite the treasury and saw how the people put money
into the treasury. And many who were rich put in much.
(42) Then one poor widow came and threw in two mites,
which make a quadrans. (43) So He called His
disciples to Himself and said to them, "Assuredly,
I say to you that this poor widow has put in more than all those
who have given to the treasury; (44) for they all
put in out of their abundance, but she out of her poverty put in
all that she had, her whole livelihood."
|(1) And He
looked up and saw the rich putting their gifts into the
treasury, (2) and He saw also a certain poor widow
putting in two mites. (3) So He said, "Truly
I say to you that this poor widow has put in more than all;
(4) for all these out of their abundance have put in
offerings for God, but she out of her poverty put in all the
livelihood that she had."
Sat opposite the treasury
In the Court of the Women, which covered a space of 200 square feet.
round it ran a colonnade, and within it, against the wall, were the 13
chests or "trumpets" for charitable contributions. Their specific objects
were carefully marked on them.
This colonnade under which these chests were placed, was called the
|Nine were for the receipt of what was legally due
|The other four for strictly voluntary gifts
Here Jesus sat down and looked with a discerning eye:
HOW the crowds cast in
The word for "poor" is "ptochos," used to designate the
rather than the mere peasant.
During the pre-Roman times under the Maccabees (175-140 BC), the Jews for
the first time were allowed to issue money of their own. One such piece
shekel. Another piece was the "lepton," a tiny bronze or copper
coin, which we know as the "mite," because it was the coin of least value
among coins. Even the metal was inferior and deteriorated easily.
The English translators are confusing when they also render "kodrantes"
Farthing is also used in some translations for "assarion" in Matthew
10:29 & Luke 12:6.
"And she threw in two mites which make a farthing (kodrantes)."
The kodrantes had twice the value of a mite.
The lepton ( or "prutah," as it was called in the Hebrew) was the 8th part
of an assarion - and both of her mites combined would equal less than one
of our present day pennies.
There was a canon among the rabbins that no person shall put less than two
prutahs or leptons into the treasury . This poor widow would not give
less, and her poverty prevented her from giving more.
We have only what He allows us to have
He saw how the people put money into the treasury
||He observes ALL MEN
and ALL THINGS
|All our actions are before His eyes; he
equally knows what we do in public and what we do in private.
||He observes the STATE
and SITUATION we are in
|His eye was upon the
abundance of the rich who had
given much; and He was well acquainted with the poverty and desolate state
of the widow who had . given her all, though that was but little in
||He observes all the
|Which lead men to perform their respective
actions; and the different motives which lead them to
perform the same actions: He knows whether they act
through vanity, self-love, interest, ambition,
hypocrisy, or love, charity, zeal for His
||He observes the
|That accompany our actions: whether we act
with care or negligence, with a ready mind or with reluctance.
||He observes the JUDGMENT
|Which we form of that which we do in His
name: whether we esteem ourselves more on account of what we
have done, or whether we humble ourselves because we
have done so little good, and even that little in so
there were certain Greeks among those who came up to worship at
the feast. (21) Then they came to Philip, who was
from Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying, "Sir, we wish
to see Jesus."
(22) Philip came and told Andrew, and in turn Andrew and
Philip told Jesus.
(23) But Jesus answered them, saying, "The
hour has come that the Son of Man should be glorified.
(24) Most assuredly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat
falls into the ground and dies, it remains alone; but if it
dies, it produces much grain. (25) He who loves his
life will lose it, and he who hates his life in this world will
keep it for eternal life. (26) If anyone serves Me,
let him follow Me; and where I am, there My servant will be
also. If anyone serves Me, him My Father will honor.
(27) Now My soul is troubled, and what shall I say?
'Father, save Me from this hour'? But for this purpose I
came to this hour. (28) Father, glorify Your name."
Then a voice came from heaven, saying, "I have both glorified it
and will glorify it again."
(29) Therefore the people who stood by and heard it said
that it had thundered. Others said, "An angel has spoken to
(30) Jesus answered and said, "This
voice did not come because of Me, but for your sake. (31)
Now is the judgment of this world; now the ruler of this world
will be cast out. (32) And I, if I am lifted up from
the earth, will draw all peoples to Myself." (33)
This He said, signifying by what death He would die.
(34) The people answered Him, "We have heard from the law
that the Christ remains forever; and how can You say, 'The Son
of Man must be lifted up'? Who is this Son of Man?"
(35) Then Jesus said to them, "A
little while longer the light is with you. Walk while you have
the light, lest darkness overtake you; he who walks in darkness
does not know where he is going. (36) While you have
the light, believe in the light, that you may become sons of
light." These things Jesus spoke, and departed, and was
hidden from them.
There are three opinions concerning these:
||That they were proselytes who came up to
worship the true God at this feast.
||That they were real Jews, who lived in
Grecian provinces, and spoke the Greek language.
||That they were mere Gentiles, who never
knew the true God; and, hearing of the temple or
the miracles of Jesus, came to offer sacrifices to
Jehovah, and to worship Him according to the manner of
the people of that land.
This was not an infrequent case: many of the
Gentiles, Romans, and others, were in the
habit of sending sacrifices to the temple at Jerusalem. As a matter of
fact, both the Greeks and Romans had a multitude of gods to whom they
sacrificed, and the addition of one more was not unusual.
They came to Philip
Some suppose that these Gentiles were of Phoenicia or Syria, or perhaps
inhabitants of Decapolis.
They may have known Philip, having come from
Bethsaida, and also his being the only disciple with a Greek name, they
may have felt freer to approach him.
Philip was the brother of Nathaniel, and aside from the four listings of
the 12, is mentioned only in the Gospel of John:
||First one called
||Jesus asked him where shall we buy bread?
||Greeks wanting to see Jesus
||Lord, show us the Father
This is not the first time that Philip and Andrew appear in connection:
||They lived in the same town
||When Philip couldn't figure out
how to feed the multitude, Andrew came with the lad and his
||Philip goes to Andrew with the
Greeks that wish to see Jesus
Aside from this and the fact that he was mentioned in the four listings of
the 12 disciples we find:
||He was Peter's brother
||He was a fisherman, and
called by Jesus at the draught of fishes
||He was with Peter, James & John
when they asked Jesus about the end time
Notice how Philip, who seemed to have a hard time making a decision, went
to Andrew, who seemed to know how to get things done; and how Andrew,
although overshadowed somewhat by his brother Peter, takes command of the
situation, and especially here, in verse 22, where, after Philip comes to
Andrew, Andrew is mentioned first as the leader.
Jesus answered them
The structure of this discourse:
THE SON OF MAN
YOUR LIFE TO SAVE IT
||(V s. 27)
||I CAME FOR THIS HOUR
NAME OF THE FATHER
|(37) But although He had
done so many signs before them, they did not believe in Him,
(38) that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be
fulfilled, which he spoke:
"Lord, who has believed our report? And to whom has the
arm of the LORD been revealed?"
(39) Therefore they could not believe, because Isaiah said
(40) "He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts,
lest they should see with their eyes, lest they should
understand with their hearts and turn, so that I should
(41) These things Isaiah said when he saw His glory and
spoke of Him.
(42) Nevertheless even among the rulers many believed in
Him, but because of the Pharisees they did not confess Him, lest
they should be put out of the synagogue; (43) for
they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God.
(44) Then Jesus cried out and said, "He
who believes in Me, believes not in Me but in Him who sent Me.
(45) And he who sees Me sees Him who sent Me. (46)
I have come as a light into the world, that whoever believes in
Me should not abide in darkness. (47) And if anyone
hears My words and does not believe, I do not judge him; for I
did not come to judge the world but to save the world.
(48) He who rejects Me, and does not receive My words, has
that which judges him -- the word that I have spoken will judge
him in the last day. (49) For I have not spoken on
My own authority; but the Father who sent Me gave Me a command,
what I should say and what I should speak. (50) And
I know that His command is everlasting life. Therefore, whatever
I speak, just as the Father has told Me, so I speak."
This entire section is divided into two sections:
||Unbelief and Belief
||Belief and Unbelief
||The Lord's Explanation
And these two sections can each be broken down thus:
UNBELIEF and BELIEF
WOULD NOT BELIEVE
ARM OF THE LORD REVEALED
COULD NOT BELIEVE
THEY SHOULD NOT BELIEVE
SAW HIS GLORY
The spiritual leaders of the Jews refused to believe,
therefore could not believe, much the same a Pharaoh of
Egypt. But many of the common people believed
JESUS PREDICTS THE DESTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE
|(1) Then Jesus went out and departed from
the temple, and His disciples came up to show Him the buildings of
the temple. (2) And Jesus said to them, "Do you not see all these
things? Assuredly, I say to you, not one stone shall be left here
upon another, that shall not be thrown down."
Now as He sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him
privately, saying, "Tell us, when will these things be? And what
will be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the age?"
Then as He went out of the temple, one of His disciples said to
Him, "Teacher, see what manner of stones and what buildings are
(2) And Jesus answered and said to him, "Do you see these great
buildings? Not one stone shall be left upon another, that shall
not be thrown down."
Now as He sat on the Mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter,
James, John, and Andrew asked Him privately, (4) "Tell us, when will
these things be? And what will be the sign when all these things
will be fulfilled?"
Then, as some spoke of the temple, how it was adorned with
beautiful stones and donations, He said, (6) "These things which you
see -- the days will come in which not one stone shall be left
upon another that shall not be thrown down."
So they asked Him, saying, "Teacher, but when will these things
be? And what sign will there be when these things are about to
The temple ... adorned with beautiful stones
Mark mentions ".. .what manner of stones!."
The building refers to
the mass of separate edifices, enclosures, colonnades, halls, and
sanctuaries, composing the Temple enclosure.
The Jews say that the temple was built of white and green-spotted marble.
Josephus says the stones were white and strong: 50 feet long, 24 feet
broad, and 16 feet thick.
Some of the stones weighed over 100 tons.
Peter, James, John, Andrew asked Him privately
It may be that the shadows of His thought gave a strange solemnity to His
attitude and features as He sat there
silent among the silent and saddened band of His few faithful followers.
Not without a touch of awe His nearest ones - Peter, James, John, and
Andrew - came near to Him, and as they saw His eye fixed upon the Temple,
asked Him privately:
|When shall these things be?
||When shall these things be?
||When shall these things be?
|What will be the sign of your coming?
||What will be the sign when all these
things will be fulfilled?
||What sign will there be when these things
are about to take place?
|What will be the sign of the end of
Their "when?" remained for the present unanswered. It was the way of
Jesus, when some ignorant or irrelevant or inadmissible question was put
to Him, to rebuke it not directly, but by passing it over, and by
substituting for its answer some great moral lesson that was connected
with it, and could alone make it valuable. Accordingly, this question of
the Apostles drew from Him the Great Eschatological Discourse, or the
Discourse of the Last Things, of which the four moral keynotes are:
It is evident, from comparing the accounts of all three Synoptists, that
Jesus turned the thoughts of the disciples to two horizons, one near and
one far off, as He suffered them to see one brief glimpse of the landscape
of the future.
The boundary line of either horizon marked the winding up
of an "aeon" (age); each was a great ending; of each it was true that the
then existing "genea" (first in its literal sense of "generation," then its
wider sense of "race"), would not pass away until all had been fulfilled.
And one was the type of the other: the judgment upon Jerusalem, followed
by the establishment of the visible Church on earth, foreshadowed the
judgment of the world, and the establishment of the Kingdom at His second coming.
He expressly warned the inquiring Apostles that, though many of the signs
which He predicted would be followed by the immediate close of one great
epoch in the world's history, on the other hand the great consummation
would not follow at once, nor were they to be alarmed by the troubles and
commotions of the world into any instant or feverish expectancy.
He spoke to them with that varying interchange of thought and speech that
was natural for one whose whole being moved in the sphere of Eternity and
not of Time.
For our purposes here we will show in a limited sense the literal
fulfillment of these things as many of the disciples saw them come to pass
in their life-time, and the Apostle John, who lived until about 100 AD, saw almost all of it happen -
|(4) And Jesus answered
and said to them: "Take heed that no one
deceives you. (5) For many will come in My name,
saying, 'I am the Christ,' and will deceive many.
|(5) And Jesus,
answering them, began to say: "Take heed
that no one deceives you. (6) For many will come in My
name, saying, 'I am He,' and will deceive many.
|(8) And He
said: "Take heed that you not be deceived.
For many will come in My name, saying, 'I am He,' and, 'The time
has drawn near.' Therefore do not go after them.
Josephus says that there were many who, pretending to Divine inspiration,
deceived the people, leading out numbers of them to the desert, pretending
that God would there show them the signs of liberty, meaning redemption
from the Roman power:
||Soon after the Crucifixion, Simon
Magus appeared, and persuaded the people of Samaria that he
was "the great power of God" (Acts 8:9,10);
and boasted among the Jews that he was the "son of God."
||Similar to Simon Magus was also Dositheus, the Samaritan, who pretended
that he was "the Christ" foretold by Moses.
||About 12 years after the death of
Jesus when Caspius Fadus was
procurator of Judea, arose an imposter of the name of Theudas, who said
that he was a "prophet," and persuaded a great multitude to follow him
with their best effects to the river Jordan, which he promised to divine
for their passage; and "saying these things," says Josephus, "he deceived
many." Almost the very words of Jesus.
||An Egyptian false prophet led 30,000
men into the desert, who were almost all cut off by
Felix (see Acts 21:38).
||Under the reign of Nero, while Felix was procurator of Judea, impostors
of this kind were so frequent that some were taken and killed almost every
day (according to Josephus).
RUMORS OF WARS
And you will hear of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not
troubled; for all these things must come to pass, but the end is
But when you hear of wars and rumors of
wars, do not be troubled; for such things must happen, but the end
is not yet.
But when you hear of wars and commotions, do
not be terrified; for these things must come to pass first, but
the end will not come immediately."
As to the political unrest of that time, Vincent notes that there were
threats of war against the Jews by three Roman Emperors:
When Caligula ordered his statue to be set up in the Holy of Holies in the
temple of God, which the Jews having refused, had every reason to expect a
war with the Romans, they were in such consternation on the occasion that
they even neglected to till their land.
But Jesus said: BE NOT TERRIFIED OR TROUBLED!
RISE AGAINST NATION
For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.
For nation will rise against nation, and
kingdom against kingdom.
Then He said to them, "Nation will rise
against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.
This portended the dissensions, insurrections, and mutual slaughter of the
Jews, and those of other nations, who
dwelt in the same cities together -
||At Caesarea, where the Jews and
Syrians contended about the right of the city, which ended
there in the total expulsion of the Jews, above 20,000 of whom
were slain. The whole Jewish nation being exasperated at this,
flew to arms, and burnt and plundered the neighboring cities
and villages of the Syrians, making an immense slaughter of
the people. The Syrians, in return, destroyed not
a less number of the Jews.
||At Scythopolis they murdered upwards of
||At Ascalon they killed 2,500.
||At Plolemais they slew 2,000 and made many prisoners.
||At Alexandria the Jews and heathen
fought, and 50,000 Jews were slain.
||The people of Damascus conspired
against the Jews of that city , and, assaulting them
unarmed, killed 10,000 of them.
This portended the open wars of different tetrachies and
provinces against each other.
||Jews against the Samaritans
||That of the Jews and Galileans against
the Samaritans, for the murder of some Galileans going up to
feast of Jerusalem, while Cumanus was procurator.
||Jews against the Romans
||That of the whole nation of the Jews
against the Romans and Agrippa, and other allies of the Roman
Empire; which began when Gessius Florus was procurator.
||That of the civil was in Italy,
while Otho and Vitellius were
contending for the empire.
Jesus said: THESE THINGS MUST COME
there will be famines, pestilences, and earthquakes in various
places. (8) All these are the beginning of sorrows.
And there will be earthquakes in various
places, and there will be famines and troubles. These are
the beginnings of sorrows.
And there will be great earthquakes in
various places, and famines and pestilences; and there will be
fearful sights and great signs from heaven.
There was a famine foretold by Agabus (Acts 11 :28), which is mentioned by Suetonius, Tacitus, and Eusebius; that came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar, and was so severe at Jerusalem that Josephus says many
died for lack of food.
Vincent notes four famines during the reign of Claudius, one of which took
place in Judea in AD 44, and is mentioned above.
Pestilences are the usual after effects and attendants of famines; as the
scarcity and badness of provisions generally produce epidemic disorders.
||At Creta in the reign of Claudius (AD 46 or 47).
||At Smyma, Miletus, Chios, Samos.
||At Rome, mentioned by Tacitus
||At Laodicea in the reign of Nero, in which the city was overthrown, as
were likewise Hierapolis, and Colosse.
||At Campania, mentioned by Seneca.
||At Rome, in the reign of Galba, mentioned by Suetonius.
||Add to all these, a dreadful one
in Judea, mentioned by Josephus, accompanied by a
dreadful tempest, violent winds, vehement showers,
and continual lightning's and thunders.
Jesus said: THE END IS NOT YET!
OF THE KINGDOM SHALL BE PREACHED
they will deliver you up to tribulation and kill you, and you will
be hated by all nations for My name's sake. (10) And
then many will be offended, will betray one another, and will hate
one another. (11) Then many false prophets will rise
up and deceive many. (12) And because lawlessness will
abound, the love of many will grow cold. (13) But he
who endures to the end shall be saved. (14) And this
gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a
witness to all the nations, and then the end will come.
watch out for yourselves, for they will deliver you up to
councils, and you will be beaten in the synagogues. You will be
brought before rulers and kings for My sake, for a testimony to
them. (10) And the gospel must first be preached to
all the nations. (11) But when they arrest you and
deliver you up, do not worry beforehand, or premeditate what you
will speak. But whatever is given you in that hour, speak that;
for it is not you who speak, but the Holy Spirit. (12)
Now brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child;
and children will rise up against parents and cause them to be put
to death. (13) And you will be hated by all for My
name's sake. But he who endures to the end shall be saved.
But before all these things, they will lay
their hands on you and persecute you, delivering you up to the
synagogues and prisons. You will be brought before kings and
rulers for My name's sake. (13) But it will turn out
for you as an occasion for testimony. (14) Therefore
settle it in your hearts not to meditate beforehand on what you
will answer; (15) for I will give you a mouth and
wisdom which all your adversaries will not be able to contradict
or resist. (16) You will be betrayed even by parents
and brothers, relatives and friends; and they will put some of you
to death. (17) And you will be hated by all for My
name's sake. (18) But not a hair of your head shall be
lost.19 By your patience possess your souls.
Previously to the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gospel was not only
preached in the lesser Asia, and Greece, and
Italy, the greatest theatres of action then in the world; but was likewise
propagated as far:
||as far as
||as far as
||as far as
||Parthia and India
||as far as
||Spain and Britain
In other words, wherever there were people, the Gospel went.
general publication of the Gospel shall have taken place, then a
shall be put to the whole Jewish economy, by the utter destruction of
their city and temple.
Jesus said: THEN SHALL THE END COME!
when you see the abomination of desolation,' spoken of by Daniel
the prophet, standing in the holy place" (whoever reads, let him
understand), (16) "then let those who are in Judea
flee to the mountains. (17) Let him who is on the
housetop not go down to take anything out of his house. (18)
And let him who is in the field not go back to get his clothes.
(19) But woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are
nursing babies in those days! (20) And pray that your
flight may not be in winter or on the Sabbath. (21)
For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been
since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever
shall be. (22) And unless those days were shortened,
no flesh would be saved; but for the elect's sake those days will
(23) "Then if anyone says to you, 'Look, here is the
Christ!' or 'There!' do not believe it. (24) For false
christs and false prophets will rise and show great signs and
wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect. (25)
See, I have told you beforehand.
(26) "Therefore if they say to you, 'Look, He is in the
desert!' do not go out; or 'Look, He is in the inner rooms!' do
not believe it. (27) For as the lightning comes from
the east and flashes to the west, so also will the coming of the
Son of Man be. (28) For wherever the carcass is, there
the eagles will be gathered together.
(29) "Immediately after the tribulation of those days the
sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the
stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be
shaken. (30) Then the sign of the Son of Man will
appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn,
and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven
with power and great glory. (31) And He will send His
angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather
together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to
"So when you see the abomination of desolation,' spoken of by
Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not" (let the reader
understand), "then let those who are in Judea flee to the
mountains. (15) Let him who is on the housetop
not go down into the house, nor enter to take anything out of his
house. (16) And let him who is in the field not go
back to get his clothes. (17) But woe to those who are
pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in those days!
(18) And pray that your flight may not be in winter.
(19) For in those days there will be tribulation, such as
has not been since the beginning of the creation which God created
until this time, nor ever shall be. (20) And unless
the Lord had shortened those days, no flesh would be saved; but
for the elect's sake, whom He chose, He shortened the days.
(21) "Then if anyone says to you, 'Look, here is the
Christ!' or, 'Look, He is there!' do not believe it. (22)
For false christs and false prophets will rise and show signs and
wonders to deceive, if possible, even the elect. (23)
But take heed; see, I have told you all things beforehand.
(24) "But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun
will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; (25)
the stars of heaven will fall, and the powers in the heavens will
be shaken. (26) Then they will see the Son of Man
coming in the clouds with great power and glory. (27)
And then He will send His angels, and gather together His elect
from the four winds, from the farthest part of earth to the
farthest part of heaven.
when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its
desolation is near. (21) Then let those who are in
Judea flee to the mountains, let those who are in the midst of her
depart, and let not those who are in the country enter her.
(22) For these are the days of vengeance, that all things
which are written may be fulfilled. (23) But woe to
those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in
those days! For there will be great distress in the land and wrath
upon this people. (24) And they will fall by the edge
of the sword, and be led away captive into all nations. And
Jerusalem will be trampled by Gentiles until the times of the
Gentiles are fulfilled.
(25) "And there will be signs in the sun, in the moon, and
in the stars; and on the earth distress of nations, with
perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring; (26) men's
hearts failing them from fear and the expectation of those things
which are coming on the earth, for the powers of the heavens will
be shaken. (27) Then they will see the Son of Man
coming in a cloud with power and great glory. (28) Now
when these things begin to happen, look up and lift up your heads,
because your redemption draws near."
||It is spoken of by Daniel. It is standing in the Holy Place.
||He is standing were he ought not
||Her desolation is at hand when Jerusalem is compassed with armies.
Josephus says that the Romans brought their ensigns into the temple, and
placed them over against the eastern
gate, and sacrificed to them there.
Jesus said: THEN LET THEM FLEE!
Let those who are in Judea flee
This counsel was remembered and wisely followed by the Christians
Eusebius and Epiphanius say, that at this juncture, after Cestius Gallus had raised the siege, and Vespasian was approaching with
his army, all who believed in Christ left Jerusalem and fled to Pella, and
other places beyond the river Jordan; and so they all marvelously escaped
the general destruction of their country: not one of those who left at
this time perished.
Jesus had ordered His followers to make their escape from Jerusalem when
they should see it encompassed with armies; but how could this be done? God took care to provide amply for this:
|In the 12th year of Nero, Cestius Gallus, the president of Syria, came
against Jerusalem with a powerful army.
He might (says Josephus) have assaulted and taken the city, and thereby
put an end to the war; but without any just reason, and contrary to the
expectation of all, he raised the siege and departed.
|Vespasian was deputed in the room of Cestius Gallus, and prepared to
besiege Jerusalem. But the news of Nero's death, and soon after that of Galba, and the disturbances that followed, and the civil wars between Otho
and Vitellius, held Vespasian and his son Titus in suspense. Thus the city
was not actually besieged in form till after Vespasian was confirmed in
the empire, and Titus was appointed to command the forces in Judea.
|Titus, having made several assaults without success, resolved to surround
the city with a wall, which was completed in 3 days. It was strengthened
with 13 forts at proper distances, so that all hope of safety was cut off.
Jesus said: LET HIM ... NOT GO BACK!
In the inner rooms
Josephus mentions a false prophet who declared to the people in the city
that God commanded them to go up
into the Temple, and there they should receive the signs of deliverance. A
multitude of men, women, and children, went up accordingly; but, instead
of deliverance, the Romans set the place on fire, and 6,000 perished
miserably in the flames, or in attempting to escape them.
Jesus said: DO NOT BELIEVE IT!
DO NOT BE DECEIVED!
The Roman armies, called so partly from their strength and fierceness, and
partly from the figure of these animals that was always wrought on their
ensigns, or even in brass, placed on the tops of their ensign-staves.
is remarkable that the Roman fury pursued these wretched men wherever
they were found.
nation was indeed a "dead carcass" doomed to be devoured; and the Roman
eagles were the commissioned devourers.
The Five Examples of the End
In the last half of this discourse Jesus gave in answer to their
questions, He used 5 illustrations:
THE FIG TREE
learn this parable from the fig tree: When its branch has already
become tender and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is near.
(33) So you also, when you see all these things, know that
it is near -- at the doors! (34) Assuredly, I
say to you, this generation will by no means pass away till all
these things take place. (35) Heaven and earth will
pass away, but My words will by no means pass away.(36) "But
of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven,
but My Father only.
learn this parable from the fig tree: When its branch has already
become tender, and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is
near. (29) So you also, when you see these things
happening, know that it is near -- at the doors! (30)
Assuredly, I say to you, this generation will by no means pass
away till all these things take place. (31) Heaven and
earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away.
(32) "But of that day
and hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son,
but only the Father.
|(29) Then He
spoke to them a parable: "Look at the fig
tree, and all the trees. (30) When they are already
budding, you see and know for yourselves that summer is now near.
(31) So you also, when you see these things happening, know
that the kingdom of God is near. (32) Assuredly, I say
to you, this generation will by no means pass away till all things
take place. (33) Heaven and earth will pass away, but
My words will by no means pass away.
1. The fig tree
||When its branch has already become
tender and puts forth leaves
||The "Fig Tree" is a type of Israel
||Heaven and earth will bass away
||HIS WORD IS TRUE!
||But of that day and hour no one knows
||NOT EVEN THE ANGELS
||PREPARATION IS NECESSARY!
THE DAYS OF NOAH
|(37) But as the days
of Noah were, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be.
(38) For as in the days before the flood, they were eating
and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that
Noah entered the ark, (39) and did not know until the
flood came and took them all away, so also will the coming of the
Son of Man be.
(33) Take heed, watch
and pray; for you do not know when the time is.
2. The days of Noah
||They ... did not know until the flood came
||HIS WORD IS TRUE!
||So also will the coming of the Son of Man be
||PREPARATION IS NECESSARY!
AND EVIL SERVANTS
then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his master made ruler
over his household, to give them food in due season? (46)
Blessed is that servant whom his master, when he comes, will find
so doing. (47) Assuredly, I say to you that he will
make him ruler over all his goods. (48) But if that
evil servant says in his heart, 'My master is delaying his
coming,' (49) and begins to beat his fellow
servants, and to eat and drink with the drunkards,50 the master of
that servant will come on a day when he is not looking for him and
at an hour that he is not aware of, (51) and will cut
him in two and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites. There
shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
|(34) It is like a man going to a far country, who left his house and gave
authority to his servants, and to each his work, and commanded the
doorkeeper to watch. (35) Watch therefore, for you do not know when the
master of the house is coming -- in the evening, at midnight, at the
crowing of the rooster, or in the morning -- (36) lest, coming suddenly, he
find you sleeping.37 And what I say to you, I say to all: Watch!"
3. The Wise and Evil Servants
||Blessed is that servant whom his master...will find
||OBEDIENCE BRINGS BLESSING!
||That evil servant says in his heart, "My master is
delaying his coming"
The master...will come on a day when he is not looking for him
|PREPARATION IS NECESSARY!
||Will cut him in two and appoint his portion with the
||HIS WORD IS TRUE!
the kingdom of heaven shall be likened to ten virgins who took
their lamps and went out to meet the bridegroom. (2)
Now five of them were wise, and five were foolish. (3)
Those who were foolish took their lamps and took no oil with them,
(4) but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps.
(5) But while the bridegroom was delayed, they all slumbered
(6) "And at midnight a cry was heard: 'Behold, the
bridegroom is coming; go out to meet him!' (7) Then
all those virgins arose and trimmed their lamps. (8)
And the foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for
our lamps are going out.' (9) But the wise answered,
saying, 'No, lest there should not be enough for us and you; but
go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.' (10)
And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who
were ready went in with him to the wedding; and the door was shut.
(11) "Afterward the other virgins came also, saying, 'Lord,
Lord, open to us!' (12) But he answered and said,
'Assuredly, I say to you, I do not know you.'
(13) "Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the
hour in which the Son of Man is coming.
4. The Ten Virgins
||Five were wise
||BECAUSE THEY WERE PREPARED!
||Five were foolish
||BECAUSE THEY WERE NOT PREPARED!
"For the kingdom of heaven is like a man traveling to a far
country, who called his own servants and delivered his goods to
them. (15) And to one he gave five talents, to another
two, and to another one, to each according to his own ability; and
immediately he went on a journey. (16) Then he who had
received the five talents went and traded with them, and made
another five talents. (17) And likewise he who had
received two gained two more also. (18) But he who had
received one went and dug in the ground, and hid his lord's money.
(19) After a long time the lord of those servants came and
settled accounts with them.
(20) "So he who had received five talents came and brought
five other talents, saying, 'Lord, you delivered to me five
talents; look, I have gained five more talents besides them.'
(21) His lord said to him, 'Well done, good and faithful
servant; you were faithful over a few things, I will make you
ruler over many things. Enter into the joy of your lord.'
(22) He also who had received two talents came and said,
'Lord, you delivered to me two talents; look, I have gained two
more talents besides them.' (23) His lord said to
him,' Well done, good and faithful servant; you have been faithful
over a few things, I will make you ruler over many things. Enter
into the joy of your lord.'
(24) "Then he who had received the one talent came and said,
'Lord, I knew you to be a hard man, reaping where you have not
sown, and gathering where you have not scattered seed. (25)
And I was afraid, and went and hid your talent in the ground.
Look, there you have what is yours.'
(26) "But his lord answered and said to him, 'You wicked and
lazy servant, you knew that I reap where I have not sown, and
gather where I have not scattered seed. (27) So you
ought to have deposited my money with the bankers, and at my
coming I would have received back my own with interest. (28)
So take the talent from him, and give it to him who has ten
(29) 'For to everyone who has, more will be given, and he
will have abundance; but from him who does not have, even what he
has will be taken away. (30) And cast the unprofitable
servant into the outer darkness. There will be weeping and
gnashing of teeth.'
5. Faithful and Unfaithful Servants
||Two were wise
||BECAUSE THEY WERE FAITHFUL!
||One was unwise
||BECAUSE HE WAS NOT FAITHFUL!
THE SON OF
MAN WILL JUDGE THE NATIONS
the Son of Man comes in His glory, and all the holy angels with
Him, then He will sit on the throne of His glory. (32)
All the nations will be gathered before Him, and He will separate
them one from another, as a shepherd divides his sheep from the
goats. (33) And He will set the sheep on His right
hand, but the goats on the left. (34) Then the King
will say to those on His right hand, 'Come, you blessed of My
Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation
of the world: (35) for I was hungry and you gave Me
food; I was thirsty and you gave Me drink; I was a stranger and
you took Me in; (36) I was naked and you clothed Me; I
was sick and you visited Me; I was in prison and you came to Me.'
(37) "Then the righteous will answer Him, saying, 'Lord,
when did we see You hungry and feed You, or thirsty and give You
drink? (38) When did we see You a stranger and take
You in, or naked and clothe You? (39) Or when did we
see You sick, or in prison, and come to You?' (40) And
the King will answer and say to them, 'Assuredly, I say to you,
inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these My brethren,
you did it to Me.'
(41) "Then He will also say to those on the left hand,
'Depart from Me, you cursed, into the everlasting fire prepared
for the devil and his angels: (42) for I was hungry
and you gave Me no food; I was thirsty and you gave Me no drink;
(43) I was a stranger and you did not take Me in, naked and
you did not clothe Me, sick and in prison and you did not visit
(44) "Then they also will answer Him, saying, 'Lord, when
did we see You hungry or thirsty or a stranger or naked or sick or
in prison, and did not minister to You?' (45) Then He
will answer them, saying, 'Assuredly, I say to you, inasmuch as
you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it
to Me.' (46) And these will go away into everlasting
punishment, but the righteous into eternal life."
This is in answer to the third question:
"What will be the sign of the end of
All Nations - from the beginning of the world - to the end
of the world
On The Left
On the Right
|Depart from Me
||Blessed of My Father
|Into everlasting fire
||Inherit the kingdom
|Prepared for the devil and his
||Prepared for you
The King Was
On The Left
On the Right
||Gave Me no food
||Gave Me food
||Gave Me no drink
||Gave Me drink
||Took Me not in
||Took Me in
||Did not clothe Me
||Did not visit Me
||Did not visit Me
||Came to Me
|Did not do it for even one of the least
||Did it for even one of the least
"Whenever you did it for one of my brothers, even one of the least
For whoever does the will of My Father in heaven is My brother and sister
and mother." (NKJV)
He who gives to the poor will lack nothing, but he who closes his
eyes to them receives many curses.
He who receives you receives me, and he who receives me receives the one
who sent me. Anyone who receives a prophet because he is a prophet will
receive a prophet's reward, and anyone who receives a righteous man
because he is a righteous man will receive a righteous man's reward. And
if anyone gives even a cup of cold water to one of these little ones
because he is my disciple, I tell you the truth, he will certainly not
lose his reward. (NIV)
God is not unjust; he will not forget your work and the love you have
shown him as you have helped his people and continue to help them.
He who is kind to the poor lends to the LORD, and he
will reward him for what he has done. (NIV)
He who oppresses the poor shows contempt for their Maker, but whoever is
kind to the needy honors God. (NIV)
He who mocks the poor shows contempt for their Maker; whoever gloats over
disaster will not go unpunished. (NIV)
Is it not to share your food with the hungry and to provide the poor
wanderer with shelter-- when you see the naked, to clothe him, and not to
turn away from your own flesh and blood? Then your light will break
forth like the dawn, and your healing will quickly appear; then your
righteousness will go before you, and the glory of the LORD
will be your rear guard. (NIV)
take heed to yourselves, lest your hearts be weighed down with
carousing, drunkenness, and cares of this life, and that Day come
on you unexpectedly. (35) For it will come as a snare
on all those who dwell on the face of the whole earth. (36)
Watch therefore, and pray always that you may be counted worthy to
escape all these things that will come to pass, and to stand
before the Son of Man."
The key phrase of this entire section concerning the answer of Jesus to
the questions of the four disciples is:
WE DO NOT KNOW
THE DAY NOR THE HOUR
Which brings us right back to the three
questions the disciples had asked.
Their "when?" remained for the present unanswered.
And the keynotes:
|Matthew 26:1-5; 14-16
Now it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings,
that He said to His disciples, (2) "You
know that after two days is the Passover, and the Son of Man will
be delivered up to be crucified."
Then the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders of the people
assembled at the palace of the high priest, who was called
Caiaphas, (4) and plotted to take Jesus by trickery
and kill Him. (5) But they said, "Not during the
feast, lest there be an uproar among the people."
Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went to the chief
priests (15) and said, "What are you willing to
give me if I deliver Him to you?" And they counted out to him
thirty pieces of silver. (16) So from that time he
sought opportunity to betray Him.
|Mark 14:1,2, 10, 11
After two days it was the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened
Bread. And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might
take Him by trickery and put Him to death. (2) But
they said, "Not during the feast, lest there be an uproar of the
Then Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went to the chief priests
to betray Him to them. (11) And when they heard it,
they were glad, and promised to give him money. So he sought how
he might conveniently betray Him.
Now the Feast of Unleavened Bread, called the Passover, was
and the chief priests and the teachers of the law were looking for
some way to get rid of Jesus, for they were afraid of the people.
Then Satan entered Judas, called Iscariot, one of the twelve.
(4) And Judas went to the chief priests and the officers of
the temple guard and discussed with them how he might betray
Jesus. (5) They were delighted and agreed to
give him money. (6) He consented, and watched
for an opportunity to hand Jesus over to them when no crowd was
Plotted to take Jesus by trickery
The providence of God frustrated their artful
craftiness; and that event which they wished to conduct with
the greatest privacy and silence was transacted with all possible
celebrity and publicity, amidst the thousands who resorted
to Jerusalem, at this season, for the keeping of the
It was, doubtless, of the very first
importance that the crucifixion of Christ, which was preparatory
to the most essential achievement of Christianity - His resurrection
from the grave - should be exhibited before many witnesses, and in
the most open manner, that infidelity might not attempt, in
future, to invalidate the evidences of the Christian Faith,
by alleging that "these things were done in a corner."
Lest there be an uproar
It was usual for the Jews to punish criminals at the
public feasts and festivals; but in this case they were afraid
of an insurrection. It is likely they feared the Galileans,
as being the countrymen of Jesus, more than the people of
Judas went to the chief priests
The house of Caiaphas was probably in or near the
gates both of the city and of the Temple were usually closed at sundown,
but at the time of this vast yearly gathering it was natural that the
rules should have been a little relaxed for the general convenience; and
when Judas slink away from his brethren on that fatal evening he would
rely on being admitted without difficulty within the city precincts, and
into the presence of the assembled elders.
Some of the priests had probably already seen him before; others would
doubtless recognize him.
If Judas resembled the conception of him which
tradition has handed down - "That furtive mien, that scowling eye, of
hair that red and tufted fell" - they could have hardly failed to notice
the man of Kerioth as one of those who followed Jesus - perhaps to
despise and to detest him, as the only one of the apostles to be from
Thirty pieces of silver
This would probably be the Jewish
Shekel, worth about 64 cents.
them would equal $19,20 - the price of a slave.
With the gloating eyes of that avarice which was
his besetting sin, he might gaze on the silver coins,
(what strange irony of history!)
|Stamped on the one side with an olive branch,
the symbol of peace.
On the other side with a censer, the type of prayer,
and bearing the superscription, "Jerusalem the Holy."
From that time he sought
opportunity to betray Him
"Satan entered into him."
He had not been always bad, but as he did not
master his sin, his sin mastered him, and led him on, as a slave, to his
retribution and ruin. He was now ever anxiously, eagerly, suspiciously
upon the watch for the opportunity to deliver the Lord.
(End of Lesson Twenty One)