FOUNDATIONS OF THE
A B C
D E F G
H I J K L
M N O P
Q R S T
U V W X Y Z
The terms and definitions in this glossary do not
necessarily reflect the views and beliefs of Lakeside Ministries,
but are given to explain terms used or referred to throughout the
various studies on this website.
|A condensed translation.
|The Reader's Digest Bible: Condensed from the
Revised Standard Version (1982)
|The view of the German rationalists and others that
Christ and the apostles accommodated their teaching to the current (but
false) Jewish traditions about authorship, inspiration, and so forth, of
the Old Testament without thereby either asserting or approving those
|A scribal secretary or one employed to take
|Expanded translation, giving a wider translation of each word and thought.
|Literally, the books "spoken against," that is, the
books of the New Testament canon whose inspiration has been
disputed by some, usually meaning Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John,
Jude, and Revelation.
|Literally "without (or against) law."
|It designates the ethical position that there are
no binding moral laws; "all is relative or situational."
|The English transliteration of the Greek word
|This term used as the title for the last book of the Bible
in the English Roman Catholic versions.
|A designation sometimes applied to the pseudepigraphal books because their contents are largely "revelations"
|It is also used to describe the canonical books of Ezekiel, Daniel, Zechariah, and Revelation.
|The Protestant designation for the fourteen or
fifteen books of doubtful authenticity and authority that are not
found in the Hebrew Old Testament but are in manuscripts of the
|Most of these books were declared canonical by the Roman
Catholic church at the Council of Trent in 1546A.D., and
they call these books deuterocanonical (second canon).
|Martin Luther said, "Apocrypha--that is, books
which are not regarded as equal to the holy Scriptures, and yet are
profitable and good to read." (King James Version Defended page 98.)
|These books are:
||Wisdom of Solomon
||Bel and the Dragon
||Prayer of Manasseh
||Letter of Jeremiah
|Additions to Esther
||Prayer of Azariah
|Although not included in the Holy Scriptures, this
does not mean these books are historically inaccurate or contain
|In the narrow sense,
apostolicity refers to that which
comes directly from an apostle;
but in a broader sense, it may refer to teaching produced
under apostolic authority,
whether by apostolic authorship or by apostolic teaching through a
|Practicing strict self-denial as a measure of
personal and especially spiritual discipline.
|Austere in appearance, manner, or attitude
is a word describing the truthfulness of the
contents of a given text or composition;
it is sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably with
Autographs - or - Autographa
Autographs are sometimes inaccurately defined as the original
writings from the hand of an apostle or prophet, these
are, more precisely, writings produced under the
authority of an apostle or prophet, whether or not
through a scribe or in several editions.
|The word Bible can rightfully claim to be the great-grandson of the Greek
word Biblos, which was the name given to the outer coat of a papyrus reed
in Egypt during the eleventh century B.C.
The plural form of Biblos is
biblia, and by the second century A.D. Christians were using this latter
word to describe their writings.
|Biblia gave birth to the Latin word of the same spelling,
biblia, which was in turn transliterated into the Old
French biblia by the same process.
|The modem English word Bible is derived from
the Old French, with the Anglicized ending.
|The word is thus the product of four stages
of transliteration and transmission.
|The term Bible is often used synonymously
with "Scripture" or "Word of God"
||(after the Phoenician city Byblos that
|The character of a biblical book that marks it as a
part of the canon of Scripture, namely, the
divine inspiration and authority that designate a book as part
of the canon, the rule or standard of faith and practice.
|A manuscript in book form, that is, with sheets bound together rather than
in the form of a roll or scroll.
|Literally "finishing touch."
|A literary device used at the end of a book
sometimes connecting it with a following book.
|The theological position that affirms the basic
doctrines of Christianity such as the virgin birth, the deity
of Christ, the substitutionary
atonement, the resurrection of Christ, and the divine inspiration of the
|In this sense, conservative is used interchangeably with
fundamental, evangelical and orthodox, and it is to be contrasted with
liberal, or modernist.
|An agreement or compact between two
living parties, such as the Mosaic Covenant.
|As applied to the Scriptures, it is their right to be believed
and received as the truth of God.
|An edited text of the Bible that attempts,
by critical comparison and evaluation of all of the manuscript
evidence, to approximate most closely what was in the
|The Westcott and Hort text of the Greek New
Testament is an example of a critical text.
|Usually the equivalent of minuscule or
small-lettered manuscripts written in a "running hand,"
|It is akin to handwriting rather than printing.
|Literally, "ten words," that is,
the Ten Commandments as recorded in Exodus 20 or Deuteronomy
|The belief that there is a Creator who operates in
His creation only through natural law that He has ordained from the
beginning and who never intervenes in the world by miracles;
hence, it is anti super naturalistic in outlook.
|A modern critical method of biblical
interpretation espoused by Rudolph Bultmann and others that attempts to divest biblical stories of the religious myth of their day in order to arrive at their "real message," and to see through the historical to their supra-historical truth; hence, this view does not accept the historicity and inerrancy of the
|A term used by conservative theologians to describe
the harmful result of certain liberal or negative forms of
higher criticism of the Bible.
|Dispersion, from diaspeirein to scatter.
The settling of Jewish scattered
colonies outside Palestine
after the Babylonian exile.
|The Greek is: oikonomia (oikos, "a
house," and nomos, "a law") = the management of a household
or of household affairs. In this case it would be the stewardship of
man over God's earthly creation.
|Seven dispensations are commonly identified by most
||From Creation to the Fall of man
and God's sending them out of the Garden of Eden
||From the expulsion from the Garden
of Eden to Flood
||From the covenant with Noah after
the flood to the time of Abraham
||From Abraham's call to Moses
||From the giving of the Law to Moses
to the death of Jesus Christ
||From the death and resurrection of
Christ to the rapture of the church
||From the establishment of God's
kingdom on earth to the end of the thousand year reign of Christ
over the nations
|An early Christian heresy which affirmed the deity
but denied the humanity of Christ.
|A view composed of various teachings drawn from
|Selecting what appears to be best in various
doctrines, methods, or styles.
|The omission of one or more words that are
obviously understood but that must be supplied to make a
construction grammatically complete.
|A sudden leap from one topic to another.
|Religious existentialism holds, among other
things, that revelation is not propositional but that it is
|That is, it is not found in objective
statements but only in a subjective and personal encounter with God.
Fathers of the
|The writing theologians and teachers of the
first seven or eight centuries of the Christian church,
usually the great bishops and leaders noted for sound judgment and
holy living, whose writings preserve the doctrines,
history, and traditions of the early church.
|From the Latin fides ("faith")
|It designates the view that faith alone,
without evidence or reason, is a sufficient ground or support
for holding a view.
|A book made of full-sized leaves or sheets.
|Each sheet folded once to form four pages (12
by 19 inches, scale of American Library Association), or
a book of the largest size.
|Designation for the first subdivision of the
second section of the present Hebrew Scriptures known as the
Prophets, including Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2
|The character of a composition that guarantees its
|Genuineness is sometimes popularly used
interchangeably with authenticity, which concerns the
truthfulness of the contents of a composition or text.
|A movement among eighteenth and nineteenth century
German biblical scholars that, while attempting to defend
Christianity on rational grounds, actually undercut the
authority and inerrancy of the Scriptures, and subsequently
the other fundamental doctrines arising there from.
|Destructive (negative) higher criticism and the
"accommodation theory" are two examples of the teachings of
|From the Greek gnosis ("knowledge"),
it denotes the religious movement prominent in the second century.
A.D. that believed it had special knowledge.
|Beliefs included the denial of Christ's deity
and the affirmation that matter is evil, which encouraged
|The Greek word for "writings" (Scriptures),
which are inspired of God, according to 2 Timothy 3:16.
|The English equivalent of the Greek word for
"holy writings," which designates the same section of
the Old Testament canon as does the Hebrew Kethuvi'im.
|In the Middle Ages this term was applied to
writings about the saints and saints' lives. This latter sense
is not in view throughout the present work.
|A style of Greek civilization associated with the
spread of Greek language and culture to the Mediterranean world
after the conquests of Alexander the Great.
|On the advice of Aristotle, his teacher, Alexander
sought to instill a love for the Greek way of life within those whom
he conquered. His generals adopted the same pattern of operation.
Conflict soon arose between the Jews and his successors in Israel,
the SELEUCIDS. The history of this conflict is
detailed in the books of the MACCABEES.
|In the Hellenistic period, Greek became the common
language throughout the ancient world. So many Jews spoke Greek that
an authorized Greek translation of the Old Testament, the
SEPTUAGINT was made at ALEXANDRIA, Egypt. In the Bible,
the word "Hellenists" (NKJV)
or "Grecians" (KJV)
in Acts 6:1 and 9:29 refers to Greek-speaking Jews.
(from Nelson's Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Copyright © 1986,
Thomas Nelson Publishers)
|A manuscript with six parallel columns arranged for
comparative and critical study, such as
Origen's Hexapla that contained various Hebrew
and Greek translations of the Old Testament.
|The first six books of the Old Testament,
namely, the Pentateuch plus Joshua.
|The scholarly discipline dealing with the
genuineness of the text including questions of authorship,
date of composition, destination, and so forth.
|It is often called "historical criticism,"
but in its more radical expressions it has been labeled
"destructive criticism" or "negative criticism."
|Literally, "to speak the same,"
that is, those books of the New Testament that have been
universally acclaimed as canonical, or all of the
twenty-seven books of the New Testament except the
|The process by which God enlightens a person's mind
so that he understands the significance of the objective
disclosure of God (revelation) for his life
|Meaning "without error" and referring
to the complete accuracy of Scripture, including the
historical and scientific parts.
|Literally, "not fallible or breakable."
|It refers to the divine character of
Scripture that necessitates its truthfulness (cf. John 10:35).
|Meaning literally "God-breathed" (from
2 Tim. 3:16).
|Referring to the divinely authoritative writings of
Holy Scripture, which God produced without destroying the
individual styles of the writers.
|The English equivalent for this Hebrew word is
|The title of the third division of the Hebrew Old
|The common trade Greek language, the "language of
the market place" of the first century Western world.
|The New Testament was originally written in Koine
|The second subdivision of the Hebrew Prophets,
including all of the prophets after 2 Kings, which is
the second division of the present Hebrew Bible.
|Early church service books containing selected
Scripture readings usually from the gospels and sometimes from Acts
or the epistles.
|The theological position that denies many of
the fundamental doctrines of historic Christianity, such as
the deity of Christ, the inspiration of the Bible.
|It denies that the Bible is the Word of God but
believes that it merely contains the Word of God.
|A word-for-word translation from one language to
another as opposed to an idiomatic, thought-for-thought translation
|The Interlinear Hebrew/Greek English Bible (1979)
The Literal Translation Of The Hebrew Old Testament (1959)
Concordant Greek (1955)
The Interlinear Greek New Testament by George Ricker Berry (1961)
|The scholarly discipline dealing with the
authenticity of the biblical text and that seeks to discover
the original words of the autographs.
|It is also called "textual criticism."
|Symbol for the
Septuagint, meaning "The
Seventy," which is the Greek translation of the Old
Testament alleged to have been translated by some seventy scribes at
Alexandria, Egypt, at about 250-150 B.C.
|Also called "Uncial."
|Literally, "inch high," referring to a
manuscript written in formally printed large letters similar in size
to capital letters.
|A handwritten literary composition rather than a
|Jewish textual scribes of the fifth through ninth
centuries A.D. who standardized the Hebrew text of the Old
Testament, which is therefore called the
|The transliteration into English of the Hebrew word
|It is used to designate the Five Rolls, the
group of books from the third division of the Hebrew canon
(the Writings) that were read at the festal ceremonies.
|A manuscript written in rather small letters,
commonly in a cursive or free-flowing hand.
|The transliteration into English of the Hebrew word
|It designates the second division of the Hebrew Old
Testament (the Prophets).
|A modern theological view that, while
reacting against liberalism, never quite returned to the
orthodox position on the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures.
|It asserts that the Bible becomes the Word of God
when it speaks to an individual personally.
|It asserts that in itself the Bible is only a
witness to the Word of God (Who is Christ).
|The pantheistic philosophy stemming from the
third-century mystic Plotinus who studied with
Origen under Ammonius
|Broken pieces of pottery used as writing
material by poorer classes who could not afford parchment or
|A manuscript that has been "rubbed again,"
erased for reuse as a rescriptus.
|From Greek, pandektos ("all
|A manuscript containing the entire Bible,
both Old and New Testaments.
|(papyri) A kind of ancient paper or
writing material made from the pith of a plant by that name,
which grew in the marshes of Egypt.
|Thought-for-thought translation. Results in a much looser rendition.
|Literally "placing side by side" or the
device of placing clauses of phrases one after another
without subordinating connectives.
|Literally, a fivefold book.
|Used specifically with reference to the first five
books of the Old Testament.
|A religious movement in late seventeenth-century
Germany stressing the subjective and experimental personal aspects
|This movement often tended to neglect the
theological and technical side of Christian truth, and
consequently opened the door for skepticism, rationalism,
and other such movements.
|The doctrine that the inspiration and divine
authority of the Bible are full and complete, meaning
that they extend (equally) to every part of the Scriptures.
|Literally, "many tongues."
|A multiple-columned edition of a particular
writing or composition, usually containing the original and
various other versions or translations in the several columns for
means of comparison.
|The view that the divine disclosure of
doctrine did not come in a single deposit, but that at divers
times in its historical development later revelation added to former
|A word meaning "false writings" and
used to designate those spurious and unauthentic books of the late
centuries B.C. and early centuries A.D.
|These books contain religious folklore and have
never been considered canonical by the Christian church.
|Literally, "one quarter," referring to
manuscripts or books having four leaves (eight pages) to the sheet,
that is 9 1/2 by 12 inches (scale of American Library Association).
|The systematic and critical revision of a text or
|A manuscript that has been rewritten over lettering
been erased; it is a palimpsest that has been rescripted.
|An objective disclosure of truth by God,
and used in contrast to interpretation, which is the
subjective understanding of a revelation.
|A text or composition that has been reviewed and
has under-gone some necessary changes or corrections.
|"Holy, holy, holy," opening of a hymn sung by
the angels in
|In the 15th century: an ancient Christian
hymn of adoration sung or said immediately before the prayer of
consecration in traditional liturgies.
|Literally, "The Seventy."
|The Greek translation of the Old Testament
allegedly done by some seventy scribes in Alexandria, Egypt,
at about 250-150 B.C. and symbolized by
|They were Jewish scholars who worked between the
fifth and third centuries B.C. to standardize and preserve the
|An acronym for "Torah,
Nevi'im, and Kethuvi'im," used as the title
for the Jewish Publication Society translation of the Old Testament, also
called the New Jewish Version (NJV).
|Literally "repeaters" or
|These Jewish scribes succeeded the
labored between the first century A.D. to around A.D. 200.
|Their work can be found in the
interpretation"), which was later divided into
Mishnah ("repetitions") and
Gemara ("the matter to be learned").
|Next to the fact that the Bible is a Biblos, or one book, the most obvious
fact is that it is divided into two parts called Testaments. The Hebrew
word for testament is berith, meaning "covenant, or compact, or
arrangement between two parties." The Greek word diatheke is often
translated "testament" in the King James Version.
|This is a poor translation and is one of the corrections made in newer
versions of the Bible that regularly translate it as "covenant." The Greek
version of the Old Testament, the Septuagint (LXX), translates the Hebrew
word berith as diatheke, thus showing the derivation of the Greek term. The Old Testament was first called the
Covenant in Moses' day (Exodus. 24:8).
Later, Jeremiah announced that God would make a "new covenant" with His
people (Jeremiah. 31:31-34), which Jesus claimed to do at the Last Supper
(Matthew 26:28, cf. 1 Corinthians 11:23-25; Hebrews. 8:6-8).
|Hence, it is for Christians that the former part of the Bible is called
the Old Covenant (Testament), and the latter is called the New Covenant. The relationship between the two covenants is well summarized by the
famous statement of St. Augustine:
|"the Old Testament revealed in the
New, the New veiled in the Old."
Or, as another has put it,
|"The New is in the Old contained, and the Old
is in the New explained."
Believer, Christ is the theme of both covenants (cf. Hebrews. 10:7; Luke
24:27, 44; John 5:39).
|Thirteen of the thirty-three times diatheke occurs in the New Testament it
is translated "testament" in the King James Version (Englishman's Greek
Concordance, p. 144). Technically' however, the English term "testament"
requires action on the part of one person only (the one making the
testament or will).
The heir's agreement is not necessary to the
disposition of the testament. That is not true of a covenant.
|The Personal Name of God in the Old Testament
consisting of four letters:
|The Greek text presumed to underlie the Authorized
Version of 1611 (King James Version).
|This text is basically that of Erasmus and
Stephen's third edition (1550).
|It was named the Received Text in the introduction
of the Elzevir Brothers' second edition (1633).
|It is based on few early manuscripts and is opposed
by Westcott, Hort, and all those who accept a "Critical
|The English equivalent of this Greek word is
"inspiration," which literally
(see 2 Tim. 3:16).
|The English transliteration of the Hebrew word for
|It refers to the first five books of the Old
|The rendering of a composition or piece of
literature from any one language to another, as contrasted
with a version.
|A letter-for-letter transposition of a word from
one language to another.
- Christos (Christ)
- the translation of both would be "anointing",
|- angelos (angel)
- the translation is "messenger"
|The process by which the biblical manuscripts have
been copied and recopied down through the ages.
|It deals with the history of the text from
the autographs to the
present printed Hebrew and Greek Testaments.
|(or majuscule) -
Literally, "inch high," referring to a manuscript written in
formally printed large letters similar in size to capital letters.
|A fine quality
in ancient times, usually pre-pared from calf or antelope
|The doctrine holding that the very words of
the Bible are vested with divine authority and not merely the
thoughts or ideas.
|A literary composition that has been translated
from its original language into another tongue.
|New International Version (1973, 1978)
New American Bible (1970, 1983)
|Literally, "common" or "usual."
|Generally the designation for the
translation of the Bible made by Jerome in the fourth
|Literally, "pairs" of
textual scholars who worked during the second and first centuries
|They were succeeded by the