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WHAT IS SIN?

INTRODUCTION
 




Sin is Action and Attitude in opposition to God and his purposes.
Sin is the violation of God’s will and righteousness. It is disloyalty, disobedience, the breaching of a harmonious and just relationship with God, others, self and nature.
Sin is first against God and not against a set of social taboos.
(from Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch, © 2003 by InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA. Published by InterVarsity Press.)

There are more than thirty words in the New Testament that convey some notion of sin, and Paul employs at least twenty-four of them. The evil that people do is a barrier to fellowship with God and that unless some way is found of dealing with the problem of sin, all people as sinners face a time of moral accountability (Romans 2:16; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 2 Corinthians 5:10).

Romans 2:16
This will take place on the day when God will judge men's secrets through Jesus Christ, as my gospel declares.
(NIV)

1 Corinthians 4:5
Therefore judge nothing before the appointed time; wait till the Lord comes. He will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and will expose the motives of men's hearts. At that time each will receive his praise from God.
(NIV)

2 Corinthians 5:10
For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive what is due him for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad.
(NIV)


Paul presents a massive treatment of the problem of sin in his letter to the Romans, where he uses
"Sin" (hamartia) forty-eight times
"Trespass" (paraptśma) nine times
"To sin" (hamartanś) seven times
"Sinner" (hamartślos) four times
"Bad" (kakos) fifteen times
"Unrighteousness" (adikia) seven times
In addition Paul uses a number of other words with similar meanings which individually do not occur frequently, but which when taken together add up to a significant part of Romans. Paul does not define sin, but clearly he does not see it as primarily an offense against other people; for him sin is primarily an offense against God (cf. Romans 8:7; 1 Corinthians 8:12). The disruption of a right relationship with God has its results in hindering right relationships with people, but it is the offense against God that is primary.
(from Dictionary of Paul and His Letters © 1993 by InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA.)
Romans 8:8
Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.
(NKJV)
1 Corinthians 8:9-13
Be careful, however, that the exercise of your freedom does not become a stumbling block to the weak. For if anyone with a weak conscience sees you who have this knowledge eating in an idol's temple, won't he be emboldened to eat what has been sacrificed to idols? So this weak brother, for whom Christ died, is destroyed by your knowledge. When you sin against your brothers in this way and wound their weak conscience, you sin against Christ. Therefore, if what I eat causes my brother to fall into sin, I will never eat meat again, so that I will not cause him to fall.
(NIV)

We offer here the most frequently used words that indicate Sin.

ABOMINATION

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Abomination - Old Testament

There are various words translated Abominable, Abominably, Abomination, or Abominations in the Old Testament. We will point out the three most used Hebrew words. They are also translated in various versions and translations as Disgusting, Detestable, Stinking, Defile, Hateful, and Evil.

(OT:8251shiqquwts (shik-koots') Disgusting, i.e. filthy; especially idolatrous

It is always used in connection with idolatrous practices, either referring to the idols themselves as being abhorrent and detestable in God's sight, or to something associated with the idolatrous ritual.
(from Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Copyright © 1980 by The Moody Bible Institute of Chicago.)

Jeremiah 16:18
And first I will repay double for their iniquity and their sin, because they have defiled My land; they have filled My inheritance with the carcasses of their detestable and abominable idols.
(NKJV)

 

(OT:8263)  sheqets (sheh'-kets) Filth, i.e. (figuratively and specifically) an idolatrous object; detestable

This is used primarily in Leviticus chapter 11, referring to unclean food.

Leviticus 11:11
They shall be an abomination to you; you shall not eat their flesh, but you shall regard their carcasses as an abomination.
(NKJV)




(OT:8441)  tow`ebah (to-ay-baw') Something disgusting (morally), i.e. (as noun) an abhorrence; especially idolatry

The most common word for abominable, occurring 117 times to refer to worship, cultural and moral practices which offend such as:
Leviticus 18:22 Homosexuality

Leviticus 18:22
You shall not lie with a male as with a woman. It is an abomination.
(NKJV)

Genesis 43:22 Egyptians eating with foreigners

Genesis 43:32
So they set him a place by himself, and them by themselves, and the Egyptians who ate with him by themselves; because the Egyptians could not eat food with the Hebrews, for that is an abomination to the Egyptians.
(NKJV)

Ezekiel 6:11 Idolatry

Ezekiel 6:11
Thus says the LORD God: "Pound your fists and stamp your feet, and say, 'Alas, for all the evil abominations of the house of Israel! For they shall fall by the sword, by famine, and by pestilence.'"
(NKJV)

(from Holman Bible Dictionary. Copyright © 1991 by Holman Bible Publishers.)



Abomination - New Testament

There are four Greek words used in the New Testament.

(NT:111)  athemitos  (ath-em'-ee-tos) Illegal; illicit, criminal, unlawful

Acts 10:28
Then he said to them, "You know how unlawful it is for a Jewish man to keep company with or go to one of another nation. But God has shown me that I should not call any man common or unclean."
(NKJV)

Peter is shown that it is right to do what was previously "unlawful" for him as a Jew, i.e., associate with Gentiles.
(from Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, abridged edition, Copyright © 1985 by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.)

1 Peter 4:3
For we have spent enough of our past lifetime in doing the will of the Gentiles — when we walked in lewdness, lusts, drunkenness, revelries, drinking parties, and abominable idolatries.
(NKJV)




(NT:947)  bdeluktos  (bdel-ook-tos') Detestable, idolatrous, abhorrent

The basic stem means "to cause abhorrence" and the group is often used for an improper or shameless attitude.
bdelýssomai in the middle passive with the accusative means "to abhor" or "to censure" and is common in the LXX:
In the active it means "to make abhorrent"
In the perfect passive "to be abhorrent."
The biblical point is that God finds some things abominable, e.g., idols or wickedness.
(from Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, abridged edition, Copyright © 1985 by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.)

Titus 1:16
They profess to know God, but in works they deny Him, being abominable, disobedient, and disqualified for every good work.
(NKJV)




(NT:948)  bdelusso  (bdel-oos'-so) To stink; to be disgusted, i.e. (by implication) detest (especially of idolatry); vile

To strongly detest something on the basis that it is abominable - 'to abhor.
(from Greek-English Lexicon Based on Semantic Domain. Copyright © 1988 United Bible Societies, New York.)
Romans 2:22
You who abhor idols, do you rob temples?
(NKJV)
Revelation 21:8
But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death.
(NKJV)
In Revelation 21:8, the NIV translates it vile.



(NT:946)  bdelugma (bdel'-oog-mah) A foul thing, detestable

The basic stem means "to cause abhorrence" and the group is often used for an improper or shameless attitude.
(from Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, abridged edition, Copyright © 1985 by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.)

Matthew 24:15-16
"Therefore when you see the 'abomination of desolation,' spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place" (whoever reads, let him understand), "then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.
(NKJV)

Luke 16:15
And He said to them, "You are those who justify yourselves before men, but God knows your hearts. For what is highly esteemed among men is an abomination in the sight of God.
(NKJV)

Revelation 21:27
But there shall by no means enter it anything that defiles, or causes an abomination or a lie, but only those who are written in the Lamb's Book of Life.
(NKJV)




INIQUITY

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Iniquity - Old Testament

(OT:205)  'aven  (aw-ven') Trouble. vanity, wickedness; specifically an idol; evil; mischief
Those who are involved in the ways of darkness are the "workers of iniquity," the doers of evil or the creators of "misfortune" and disaster.
In a deeper sense characterizes the way of life of those who are without God.
(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright © 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers.)

Isaiah 32:6
For the foolish person will speak foolishness, and his heart will work iniquity: to practice ungodliness, to utter error against the LORD,
(NKJV)

Micah 2:1
Woe to those who devise iniquity, and work out evil on their beds! At morning light they practice it,
(NKJV)

 

(OT:5771)  `avon (aw-vone'); or `avown Perversity, i.e. (moral) evil
This noun appears 231 times in the Old Testament. The most basic meaning of `awon is "iniquity." The word signifies an offense, intentional or not, against God's law.
(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright © 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers.)

Ezekiel 3:19
Yet, if you warn the wicked, and he does not turn from his wickedness, nor from his wicked way, he shall die in his iniquity; but you have delivered your soul.
(NKJV)

Jeremiah 16:17-18
For My eyes are on all their ways; they are not hidden from My face, nor is their iniquity hidden from My eyes. And first I will repay double for their iniquity and their sin, because they have defiled My land; they have filled My inheritance with the carcasses of their detestable and abominable idols.
(NKJV)

Isaiah 53:5-6
But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement for our peace was upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned, every one, to his own way; and the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all.
(NKJV)




Iniquity - New Testament

(NT:93)  adikia (ad-ee-kee'-ah) (Legal) injustice;  unrighteousness, wrong
1. The meaning is "unrighteous action," then "unjust act."
2. Further definition is given by the element of lawlessness, the opposing to righteousness, and the opposing to truth or truthfulness.
3. Distinction is made from what is impious, but there is an association, and in the OT  adikía is primarily "sin against God," though it may be "dishonesty," "injustice," "unreliability," or "apostasy."
(from Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, abridged edition, Copyright © 1985 by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.)

Luke 13:27
But He will say, 'I tell you I do not know you, where you are from. Depart from Me, all you workers of iniquity.'
(NKJV)

2 Timothy 2:19
Nevertheless the solid foundation of God stands, having this seal: "The Lord knows those who are His," and, "Let everyone who names the name of Christ depart from iniquity."
(NKJV)




(NT:458)  anomia (an-om-ee'-ah) Illegality, violation of law or (genitive) wickedness
To behave with complete disregard for the laws or regulations of a society - 'to live lawlessly, lawlessness, lawless living.'  In some languages one may translate it as 'to live as though there were no laws,' 'to refuse completely to obey the laws,' or 'to live as one who despises all laws.'
(from Greek-English Lexicon Based on Semantic Domain. Copyright © 1988 United Bible Societies, New York.)

It is translated as Iniquity, Unrighteousness, Transgress, Lawlessness, Sin, and Wickedness.

Matthew 23:28
Even so you also outwardly appear righteous to men, but inside you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.
(NKJV)

Matthew 23:28
In the same way, on the outside you appear to people as righteous but on the inside you are full of hypocrisy and wickedness.
(NIV)

1 John 3:4-5
Whoever commits sin also commits lawlessness, and sin is lawlessness.
(NKJV)




SIN

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Sin - Old Testament

(OT:2403)   chatta'ah (khat-taw-aw'); or chatta'th (khat-tawth') Sin; sin-guilt and its penalty; sin purification; sin offering, an offence (sometimes habitual sinfulness)
The root occurs about 580 times in the Old Testament and is thus its principle word for sin. The basic meaning of the root is to miss a mark or a way.

The noun chatta°t appears about 293 times and in all periods of biblical literature.

For the most part this word represents a sin against God Leviticus 4:14.

Leviticus 4:14
When they become aware of the sin they committed, the assembly must bring a young bull as a sin offering and present it before the Tent of Meeting.
(NIV)

Men are to return from "sin," which is a path, a life-style, or act deviating from that which God has marked out 1 Kings 8:35.

1 Kings 8:35-36
When the heavens are shut up and there is no rain because your people have sinned against you, and when they pray toward this place and confess your name and turn from their sin because you have afflicted them, then hear from heaven and forgive the sin of your servants, your people Israel.
(NIV)

They should depart from "sin" 2 Kings 10:31,

2 Kings 10:31
Yet Jehu was not careful to keep the law of the LORD, the God of Israel, with all his heart. He did not turn away from the sins of Jeroboam, which he had caused Israel to commit.
(NIV)

Be concerned about it Psalms 38:18,
Psalms 38:16
I confess my iniquity; I am troubled by my sin.
(NIV)
And confess it Numbers 5:7.

Numbers 5:6-7
Say to the Israelites: "When a man or woman wrongs another in any way and so is unfaithful to the Lord, that person is guilty and must confess the sin he has committed. He must make full restitution for his wrong, add one fifth to it and give it all to the person he has wronged."
(NIV)

The noun first appears in Genesis 4:7, where Cain is warned that "sin lies at the door." This citation may introduce a second nuance of the word — "sin" in general. Certainly such an emphasis appears in Psalms 25:7, where the noun represents rebellious sin (usually indicated by pasha±): "Remember not the sins of my youth, nor my transgressions...."
(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright © 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers.)



(OT:2398)  chata' (khaw-taw') To miss; hence (figuratively and generally) to sin;
This verb occurs 238 times and in all parts of the Old Testament. It is found also in Assyrian, Aramaic, Ethiopic, Sabean, and Arabic.

The basic meaning of this verb is illustrated in Judges 20:16: There were 700 left-handed Benjamite soldiers who "could sling stones at a hair breadth, and not miss." The meaning is extended in Proverbs 19:2: "He who makes haste with his feet misses the way" (RSV, NIV, KJV NASB, "sinneth"). From this basic meaning comes the word's chief usage to indicate moral failure toward both God and men, and certain results of such wrongs. The first occurrence of the verb is in Genesis 20:6, God's word to Abimelech after he had taken Sarah:

Genesis 20:6
And God said to him in a dream, "Yes, I know that you did this in the integrity of your heart. For I also withheld you from sinning against Me;
(NKJV)

(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright © 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers.)

Joshua 7:11
Israel has sinned, and they have also transgressed My covenant which I commanded them.
(NKJV)

Psalms 41:4
I said, "LORD, be merciful to me; heal my soul, for I have sinned against You."
(NKJV)




Sin - New Testament

(NT:266)  hamartia (ham-ar-tee'-ah) Offence, sin; a failing to hit the mark
1. A sinning, whether it occurs by omission or commission, in thought and feeling or in speech and action.
2. That which is done wrong, committed or resultant sin, an offence, a violation of the divine law in thought or in act (1 John 3:4).
3. Collectively, the complex or aggregate of sins committed either by a single person or by many.
(from Thayer's Greek Lexicon, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.)

1 John 3:4
Whoever commits sin also commits lawlessness, and sin is lawlessness.
(NKJV)

Romans 3:9
What then? Are we better than they? Not at all. For we have previously charged both Jews and Greeks that they are all under sin.
(NKJV)




TRANSGRESS

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Transgress - Old Testament
 
(OT:898)  bagad (baw-gad') To act covertly; by implication, to pillage
To act or to deal treacherously, faithlessly, deceitfully, to offend, unfaithful

Habakkuk 2:5
Indeed, because he transgresses by wine, he is a proud man, and he does not stay at home. Because he enlarges his desire as hell, and he is like death, and cannot be satisfied
(NKJV)

Proverbs 13:15
Good understanding gains favor, but the way of the unfaithful is hard.
(NKJV)




(OT:5475)  pasha` (paw-shah') To break away, trespass, apostatize, offend, rebel, revolt, transgress
The basic sense of pasha` is "to rebel." There are two stages of rebellion.
First, the whole process of rebellion has independence in view: "Then Moab rebelled against Israel after the death of Ahab" 2 Kings 1:1.
Second, the final result of the rebellion is the state of independence: "In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves" 2 Kings 8:20.
A more radical meaning is the state of rebellion in which there is no end of the rebellion in view. The process is no longer goal-oriented. The state thus described refers to a status quo: "So Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day" 1 Kings 12:19.
(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright © 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers.)
 

Jeremiah 2:8
The priests did not say, 'Where is the LORD?' And those who handle the law did not know Me; the rulers also transgressed against Me;
(NKJV)

Psalms 37:38
But the transgressors shall be destroyed together; the future of the wicked shall be cut off.
(NKJV)




(OT:6588)  pesha` (peh'-shah) A revolt (national, moral or religious):
Basically, this noun signifies willful deviation from, and therefore rebellion against, the path of godly living. This emphasis is especially prominent in Amos 2:4:

Amos 2:4
Thus says the LORD: "For three transgressions of Judah, and for four, I will not turn away its punishment, because they have despised the law of the LORD, and have not kept His commandments.
(NKJV)

(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright © 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers.)

Leviticus 16:16
So he shall make atonement for the Holy Place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions.
(NKJV)

Psalms 51:3
For I acknowledge my transgressions, and my sin is always before me.
(NKJV)



Transgress - New Testament

(NT:3845)  parabaino (par-ab-ah'-ee-no) To go contrary to, i.e. violate a command
This verb means
a. "to go beside" (intransitive)
b. "to overstep," "transgress" (transitive)
c.  "to pass over," "let pass," "let slip" (transitive)
The most common use is for disregarding statutes, contracts, wills, etc., or breaking one's word. A religious use parallels the legal use.
(from Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, abridged edition, Copyright © 1985 by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.)

Matthew 15:2
Why do Your disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash their hands when they eat bread.
(NKJV)

Matthew 15:3-4
He answered and said to them, "Why do you also transgress the commandment of God because of your tradition?
(NKJV)

Acts 1:24-25
You, O LORD, who know the hearts of all, show which of these two You have chosen to take part in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas by transgression fell
(NKJV)



(NT:3847)  parabasis (par-ab'-as-is) From NT:3845; violation: breaking, transgression.
This word means "striding to and fro," "stepping over," "transgressing," "violating" (cf. in the LXX Ps 101:3 ). In the NT it denotes sin in relation to the law.
In Romans 2:23 the Jew dishonors God by transgressing the law
In Romans 4:15 the law brings wrath because there is transgression only where there is law
In Galatians 3:19 the law is given to show that evil deeds are transgressions of God's will
In 1 Timothy 2:14 Eve is deceived first and becomes a transgressor by violating God's prohibition.
In Hebrews 2:2 every transgression of the law carries a due penalty
(from Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, abridged edition, Copyright © 1985 by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.)

Romans 2:23-24
You who make your boast in the law, do you dishonor God through breaking the law?
(NKJV)

Romans 4:15
because the law brings about wrath; for where there is no law there is no transgression.
(NKJV)

Galatians 3:19
What purpose then does the law serve? It was added because of transgressions.
(NKJV)

1 Timothy 2:14
And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression.
(NKJV)

Hebrews 2:2-3
For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just reward, how shall we escape if we neglect so great a salvation
(NKJV)




TRESPASS

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Trespass - Old Testament

(OT:817)   'asham (aw-shawm') Guilt, an offense, a fault, sin
'Asham implies the condition of "guilt" incurred through some wrongdoing, as in Genesis 26:10:

Genesis 26:10-11
And Abimelech said, "What is this you have done to us? One of the people might soon have lain with your wife, and you would have brought guilt on us."
(NKJV)

The word may also refer to the offense itself which entails the guilt: "For Israel hath not been forsaken... though their land was filled with sin against the Holy One of Israel" Jeremiah 51:5.

Jeremiah 51:5
For Israel is not forsaken, nor Judah, by his God, the LORD of hosts, though their land was filled with sin against the Holy One of Israel."
(NKJV)

A similar meaning of the word appears in Psalms 68:21:

Psalms 68:21
But God will wound the head of His enemies, the hairy scalp of the one who still goes on in his trespasses.
(NKJV)

(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright © 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers.)



(OT:4603)   ma`al (maw-al') To cover up; to act covertly, treacherously: transgress, trespass
Ma`al occurs thirty-five times, most frequently in 2 Chronicles and in Ezekiel. Among the prophets, only Ezekiel and Daniel use this word (Daniel 9:7).

In almost all the biblical references it is used to designate the breaking or violation of religious law as a conscious act of treachery. The victim against whom the breach is perpetrated is God. An almost formulaic phrase is "to commit a trespass against the Lord" ( Numbers 5:6; Joshua 22:31; 1 Chronicles 10:13; 2 Chronicles 12:2; 2 Chronicles 26:16; 2 Chronicles 28:19,22; 2 Chronicles 30:7). A variant, in the first person, is "to commit a trespass against me" (Leviticus 26:40; Ezekiel 14:13; Ezekiel 20:27; Ezekiel 39:23,26).
(from Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Copyright © 1980 by The Moody Bible Institute of Chicago.)

Leviticus 6:2-4
If a person sins and commits a trespass against the LORD by lying to his neighbor about what was delivered to him for safekeeping, or about a pledge, or about a robbery, or if he has extorted from his neighbor, or if he has found what was lost and lies concerning it, and swears falsely — in any one of these things that a man may do in which he sins: then it shall be, because he has sinned and is guilty, that he shall restore what he has stolen.
(NKJV)

Joshua 22:16-17
Thus says the whole congregation of the LORD: "What treachery is this that you have committed against the God of Israel, to turn away this day from following the LORD, in that you have built for yourselves an altar, that you might rebel this day against the LORD?"
(NKJV)

1 Chronicles 10:13
So Saul died for his unfaithfulness which he had committed against the Lord, because he did not keep the word of the Lord, and also because he consulted a medium for guidance.
(NKJV)

Ezekiel 14:13
Son of man, when a land sins against Me by persistent unfaithfulness, I will stretch out My hand against it.
(NKJV)




(OT:4604)   ma`al (mah'-al) From OT:4603; treachery, sin: falsehood, transgression, trespass
The verb generally expresses man's unfaithfulness to God Leviticus 26:40; Deuteronomy 32:51; 2 Chronicles 12:2; Ezra 10:2; Ezekiel 14:13. It further signifies man's unfaithfulness to his fellow man; particularly it is illustrative of unfaithfulness in marriage: "If any man's wife go aside, and commit a trespass against him, And a man lie with her carnally..." Numbers 5:12-13. In this sense also must Leviticus 6:2 be understood: "If anyone sins and is unfaithful to the Lord by deceiving his neighbor about something entrusted to him..." (NIV)
(from Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright © 1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers.)

Deuteronomy 32:48-52
Then the LORD spoke to Moses that very same day, saying: "Go up this mountain of the Abarim, Mount Nebo, which is in the land of Moab, across from Jericho ... because you trespassed against Me among the children of Israel at the waters of Meribah Kadesh, in the Wilderness of Zin ... you shall see the land before you, though you shall not go there, into the land which I am giving to the children of Israel."
(NKJV)

Daniel 9:7
O LORD, righteousness belongs to You, but to us shame of face, as it is this day — to the men of Judah, to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and all Israel, those near and those far off in all the countries to which You have driven them, because of the unfaithfulness which they have committed against You.
(NKJV)

Joshua 22:31
Then Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest said to the children of Reuben, the children of Gad, and the children of Manasseh, "This day we perceive that the LORD is among us, because you have not committed this treachery against the LORD. Now you have delivered the children of Israel out of the hand of the LORD."
(NKJV)




Trespass - New Testament

(NT:264)   hamartano (ham-ar-tan'-o) To miss the mark, offend, sin, trespass
To wander from the law of God, violate God's law, sin;
a. Absolutely: Matthew 27:4; John 5:14; 8:11; 9:2; 1 John 1:10; 2:1; 3:6,8; 5:18; Romans 2:12; 3:23; 5:12,14,16; 6:15; 1 Corinthians 7:28,36; 15:34; Ephesians 4:26; 1 Timothy 5:20; Titus 3:11; Hebrews 3:17; 10:26 (2 Peter 2:4); of the violation of civil laws, which Christians regard as also the transgression of divine law, 1 Peter 2:20.
b. To commit (literally, sin) a sin, 1 John 5:16, Exodus 32:30 Phil. 1249; Matthew 18:21;
Luke 15:18,21; 17:3 Rec., 4; 1 Corinthians 8:12;  Acts 25:8;  1 Corinthians 6:18 in the presence of, before anyone, the one wronged by the sinful act being, as it were, present and looking on: Luke 15:18,21
(from Thayer's Greek Lexicon, PC Study Bible formatted Electronic Database. Copyright © 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.)

It is generally translated: Sin

Matthew 18:15-16
Moreover if your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault between you and him alone. If he hears you, you have gained your brother.
(NKJV)

Ephesians 4:26-28
"Be angry, and do not sin": do not let the sun go down on your wrath, 27 nor give place to the devil.
(NKJV)

Acts 25:8
"Neither against the law of the Jews, nor against the temple, nor against Caesar have I offended in anything at all."
(NKJV)




(NT:3900)  paraptoma (par-ap'-to-mah) (Unintentional) error or (willful) transgression
1. A fall beside or near something
2. A  lapse or deviation from truth and uprightness; a sin, misdeed Matthew 6:14
(from Thayer's Greek Lexicon, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2000, 2003, 2006 by Biblesoft, Inc.)
 
1. The verb occurs only in Hebrews 6:6, where it means "to commit a fault" rather than "to fall away"
2. The noun occurs in Matthew 6:14-15; Mark 11:25.
3. Faults against others are at issue in Matthew 6:14
4. Faults against God in v. 15
The repetition brings out the severity of faults against others. The general use in Mark 11:25 does not specify against whom we offend; offenses against others are also offenses against God. Paul often uses the noun. He has it for Adam's sin in Romans 5:15,17 and for the totality of sin in Romans 5:20. A similar use occurs in Galatians 6:1, and in Romans 11:11-12.
(from Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, abridged edition, Copyright © 1985 by William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.)

Matthew 6:14-15
For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.
(NKJV)

Romans 5:15
But the free gift is not like the offense. For if by the one man's offense many died, much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abounded to many.
(NKJV)

Colossians 2:13
And you, being dead in your trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He has made alive together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses.
(NKJV)





SUMMARY

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The subject of Sin can be divided into two basic sections:
 
Universal Sin Also referred to as "Original Sin." The Sin Nature inherited by the entire human race as descendants of Adam.

1 Corinthians 15:22-23
For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive.
(NIV)

Individual Sins Also referred to as "Personal Sin." Acts of sin committed by the individual, whether saved or unsaved. These are actions or motives that spring from the original sin nature.

Genesis 4:6-7
And the Lord said to Cain, Why are you angry? And why do you look sad and depressed and dejected?  If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin crouches at your door; its desire is for you, but you must master it.
(AMP)


 

Bibliography

 


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